The Pilgrim Fathers（英国清教徒）: This is given to those members who made the first crossing on the famous Mayflower, which landed at Plymouth harbor in December 1620.
Jacksonian democracy（杰克森式民主）:It is used in American politics to describe the period when the “common man” participated in the government, occurring after Jeffersonian democracy. The Progressive Movement（革新运动）:It was a reform movement that reached its height in the early 20th century. This arose as a response to the vast changes brought by industrialization.
The Union Flag（英国国旗）:Also known as the Union Jack. It is the national flag of the UK. It symbolizes the 4 administrative nations, the England, Scotland, Wales and the Northern Ireland. The red cross stands for England, the diagonal Red Cross stands for Ireland and the diagonal white cross stands for Scotland.
British Commonwealth（英联邦）:Also known as the Commonwealth of Nations. It includes the UK and the 40 or so former British colonies that are now sovereign states. It was formally established in 1931.
European Union（欧盟）:It is an economic and political union established in 1993. The establishment of the European Union expanded the political scope of the European Economic, especially in the area of foreign and security policies, and provided for the creation of a central European bank and the adoption of a common currency. Domesday Book（末日审判书）: The written record of a census and survey of English landowners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror in 1085-1086.
Stonehenge（巨石阵）:A group of standing stones on a plain in the southern England. The arrangement of the stones suggests that it was used as a religious center and also as an astronomical observatory.
Julius Caesar（凯撒大帝）:He is a roman general, statesman and historian. He invaded British, conquered the army of his political enemy Pompey, and pursued other enemies to Egypt. He returned to Rome, and was given a order by the people to rule as dictator until he was murdered.
Protestantism（新教）: One of the 3 major branches of Christianity, originating in the 16th century Reformation in Europe.
Margaret Thatcher（撒切尔夫人）: She is the first British female Prime Minister who held the office of PM Longer than anyone else in the 20th century. She was elected in 1979, shored up a Conservative-led government, favored privatization plans. Her nickname is “The Iron Lady”; she was elected to three consecutive terms and resigned in1990
Keynesian（凯恩斯主义）: The economic theories of economist Keynes, who advocate government monetary and fiscal programs, designed to increase employment and stimulate business activity.
Westminster Abbey（威斯敏斯特教堂）:A famous church located in London, where English monarchs are crowned and distinguished English subjects are buried. The Poets’ Corner conta ins the graves of great English writers.
Grammar school: Originally meant to educate the young in Latin grammar and that of another European language. These schools in modern UK are intended to teach a highly academic class and teach students to deal with abstract concepts.
The American Revolution（独立战争）: Also known as the War of Independence, it began in 1775 and ended in 1783. It ended 2 centuries of British rule for most of the North American colonies and created the United States of America.
The Confederacy（联邦）: This refers to the 11 states in the south that seceded from the Union to establish what the called the Confederate States of America.
Monroe Doctrine（门罗主义）: This proclaimed the US’ opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas.
The Truman Doctrine（杜鲁门主义）:This was part of the US’ political response to perceived aggression by the Soviet Union in Europe and the Middle East.
W ASP（盎格鲁撒克逊系白人清教徒）:As a term, it refers to people of English descent who believe in Protestantism. All of them share a common heritage that has been a powerful force in shaping the values and beliefs of Americans. One of the most important values associated with American Protestantism is value of self-important.
NAACP（有色人种协进会）: It is an organization founded in 1909, aiming to use legal redress in the courts to end racial discrimination. Today, it still remains as the most influential black organization in the USA.
The Articles of Confederation（联邦宪法）: It is the first law to unite the new states, it is necessary to define the relative powers of the Continental Congress. It was drafted by Dickinson and was ratified in 1781. But 8 years later, it was replaced by the Constitution of the United States.
Watergate Scandal（水门事件）: It refers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington DC. The Watergate Burglars broke into the Democratic Party’s National Committee offices in 1972 and got arrested. The president Nixon resigned due to this storm.
What is the historical meaning of Norman Conquest in British history?
1、The Norman Conquest was in effect a French conquest and the imposition upon England a ruling French aristocracy.
2、The Norman-French replaced English as an authoritative language in England. English became
a lower-class language.
