搜档网

搜档网

当前位置:搜档网 > 练习题—选择

练习题—选择

Chapter 1: Environmental Problems and Living Sustainability

环境问题与可持续发展

1. Stratospheric ozone

a. screens out ultraviolet radiation.

b. allowed the evolution of life on land.

c. prevents ozone formation in the troposphere.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

2. Ozone which contributes to the formation of smog is found in the

a. troposphere.

b. thermosphere.

c. mesosphere.

d. stratospher

e.

ANS: A

3. Each of the following is one of the major classes of outdoor pollutants except

a. carbon oxides.

b. smog.

c. nitrogen oxides.

d. sulfur oxides.

ANS: B

4. Acid deposition has been linked to

a. contamination of fish with highly toxic methylmercury.

b. excessive soil nitrogen levels.

c. reduced nutrient uptake by tree roots.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

5. Experts rate indoor air pollution as a

a. high-risk health problem for humans.

b. medium-risk health problem for humans.

c. low-risk health problem for humans.

d. high-risk ecological problem.

ANS: A

6. Radioactive ____ is a product of uranium decay and an indoor air pollutant.

a. radon

b. radium

c. plutonium

d. Lead

ANS: A

7. The people least vulnerable to air pollution are

a. infants.

b. elderly people.

c. adult males.

d. people with heart and respiratory diseas

e.

ANS: C

8. Carbon monoxide

a. causes the blood to carry too much oxygen.

b. speeds up reflexes.

c. causes headaches and dizziness.

d. sharpens thinking and perceptions.

ANS: C

9. Acid deposition

a. increases the mobility of toxic metals.

b. kills many species of fish.

c. damages statues, buildings, and car finishes.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

10. National ambient air quality standards

a. have been established for almost 100 air pollutants.

b. must be met by 50 major U.S. metropolitan areas that are responsible for implementation

plans.

c. are established by Congress.

d. specify the maximum allowable level, averaged over a specific time period, for a certain

outdoor air pollutant.

ANS: D

11. Indoor air pollution could be sharply reduced by

a. modifying building codes to prevent radon infiltration.

b. requiring exhaust hoods or vent pipes for stoves, refrigerators, or other appliances

burning natural gas or other fossil fuels.

c. setting emission standards for building materials.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

12. A body of water can be depleted of its oxygen by

a. viruses and parasitic worms.

b. organic wastes.

c. sediments and suspended matter.

d. organic compounds such as oil, plastics, solvents, and detergents.

ANS: B

13. Waste heat can

a. cause algae blooms.

b. deplete water of oxygen.

c. decrease water quality.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

14. Nitrates and phosphates are examples of

a. disease-causing agents.

b. oxygen-demanding wastes.

c. organic plant nutrients.

d. inorganic plant nutrients.

15. Heat, organic wastes, and inorganic plant nutrients may all deplete dissolved _____ from water.

a. nitrogen

b. oxygen

c. particulate matter

d. minerals

ANS: B

16. Thermal pollution

a. raises the solubility of oxygen in water.

b. lowers the respiratory rates of aquatic organisms.

c. nurtures spawning fish.

d. can kill organisms adapted to a particular temperature range by thermal shock.

ANS: D

17. Thermal water pollution can be reduced by all of the following methods except

a. discharging hot water into ponds, allowing cooling, and reusing the same water.

b. using cooling towers.

c. returning heated water away from the ecologically vulnerable shore zone.

d. using more electricity.

ANS: D

18. Which of the following are a point source of water pollution?

a. offshore oil wells

b. livestock feedlots

c. urban lands

d. croplands

ANS: A

19. The common limiting factor in freshwater lakes most often emphasized in pollution prevention approaches is

a. nitrogen.

b. phosphorous.

c. calcium.

d. sulfur.

ANS: B

20. Experts rate groundwater pollution as a

a. high-risk ecological and health problem.

b. medium-risk ecological and health problem.

c. a high-risk ecological but low-risk health problem.

d. a low-risk ecological but high-risk health problem.

ANS: D

21. Groundwater can be protected least by

a. banning disposal of hazardous wastes in sanitary landfills and deep-injection wells.

b. monitoring aquifers near landfills and underground tanks.

c. using advanced sewage treatment.

d. requiring liability insurance for old and new underground tanks.

22. The leading nonpoint source of water pollution is

a. municipal landfills.

b. runoff from city streets and storm sewers.

c. agriculture.

d. industrial wastes.

ANS: C

23. To further sustainable use of water supplies, environmentalists are least likely to call for

a. reduction of pollution sources.

b. reuse of wastewater.

c. decentralization of control of water supply and quality.

d. moving from pollution treatment to pollution prevention.

ANS: C

24. In a low-waste approach, which of the following strategies should be given top priority?

a. incinerate

b. reuse

c. reduce

d. bury

ANS: C

25. In a low-waste approach, which of the following strategies should be given lowest priority?

a. incinerate

b. reuse

c. reduce

d. bury

ANS: D

26. Which is the most advanced approach?

a. recycling materials

b. using biodegradable material

c. creating more durable products

d. reducing the amount of materials used

ANS: D

27. Compost is most completely described as

a. manure.

b. landfill by-products.

c. pure garbage.

d. soil conditioner and organic fertilizer.

ANS: D

28. Phytoremediation

a. uses bacteria to detoxify hazardous wastes.

b. uses plants to remove contaminants.

c. may be especially useful in removing acidic contaminants.

d. may be especially useful in removing organic contaminants.

29. Underground anaerobic decomposition in a landfill produces

a. volatile organic compounds.

b. methane.

c. hydrogen sulfide.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

30. Deep-well disposal of liquid hazardous wastes is

a. a complex process.

b. less visible than other waste-disposal methods.

c. more carefully regulated than other waste-disposal methods.

d. the most expensive waste-disposal method.

ANS: B

31. Lead may cause

a. partial paralysis.

b. mental retardation.

c. palsy.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

32. Dioxin can

a. cause immunological effects.

b. cause developmental effects.

c. promote cancers.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

33. Chlorine is used to

a. produce household bleaches.

b. produce hundreds of organic compounds.

c. bleach paper and wood pulp.

d. do all of these answers processes.

ANS: D

34. Chlorine bleaching of wood pulp and paper can be replaced by using

a. nitrogen.

b. hydrogen peroxide.

c. titanium dioxide.

d. dihydrogen oxid

e.

ANS: B

35. Which of the following statements about hazardous-waste cleanup is false?

a. Cleaning up toxic military dumps is estimated to cost $100-200 billion over 30 years.

b. The Department of the Interior will need to spend more than any other agency for

cleanup.

c. Pollution prevention is cheaper than cleanup strategies.

d. Cleaning up contaminated Department of Energy sites used to make nuclear weapons

will run between $100 billion and $400 billion over 30 to 50 years.

Chapter 2 Ecosystems

生态系统

1. The service least likely to be performed by the insect family is

a. plant reproduction.

b. plant pollination.

c. turning the soil.

d. chemosynthesis.

ANS: D

2 The largest numbers of species of organisms on the earth are currently

a. microorganisms and fungi.

b. amphibians and reptiles.

c. insects and fungi.

d. insects and microorganisms.

ANS: D

3. Biodiversity emerges from

a. mutations.

b. natural selection.

c. extinction.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

4. All physical forms of water (solid, liquid, and gas) make up the

a. atmosphere.

b. lithosphere.

c. biosphere.

d. hydrospher

e.

ANS: D

5. Submarines explore the

a. atmosphere.

b. lithosphere.

c. biosphere.

d. hydrospher

e.

ANS: D

6. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity and

a. one-way flow of energy.

b. cycling of energy.

c. one-way flow of matter.

d. the destruction of matter.

ANS: A

7. Life of individual organisms is maintained by

a. cycling of energy and flow of matter.

b. flow of energy and cycling of matter.

c. cycling of energy and matter.

d. flow of energy and matter.

8. Energy

a. recycles through the ecosystem.

b. flows in only one direction.

c. is used over and over again.

d. tends to be concentrated by living organisms.

ANS: B

9. The energy of the sun is primarily

a. nuclear fission.

b. nuclear fusion.

c. gravity.

d. magnetism.

ANS: B

10. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is

a. soil type.

b. topography.

c. magnetic fields.

d. climat

e.

ANS: D

11. A transitional zone between two ecosystems is called

a. a fragile ecosystem.

b. a biome.

c. an ecotone.

d. a buffer zon

e.

ANS: C

12. The most inclusive components of the biotic portion of an ecosystem are

a. producers and consumers.

b. primary and secondary consumers.

c. herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.

d. all nonliving chemicals or matter.

ANS: A

13. Photosynthesis

a. converts glucose into energy and water.

b. requires the combustion of carbon.

c. produces carbon dioxide and oxygen gas.

d. yields glucose and oxygen gas as products.

ANS: D

14. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy occurs in

a. photosynthesis.

b. higher levels of food chains.

c. chemosynthesis.

d. heterotrophic organisms.

ANS: A

15. Organisms that feed on dead organisms are called

a. producers.

b. carnivores.

c. autotrophs.

d. scavengers.

ANS: D

16. Aerobic respiration requires

a. glucose and carbon dioxide.

b. glucose and oxygen.

c. oxygen and water.

d. carbon dioxide and water.

ANS: B

17. The process which results in alcoholic beverages is

a. aerobic respiration.

b. anaerobic respiration.

c. photosynthesis.

d. chemosynthesis.

ANS: B

18. An ecosystem can survive without

a. producers.

b. consumers.

c. decomposers.

d. autotrophs.

ANS: B

19. The "ironclad" ecological pyramid with no exceptions is the pyramid of

a. energy.

b. biomass.

c. numbers.

d. productivity.

ANS: A

20. A pyramid of biomass is most likely to be distorted in

a. the prairie.

b. the coniferous forest.

c. the ocean.

d. the tropical rain forest.

ANS: C

21. Net primary productivity

a. is the rate at which producers manufacture chemical energy through photosynthesis.

b. is the rate at which producers use chemical energy through respiration.

c. is the rate of photosynthesis plus the rate of respiration.

d. is usually reported as the energy output of an area of producers over a given tim

e. ANS: D

22. Which of the following ecosystems has the highest average net primary productivity?

a. agricultural land

b. open ocean

c. temperate forest

d. swamps and marshes

ANS: D

23. The nitrogen cycle is an example of a(n)

a. hydrologic cycle.

b. sedimentary cycle.

c. carbohydrate cycle.

d. atmospheric cycl

e.

ANS: D

24. The phosphorous cycle is an example of a(n)

a. hydrologic cycle.

b. sedimentary cycle.

c. carbohydrate cycle.

d. atmospheric cycl

e.

ANS: B

25. The hydrologic cycle refers to the movement of

a. hydrogen.

b. oxygen.

c. water.

d. hydrocarbons.

ANS: C

26. Water covers about ____% of Earth's surface.

a. 51

b. 61

c. 71

d. 81

ANS: C

27 Water molecules _____ each other.

a. attract

b. repel

c. have no effect on

d. dissolve

ANS: A

28. Carbon is a major component of

a. atmospheric gases.

b. sedimentary rocks.

c. the oceans.

d. organic compounds.

ANS: D

29. Transfer of carbon between organisms depends primarily on

a. fuel combustion and decomposition.

b. photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

c. soil bacteria and precipitation.

d. volcanic activity and organic decay.

ANS: B

30. The two ways in which humans have most interfered with the carbon cycle are

a. removal of forests and aerobic respiration.

b. aerobic respiration and burning fossil fuels.

c. respiration and photosynthesis.

d. burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush.

ANS: D

31. The nitrogen cycle is considered to be a

a. gaseous cycle.

b. sedimentary cycle.

c. hydrologic cycle.

d. double cycl

e.

ANS: A

32. The most common gas in the atmosphere is

a. nitrogen.

b. carbon dioxide.

c. oxygen.

d. hydrogen.

ANS: A

33. Nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria would be expected to occur on the roots of

a. pine trees.

b. roses.

c. legumes.

d. grasses.

ANS: C

34. Nitrogen fixation is accomplished by

a. earthworms.

b. bacteria.

c. algae.

d. protozoa.

ANS: B

35. Ammonium ions are converted to nitrite ions and nitrate ions through the process of

a. nitrification.

b. nitrogen fixation.

c. denitrification.

d. assimilation.

ANS: A

36. Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia through

a. nitrification.

b. nitrogen fixation.

c. denitrification.

d. assimilation.

ANS: B

37. Inorganic nitrogen-containing ions are converted into organic molecules through

a. nitrification.

b. nitrogen fixation.

c. denitrification.

d. assimilation.

ANS: D

38. To which of the following cycles is guano an important component?

a. phosphorous

b. carbon

c. hydrologic

d. sulfur

ANS: A

39. All of the following are sources of phosphorous except

a. inorganic fertilizer.

b. runoff of animal wastes from feedlots.

c. detergents.

d. acid rain.

ANS: D

40. Organic sulfur-containing compounds include

a. sulfates.

b. carbohydrates and proteins.

c. fats and vitamins.

d. proteins and vitamins.

ANS: D

41. Humans add sulfur to the atmosphere by

a. refining petroleum.

b. smelting sulfur compounds or metallic minerals.

c. burning sulfur-containing fossil fuels.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

42. Earth's chemical cycles connect life of the present to life of the

a. present.

b. past.

c. future.

d. present, past, and futur

e.

ANS: D

Chapter 3 Population and Sustainability

人口与可持续发展

1. The population change in a particular year can be calculated by

a. (deaths + emigration) - (births + immigration)

b. (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)

c. (deaths + immigration) - (births + emigration)

d. (births + emigration) - (deaths + immigration)

ANS: B

2. The crude birth rate is the number of live births per _____ persons in a given year.

a. 50

b. 100

c. 500

d. 1,000

ANS: D

3. The highest crude birth rate and crude death rate are in

a. Africa.

b. Latin America.

c. Asia.

d. Europ

e.

ANS: A

4. Between 1963 and 2002, the rate of the world's annual population change

a. dropped 21%.

b. dropped 41%.

c. rose 25%.

d. remained stabl

e.

ANS: B

5. Between 1963 and 2000, the human population size

a. dropped 94%.

b. rose 94%.

c. dropped 41%.

d. remained stabl

e.

ANS: B

6. Which of the following statements about the world's population is false?

a. Together, China and India make up 38% of the world's population.

b. The most rapid population growth is taking place in the developing countries.

c. Africa has the highest population growth rate.

d. When the total fertility rate drops below the replacement-level fertility, the population is

balanced and stops growing.

ANS: D

7. Which of the following countries would produce the greatest rise in population size from experiencing a growth rate of 1.2%?

a. country A, with a population of 100,000

b. country B, with a population of 1 million

c. country C, with a population of 10 million

d. country D, with a population of 1 billion

ANS: D

8. Which of the following would contribute the greatest number to total population size in one year?

a. a country of 1.5 million people with a growth rate of 3%

b. a country of 5 million people with a growth rate of 2.5%

c. a country of 100 million people with a growth rate of 2%

d. a country of 500 million people with a growth rate of 1.5%

ANS: D

9. The actual average replacement-level fertility for the whole world is slightly higher than

a. 1 child per couple.

b. 2 children per couple.

c. 3 children per couple.

d. 4 children per coupl

e.

ANS: B

10. The most useful measure of fertility for projecting future population change is the

a. replacement-level fertility.

b. one-year future fertility level.

c. total fertility rate.

d. birth rat

e.

ANS: C

11. The industrialized country with the highest teenage pregnancy rate is

a. Japan.

b. Germany.

c. the United States.

d. Franc

e.

ANS: C

12. Social factors affecting birth and fertility rates include

a. attitudes toward large families and birth control.

b. average levels of education and affluence.

c. urbanization.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

13. Which of the following would decrease the likelihood of a couple having a child?

a. The child is part of the family labor pool.

b. Contraceptives are not available.

c. They have no public or private pension.

d. Women have many opportunities to participate in the work forc

e.

ANS: D

14. Of the following forms of birth control, the most effective is

a. total abstinence.

b. condom (good brand).

c. hormonal implant.

d. diaphragm plus spermicid

e.

ANS: A

15. Of the following forms of birth control, the least effective is

a. IUD plus spermicide.

b. oral contraceptive.

c. hormonal implant.

d. rhythm method.

ANS: D

16. An unreliable form of birth control is a

a. cervical cap.

b. douche.

c. condom.

d. spermicid

e.

ANS: B

17. Which of the following statements is false?

a. The rise in the size of the human population is due primarily to a higher birth rate.

b. Increased food supplies and medical care have increased life expectancy.

c. Only a few countries annually accept a large number of immigrants or refugees.

d. Migration within countries plays an important role in the population dynamics of cities,

towns, and rural areas.

ANS: A

18. Two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are

a. birth rate and death rate.

b. replacement-level fertility rate and total fertility rate.

c. life expectancy and infant mortality rate.

d. life expectancy and death rat

e.

ANS: C

19. A high infant mortality rate is most often associated with

a. a high standard of living.

b. undernutrition.

c. balanced diets.

d. a low incidence of infectious diseas

e.

ANS: B

20. Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children out of 1,000 that die

a. before birth.

b. in their first month.

c. in the first half-year of life.

d. by their first birthday.

ANS: D

21. Which of the following statements about human migration is false?

a. People tend to move from areas of low opportunity to areas of higher opportunity.

b. Most countries restrict immigration rates.

c. Migration from urban areas to rural areas is increasing worldwide.

d. The number of environmental refugees is increasing.

ANS: C

22. The age structure of a population is the number or percentage of

a. females age 14 years or under.

b. females age 15 to 44.

c. males age 15 to 44.

d. persons of each sex at each age level.

ANS: D

23. Population age structure diagrams can be divided into all of the following categories except

a. infant.

b. prereproductive.

c. reproductive.

d. postreproductiv

e.

ANS: A

24. Age structure diagrams

a. show only two age groups: reproductive and not reproductive.

b. show the number of males and females in the infant category.

c. are strictly for present use and do not provide insight into future trends.

d. are useful for comparing one population with another.

ANS: D

25. Countries that have achieved ZPG have an age structure that

a. forms an inverted pyramid.

b. has a broad-based pyramid.

c. shows little variation in population by age.

d. has a large prereproductive population.

ANS: C

26. Rapidly growing countries have an age structure that

a. forms an inverted pyramid.

b. has a broad-based pyramid.

c. shows little variation in population by age.

d. has a large prereproductive population.

ANS: B

27. Which of the following implies the greatest built-in momentum for population growth?

a. a large population size

b. a large number of people age 29 to 44

c. a large number of people under age 34

d. a large number of people under age 15

ANS: D

28. Countries undergoing rapid population decline may experience a rise in the proportion of the population

a. on social security.

b. consuming a large fraction of medical services.

c. who are older people.

d. who fit all of these answers.

ANS: D

29. All of the following countries accept large numbers of immigrants except

a. the United States.

b. Mexico.

c. Canada.

d. Australia.

ANS: B

30. Generally, proponents of population regulation say that

a. 1/5 of the human population does not get basic necessities.

b. people are the world's most valuable resource.

c. if a person produces more than he consumes, he is an asset.

d. human ingenuity permits continued improvement in humanity's lot.

ANS: A

31. People who oppose population regulation are least likely to say that

a. lack of a free and productive economic system in developing countries is the primary

cause of poverty and despair.

b. people are the world's most valuable resource for finding solutions to our problems.

c. population regulation is a violation of religious beliefs and an intrusion into personal

privacy and freedom.

d. increasing human population threatens the earth's life-support systems.

ANS: D

32. People who support population regulation say that

a. billions more people on the earth will intensify many environmental and social problems.

b. it is unethical for us to control birth rates.

c. the gap between the rich and poor has been narrowing since 1960.

d. we have the freedom to produce as many children as we want.

ANS: A

33. Which of the following is least likely to be found in a system dynamics computer model?

a. feedback loops

b. synergistic interactions

c. mathematical equations

d. simple cause and effect relationships between two variables

ANS: D

34. In the demographic transition model, ZPG in a country is likely to occur during

a. the industrial stage.

b. the postindustrial stage.

c. the transitional stage.

d. the preindustrial stag

e.

ANS: B

35. In the demographic transition model, death rates fall while birth rates remain high during

a. the preindustrial stage.

b. the industrial stage.

c. the postindustrial stage.

d. the transitional stag

e.

ANS: D

36. Some experts fear that the developing countries lack sufficient ___ to allow the demographic transition to occur.

a. people

b. capital

c. cooperation

d. commitment

ANS: B

37. Basic family-planning policy in most countries includes all of the following except

a. limiting families to two children each.

b. providing information about prenatal care.

c. helping parents space births as desire

d.

d. helping parents regulate family siz

e.

ANS: A

38. Family-planning programs have been successful in reducing population growth in

a. Haiti.

b. India.

c. China.

d. Nigeria.

ANS: C

39. The success of a family planning program is enhanced when

a. the leadership is apathetic.

b. implementation is left to central planners.

c. contraceptives are widely available.

d. the majority of the people live in the countrysid

e.

ANS: C

40. Government attempts to reduce population growth have included all of the following except

a. paying couples who agree to use contraceptives.

b. paying couples who agree to be sterilized.

c. penalizing couples who have more than a certain number of children (usually one or

two).

d. providing needed health care and food allotments to those who have more than a certain

number of children.

ANS: D

41. Which of the following statements about China is false?

a. In the last quarter century, China's crude birth rate dropped from 32 top 25 per 1,000

people.

b. Total fertility dropped from 5.7 to 1.8 children per woman.

c. Life expectancy is 12 years higher than India.

d. Illiteracy is about one-third of India's rat

e.

ANS: A

42. China's population policy has included all of the following except

a. encouraging later marriages.

b. health, pension, and employment benefits for a one-child pledge.

c. urging couples to have no more than one chil

d.

d. encouraging contraceptive use but banning abortion.

ANS: D

43. China's population control program does all of the following except

a. employ freely available contraceptives.

b. employ compulsory measures.

c. emphasize huge family-planning centers.

d. offer economic incentives.

ANS: C

44. Perhaps the most important feature of China's population control program that could be transferred to other countries is

a. focusing control efforts on males.

b. localizing the program rather than forcing people to travel to distant centers.

c. requiring one of the parents to be sterilized when a couple has two children.

d. encouraging couples to postpone marriag

e.

ANS: B

45. Experience indicates that population growth can be slowed by

a. investing in family planning.

b. elevating the status of women.

c. reducing poverty.

d. a combination of all of these answers.

ANS: D

46. Which of the following strategies appear to play the least important role in slowing global population growth?

a. reducing poverty

b. investing in family planning

c. economic disincentives to have large families

d. elevating the status of women

ANS: C

47. Which of the following is not one of the goals of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development?

a. Reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

b. Increase access to education, especially for boys.

c. Improve the health care of infants, children, and pregnant mothers.

d. Improve employment opportunities for young women.

ANS: B

Chapter 4 Air Pollution and Climate Change

大气污染与气候变化

1. Stratospheric ozone

a. screens out ultraviolet radiation.

b. allowed the evolution of life on land.

c. prevents ozone formation in the troposphere.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

2. Human health depends on having

a. low amounts of ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere.

b. enough ozone in the stratosphere and little ozone in the troposphere.

c. high amounts of ozone in the troposphere and low amounts in the stratosphere.

d. high amounts of ozone in the troposphere and stratospher

e.

ANS: B

3. There is evidence that humans are _____ ozone in the troposphere and _____ ozone in the stratosphere.

a. increasing; increasing

b. increasing; decreasing

c. decreasing; decreasing

d. decreasing; increasing

ANS: B

4 Humans can disrupt Earth's gaseous biogeochemical cycles through

a. additions of carbon dioxide from combustion.

b. mining limestone.

c. emitting waste heat from air conditioners.

d. using mister systems to water cops.

ANS: A

5. Ozone which contributes to the formation of smog is found in the

a. troposphere.

b. thermosphere.

c. mesosphere.

d. stratospher

e.

ANS: A

6. All of the following are suspended particles except

a. dust and soot.

b. pesticides.

c. sulfuric aci

d.

d. chlorofluorocarbons.

ANS: D

7. Photochemical smog generally requires the presence of

a. nitrogen oxides.

b. sunlight.

c. volatile organic compounds.

d. all of these answers.

ANS: D

8. Photochemical smog is characteristic of urban areas with many vehicles and a climate that is

a. cool, wet, and cloudy.

b. cool, dry, and sunny.

c. warm, dry, and sunny.

d. warm, wet, and cloudy.

ANS: C

9. Gray-air smog comes from suspended particles of

a. carbon dioxide.

b. ammonium salts.

c. soot.

d. carbonic acid.

ANS: C

10. A thermal inversion is the result of

a. precipitation.

b. cold air drainage.