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Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

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G Model CEP-5860;

No.of Pages 8

Chemical Engineering and Processing xxx (2010) xxx–xxx

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Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

Chemical Engineering and Processing:

Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

Process

Intensification

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Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

Yulia Galagan a ,∗,Ike G.de Vries a ,Arjan http://www.sodocs.net/doc/27a7aec6bb4cf7ec4afed092.html ngen a ,Ronn Andriessen a ,Wiljan J.H.Verhees b ,Sjoerd C.Veenstra b ,Jan M.Kroon b

a Holst Centre,High Tech Campus 31,P.O.Box 8550,5605KN Eindhoven,The Netherlands

b

Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN),P.O.Box 1,1755ZG Petten,The Netherlands

a r t i c l e i n f o Article history:

Received 27March 2010

Received in revised form 23June 2010Accepted 21July 2010Available online xxx Keywords:

Organic solar cell Photovoltaics Roll-to-Roll Coating Slot die

OPV module

a b s t r a c t

In order to reach the objective of low-cost,large area organic photovoltaic systems,we build up a knowl-edge base concerning the influence of process conditions on the performance of polymer solar cells.A large area solar cell module,with roll-to-roll coated PEDOT:PSS and photoactive layers (based on P3HT:[C60]PCBM blend)on a flexible substrate,has been demonstrated.Both the PEDOT:PSS and pho-toactive layer were deposited by slot die coating.A non-chlorinated solvent was used for the deposition of the photoactive blend.The flexible solar cell module illustrated a power conversion efficiency of 0.7%under AM 1.5conditions.Methods to further improve the technological process are proposed.

© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1.Introduction

The main objectives in the field of organic photovoltaics (OPV)are achieving high efficiency,long term stability and low-cost.Low-cost can be achieved by combining a low bill of materi-als with fast roll-to-roll (R2R)manufacturing techniques.Indeed compared with Si-based solar cells,organic solar cells should be less expensive and easier in manufacturing,due to lower energy consumption,free from vacuum process,possibility of direct pat-terning during coating.However,in comparison to evaporation processes a solution process shows quite more difficulties in terms of wetting/dewetting and the control of self-assembly pro-cesses.The most commonly used deposition technique for the manufacturing of lab scale devices is spin coating,which is not roll-to-roll compatible.However,spin coating is still widely used for studying and understanding the fundamental principles of OPV.Roll-to-roll compatible methods,especially blade and wire bar coatings,are employed as intermediate steps towards real roll-to-roll processing [1,2].Roll-to-roll coating and printing of organic semiconductors have become a focus of many companies and research groups.Applications based on organic semiconductors,such as organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic devices have strict requirement to the layer properties,such as

∗Corresponding author.Tel.:+31404020447;fax:+31404020699.E-mail address:yulia.galagan@tno.nl (Y.Galagan).thickness,uniformity and over layer accuracy.Many different print-ing and coating techniques are applied and developed for the deposition of thin layers of organic semiconductors [3].For exam-ple,jet printing is a well-studied method for the deposition of PEDOT:PSS [4,5],and polymer–fullerene blends [6–8].The advan-tage of this method is the possibility to print patterned layers in one printing step.The challenge is to find appropriate solvent sys-tems for polymer–fullerene blends,which will provide appropriate spreading and wetting of the ink on the substrate and homoge-neous drying with required morphology of the active layer.Gravure printing,which is widely used for the printing of organic transistors [9,10],has also been applied for the deposition of OPV layers [11].The main difficulty in gravure printing is viscosity of the ink,which is for OPV blend is slightly lower than required for gravure printing.There are a number of publications on spray coating of photovoltaic inks [4,12–15].This deposition method is very efficient especially for low viscosity solutions which complicate the use of other depo-sition techniques.Pad printing is a rather unconventional method which has been employed in a roll-to-roll process for the fabrica-tion of OPV [16].Screen printing has been applied for the deposition of photoactive layers based on MDMO-PPV:C60-PCBM [17]and MEH-PPV:C60-PCBM [18,19].As well as a complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing has been demonstrated [20].There are many pub-lications where slot die coating was chosen for the deposition of several layers,including active layer,in polymer based solar cells [21–26].As one of the coating techniques,slot die deposition can provide very thin,uniform,non-patterned layers.One-dimensional

0255-2701/$–see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.cep.2010.07.012

Technology development for roll-to-roll production of organic photovoltaics

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