3、It was one of the most decisive events in English history, which caused a fundamental change in the way of life of the English people.
4、It tied England’ s civilization closely to that of continental Europ e.
What are the causes for Henry Ⅷ’ s religious reformation? And what is the effect of the reformation?
1、The Church of the Middle Ages had not been only a religious body, but also a
political and legal power.
2、Henry Ⅷbecame the King, he felt his marriage was displeasing to God, because
he had offended in marring his brother widow, Catherine, who didn’t give birth to a son. He decided to divorce.
3、The Pope was in the control of Emperor Charles Ⅴ，Catherine’s nephew and
didn’t dare to help him. H enry wanted a reformed national Church within the Catholic framework.
It would be the actions of his heirs to make any significant changes in the doctrines and ceremonies of his independent church. In the 1530s, Henry Ⅷ’s power was greatly enlarged and by new clerical taxes. Toward the end of his reign, Wales and Ireland were officially incorporated into England in 1536 and 1541, respectively, creating a union of the Crowns. The king moved away from the medieval idea of ruler as chief lawmaker and overseer of civil behavior, to the modern idea of ruler as the idea logical icon of the state.
What is the importance of the Bill of Rights(权利法案) in British history?
1、It gave political supremacy to Parliament and severely limited the Crown’s
2、It marked the beginning of the constitutional monarchy in England.
What are the similarities and differences between British parliament and American Congress?
At the head of Parliament is the British Sovereign, with the other two being the Hou se of Lords and the House of Commons. The Sovereign’s role, however, is merely ceremonial. The three elements meet together only on occasions of symbolic significance.
The 7 main Functions of British Parliament:
(1).create all UK laws.
(2).provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of
(3).protect the public and safeguard the rights of individuals.
(4).examine government policy and administration, including proposals for
(5).examine European proposals before they become law.
(6).hear appeals in the House of Lords, the highest Court of Appeal in Britain.
(7).debate the major issues of the day.
Congress: the legislative branch consists of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Congress has the power to make any laws that are considered “necessary and proper”. It has the power to impose and collect taxes, decide the expenditures of the government, control trade with foreign nations and among the states, establish and protect a monetary system and borrow money on the credit of the US. It also
has the power to raise and maintain an army and a navy and declare war upon other countries.
What are the causes and effects of American Civil War?
The American Civil War was a conflict during 1861-1865 in the USA between the Southern or Confederate State of America and the Northern or Union States, in which two great power of the states and the central government; and the existence of black slavery.
Other causes leading to the American Civil War include sectional rivalry, moral indignation aroused by the Abolitionists, the question of the extension of Slavery into new territories, and a fundamental disagreement about the relative supremacy of federal control of state’s rights. The issue of slavery had brought to head long-standing social and economic differences between the two oldest sections of the country.
The outcome of the war placed the northern capitalists in solid control of the federal government. It also swept away the last obstacle to the development of the US capitalism. In 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution was adopted, which freed all slaves throughout the United States.
What are the causes and effects of American Revolution?
The British government tried to make the colonials pay a larger share toward the expenses of the empire. The colonials had hitherto paid only local taxes（地方税）. American merchants, for example, commonly imported sugar from the French West Indies （法国西印度群岛）, contrary to law, and even shipped in return the iron wares（铁器）which it was against the law for Americans to manufacture for export.
The American Revolution is the movement that destroyed the first British Empire, establishing the US. And, indirectly, Canada, a much larger event than the War of Independence (1775-1783), the Revolution developed from the issue of whether parliament had the power to tax the North American colonies directly. But more was involved than constitutional dispute, and the Revolution left America a transformed place.
What are the elements and their respective function of the American government?
(1). The President has the right to veto or cancel laws of Congress.
(2). These laws can be passed anyway by the Congress by a two-thirds majority after the President’s veto;
The Senate has the authority to approve appointments made by the President by a majority vote.
(3) (6). The laws may still be cancelled if the Supreme Court decides that the laws go against the Constitution.
(4).The President can appoint Federal judges and Supreme Court justices who share his ideas about law.
(5) (6). Congress has the power to fix the number of judges of judges sitting on the court and ,within limits, decide what kind of cases it may harm, but if cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself.