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学术英语text11-text14文献综述

Text11

Radiation from nuclear power is feared to have the potential of causing a cancer or some genetic diseases. This fear, however, is dismissed by Cohen after he compares artificial radiation and the radiation that occurs naturally in our environment, analyzing their respective impact on human health. Cohen separately discusses the different sources of nuclear power risks and arrives at the following conclusions: 1) the probability of real reactor accidents, with the safety system of defense in depth, are extremely small, 2) radioactive waste, if properly handled, causes negligible damage; 3) other radiation problem, such as accidents in transportation or radon exposures in mining, are also not so threatening as they seem to be. In summary he believes that radiation due to nuclear power will cause much fewer cancers and deaths than coal burning.

Text12

Nina Bai addresses the widespread concerns over the health effects of radiation exposure in the wake of Fukushima nuclear crisis. She discusses three determinative factors: the level, type and duration of radiation exposure. First, radiation sickness usually occurs when there is excessive dose of exposure, though the limits of radiation level differ for the general public, radiation workers, and patients going through medical radiation. Second, of the four types of ionizing radiation, gamma, X-ray, alpha, and beta, the latter two, albeit being lower energy, are more likely to cause health damage. Third, a very high single dose of radiation can be more harmful than the same dosage accumulated over time. Finally, Bai draws on the lesson of Chernobyl, and concludes radiation exposure within reasonable limit is not so fearful and it is good to exercise caution.

Text13

Amber Cornelio (2011) maintains that radiatio n from Japan’s Fukushima disaster has threatened the daily life of ordinary Americans. He challenges the government’s view that radioactive materials detected in domestic milk, vegetables and rainwater will pose no public health concern. He suspects that the government is downplaying the potential dangers of radiation to justify its use of nuclear power. He believes the government has failed to do the job of protecting people. In the end, he urges the government to be more responsible and stop building power plants on a faulty line. He warns that covering up the facts is not the key to avoid similar disasters in the future. Text14

Susan Blumenthal (2011) aims to inform people of nuclear radiation with scientific facts. She starts the essay with a reference to the worldwide spread of fear in the wake of Fukushima disaster and then explains what radiation is. The explanation is followed by a report of different types of radioactive materials released into the air. She goes on to tell that an exposure to those materials will increase the risks of some major diseases. However, she concedes radiation is not so menacing as was assumed and humans are exposed to naturally occurring radiation every day. Whether radiation is harmful to health or not depends on two contexts: the duration and strength of the exposure. She warns that exposure to high doses of radiation can lead to acute health problems. Long-term low dose exposure to radiation is equally fatal.

从核能辐射的辐射是担心有可能导致癌症或某些遗传性疾病。这种恐惧,但是,科恩被解雇后,他比较了人工辐射和辐射自然发生在我们的环境中,分析他们各自对人体健康的影响。科恩分别讨论了不同来源的核电厂风险,并得出以下结论:1)实际反应堆事故的概率,在纵深防御的安全体系,是非常小,2)放射性废物,如果处理得当,造成可忽略不计损失;3)其他辐射问题,如交通事故或氡暴露在采矿,也没有那么威胁,因为它们似乎是。总之,他

认为,由于核能的辐射会导致更少的癌症和死亡,比煤燃烧。

妮娜白解决了广泛关注的辐射暴露在福岛核危机后的健康影响。她讨论了三个决定性因素:水平式和辐射的持续时间。第一,辐射病通常发生在过度曝光剂量,但辐射水平不同的一般公众,辐射工人,并通过医疗辐射的患者。其次,四种类型的电离辐射,γ射线,X射线,α和β,后者2,虽然是较低的能量,更容易造成健康伤害。第三,一个非常高的单剂量的辐射可以更有害于同一剂量累积随着时间的推移。最后,白吸取了切尔诺贝利的教训,并总结出合理的限度内的辐射暴露是不那么可怕的,它是好的锻炼谨慎

琥珀-科尔纳利奥(2011)保持从日本福岛核灾难的辐射已经威胁到普通美国人的日常生活。他挑战政府的观点,在国内牛奶、蔬菜和雨水中检测到的放射性物质不会引起公众健康的关注。他认为政府对辐射的潜在危险,以证明其使用核能。他认为政府没有做好保护人民的工作。最后,他敦促政府更负责,停止在一个有缺陷的线路上建造电厂。他警告说,掩盖事实并不是避免将来发生类似灾难的关键。

苏珊布卢门撒尔(2011)旨在告知人们的科学事实的核辐射。她开始了一篇文章,提到了在福岛灾难之后的全球蔓延的恐惧,然后解释了什么是辐射。这一解释是由不同类型的放射性物质释放到空气中的报告。她接着说,接触这些材料会增加一些主要疾病的风险。不过,她也承认辐射不是那么来势汹汹如假设了人类暴露于自然产生的辐射的每一天。辐射是否对健康有害或不取决于2种情况:曝光时间和强度。她警告说,暴露于高剂量的辐射会导致严重的健康问题。长期低剂量暴露于辐射同样是致命的。