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2011年职称英语等级考试真题理工类A级

2011年职称英语等级考试真题理工类A级

第1部分.词汇选项(第1?15题, 每题1分, 共15分)

下面每个句子中均有1个词或者短语划有短横线, 请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

1. The sea turtle’s natural habitat has been considerably reduced.

A. suddenly

B. generally

C. slightly

D.

greatly

2. Anderson left the table, remarking that he had some work to do.

A. doubting

B. thinking

C. saying

D.

knowing

3.1 got a note from Moira urging me to get in touch.

A. instructing

B. pushing

C. notifying

D.

inviting

4. He asserted that nuclear power was a safe and nonpolluting energy source.

A. maintained

B. recommended

C. considered

D. acknowledged

5. The decision to invade provoked storms of protest.

A. caused

B. ignored

C. organized

D.

received

6. A young man is being hailed a hero tonight after rescuing two children.

A. reported

B. praised

C. proved

D.

caught

7. At that time, we did not fully grasp the significance of what had happened.

A. give

B. attach

C. lose

D. understand

8. Forester stared at his car, trembling with rage.

A. turning

B. jumping

C. shaking

D.

shouting

9. It is possible to approach the problem in a different way.

A. handle

B. raise

C. pose

D. experience

10.Jane said that she couldn’t tolerate the long hours.

A. spend

B. stand

C. take

D. last

11. The study also notes a steady decline in the number of college students taking science courses.

A. relative

B. continuous

C. general

D.

sharp

12.I wanted to ask her out but was scared that she might refuse.

A. afraid

B. anxious

C. sure

D.

sad

13.She always finds fault with everything.

A. simplifies

B. evaluates

C. criticizes

D.

examines

14.At 80, Peck was still vigorous and living in Paris.

A. happy

B. alone

C. busy

D.

energetic

15.For some obscure reason, the simple game is becoming very popular.

A. obvious

B. major

C. unclear

D.

minor

第二部分:阅读判断(第16~22题, 每题1分, 共7分)

下面的短文后列出了7个句子, 请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断;如果该句提供的是正确信息,

请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息, 请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及, 请选择C Earth Rocks on

Most of the time, the ground feels solid beneath our feet. That’s comforting. But it’s

also misleading because there's actually a lot going on underground. Masses of land (called

plates)slip, slide, and bump against each other, slowly changing the shape of continents and

oceans over millions and billions of years.

Scientists know that Earth formed about 4. 5 billion years ago. They also know that our planet was hot at first. As it cooled, its outermost layer, called the crust (地壳), eventually formed moving plates. Exactly when this shift happened, however, is an open question.

Now, an international group of researchers has an answer. They've found new evidence suggesting that Earth’s crust started shifting at least 3. 8 billion years ago. The new estimate is 1. 3 billion years earlier than previous ones.

Not long before 3. 8 billion years ago, lots of asteroids(小行星) were hitting Earth, keeping its crust in a hot, melted state. After the hard crust formed, much of it sank at various times into the planet’s hot insides. There.it melted before returning to the surface.

In some places, however, the crust never sank. One of the oldest such places is in Greenland, in an area called the Isua supracrustal(上地壳) belt. The rocky crust there is between 3.7 and 3.8 billion years old. The belt was once part of the scafloor, but now it is exposed to air.

The researchers recently took a close look at the Isua supracrustal belt. They noticed long, parallel cracks in the rock that have been filled in with a type of volcanic rock.

To explain this structure, the scientists propose that tension in the crust caused the seafloor to crack open long ago. Hot, liquid rock, called magmat (岩浆) flowed up slowly from deep inside Earth to fill the cracks. Finally, the whole area cooled, forming what we see today.

That explanation, plus chemical clues inside the rock, suggests that the Isua supracrustal belt was once part of a plate under the ocean, beginning around 3. 8 billion years ago.

16.The ground beneath our feet is indeed still.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

17.The shape of lands and oceans are slowly changed with the movements of plates.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

18.Earth cooled down shortly after it was formed.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

19.Scientists once estimated that Earth’s crust started shifting three billion years ago.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

20.It took a long time for the melted crust to become hard.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

21.The formation of the Isua supracrustal belt is thought to have started about 3. 8 billion years ago.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

22.The Isua supracrustal belt is now a popular holiday resort.

A. Right

B. Wrong

C. Not mentioned

第三部分:概括大意和完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为指定段落每段选择1个小标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定一个最佳选项。

The iPad

l. The iPad is a tablet computer (平板电脑) designed and developed by Apple. It is particularly marketed as a platform for audio and visual media such as books, periodicals, movies, music, and games, as well as web content. At about 1.5 pounds(680 grams),its size and weight are between those of most contemporary smartphones and laptop computers. Apple released the iPad in April 2010.and sold 3 million of the devices in 80 days.

2 The iPad runs the same operating system as iPod Touch and iPhone. It can run its own applications as well as ones developed for iPhone. Without modification.it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store.

3. Like iPhone and iPod Touch, the iPad is controlled by a multitouch display—a break from most previous tablet computers, which uses a pressuretriggered stylus(触控笔). The iPad uses a WiFi data connection to browse(浏览)the Internet, load and stream media,and install Software. Some models also have a 3G wireless data connection which can connect to GSM 3G data networks. The device is managed and synchronized by iTunes on a personal computer via USB cable.

4. An iPad has different features and applications. One can use to execute different and interesting things (2

5.E). There are lots of iPad applications that the owner can use to enhance the way they communicate. Some of these are how to use social networking sites and other online options. One of the most common uses is for email services. iPad applications like Markdown Mail allow the adoption of specific and particular options. They enable the owner to personalize their email accounts.

5. While the iPad is mostly used by consumers it also has been taken up by business users. Some companies are adopting iPads in their business offices by distributing or making available iPads to employees. Examples of uses in the workplace include lawyers responding to clients, medical professionals accessing health records during patient exams, and managers approving employee requests. A survey by Frost& Sullivan shows that iPad usage in workplaces is linked to the goals of increased employee productivity, reduced paperwork and increased revenue.

23. Paragraph 2______

24. Paragraph 3______

25. Paragraph 4_____

26. Paragraph 5_____

2011年职称英语等级考试真题理工类A级

27.In April 2010 the iPad developed by Apple was ________.

28.The iPad will only run programs approved by Apple if not ________.

29.iPad applications enable the owner’s email accounts to be ________.

30.iPad usage in offices enables employee productivity to be ________.

2011年职称英语等级考试真题理工类A级

2011年职称英语等级考试真题理工类A级

第四部分:阅读理解(第31~45题,每题3分,共45分)

下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题。请根据短文内容,为每题确定1个最佳选项。

第一篇Calculating Crime

When you think about math, you probably don’t think about breaking the law, solving mysteries or finding criminals. But a mathematician in Maryland does, and he has come up with mathematical tools to help police find criminals.

People who solve crimes look for patterns that might reveal the identity of the criminal. It’s long been believed, for example, that criminals will break the law closer to where they live, simply because it’s easier to get around in one’s own neighborhood. If police see a pattern of robberies in a certain area, they may look for a suspect who lives near the crime scenes. So, the farther away from the area a crime takes place, the less likely it is that the same criminal did it.

But Mike O’Leary, a mathematician at Towson University in Maryland, says that this kind of approach may be too simple. He says that police may get better clues to the location of an offender’s home base by combining these patterns with a city’s layout and historical crime records.

The records of past crimes contain geographical information and can reveal easy targets —that is, the kind of stores that might be less difficult to rob. Because these stores are along roads, the locations of past crimes contain information about where major streets and intersections(十字路口)are. O’Leary is writing a new computer program that will quickly provide this kind of information for a given city. His program also includes information about the people who live in the city, and information about how a criminal's patterns change with age. (It’s been shown, for example, that the younger the criminal, the closer to home the crime.) Other computer programmers have worked on similar software, but O’Leary’s uses more math. The mathematician plans to make his computer program available, free of charge.to police departments around the country.

The program is just one way to use math to fight crime. O’Leary says that criminology—the study of crime and criminals—contains a lot of good math problems. “I feel like I’m in

a gold mine and I'm the only one who knows what gold looks like,” he says. “It’s a lot of fun.”

31.Which of the following statements about math is true?

A. It is too difficult for the police to use in finding criminals.

B. Few people associate it with finding criminals.

C. Some criminals make use of it when committing crimes.

D. it has long been employed in solving crimes.

32.People tend to think there is a relationship between

A. the time of a crime and the age of the criminal.

B. the type of a crime and the identity of the criminal.

C. the pattern of a crime and the equipment of the criminal.

D. the location of a crime and the residence of the criminal,

33.O’Leary includes all the following information in writing his program EXCEPT

A. the records of past crimes.

B. the locations of police bureaus.

C. the people living in the city.

D. the change of a criminal’s patterns with age.

34.O’Leary’s program is different from other similar software in that

A. it is inexpensive.

B. it is more userfriendly.

C. it uses more math.

D. it is available all over the world.

35.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that O’Leary

A. will develop programs for other governmental departments.

B. is going to use math in looking for gold.

C. thinks it's interesting to learn math.

D. will further use math in studying crimes and criminals.

第二篇Some People Do Not Taste Salt like Others

Lowsalt foods may be harder for some people to like than others, according to a study by a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences food scientist. The research indicates that genetic factors influence some of the difference in the levels of salt we like to eat.

Those conclusions are important because recent, wellpublicized (大力宣传的) efforts to reduce the salt content in food have left many people struggling to accept food that simply does not taste as good to them as it does to others, pointed out John Hayes, lead investigator on the study.

Diets high in salt can increase the risk of high blood pressure and stroke. That is why public health experts and food companies are working together on ways to help consumers lower salt intake through foods that are enjoyable to cat. This study increases understanding of salt preference and consumption.

The research involved 87 carefully screened participants who sampled salty foods such as soup and chips, on multiple occasions, spread out over weeks. Test subjects were 45 men and 42 women, reportedly healthy, ranging in age from 20 to 40. They rated the intensity of taste on a commonly used scientific scale, ranging from barely detectable to strongest sensation of any kind.

“Most of us like the taste of salt. However, some individuals eat more salt, both because they like the taste of saltiness more, and also because it is needed to block other unpleasant tastes in food.' said Hayes. “Supertasters, people who experience tastes more intensely, consume more salt than nontasters. Snack foods have saltiness as their primary flavor, and at least for these foods, more is better, so the supertasters seem to like them more. ”

However, supertasters also need higher levels of salt to block unpleasant bitter tastes in foods such as cheese, Hayes noted. “For example, cheese is a wonderful blend of dairy flavors from fermented milk, but also bitter tastes from ripening that are blocked by salt," he said. “A supertaster finds lowsalt cheese unpleasant because the bitterness is too pronounced.”

Hayes cited research done more than 75 years ago by a chemist named Fox and a geneticist named Blakeslee, showing that individuals differ in their ability to taste certain chemicals. As a result, Hayes explained, we know that a wide range in taste acuity (敏锐) exists, and this variation is as normal as variations in eye and hair color.

36.John Hayes pointed out that

A. food with less salt tastes better.

B. many people make efforts to accept lowsalt food.

C. many people never cat lowsalt food.

D. it is good to health to eat food without salt.

37.The fourth paragraph briefly describes

A. how the subjects were selected and what they were asked to do.

B. why the number of subjects was limited to 87.

C. why more male subjects were chosen than female ones.

D. how salty foods were made and distributed to the subjects in the research.

38.It is true that

A. nontasters like to share salty cheese with supertasters.

B. nontasters consume more salt because they like intense tastes.

C. supertasters like the taste of saltiness to block sweet tastes in food.

D. supertasters like snack foods more as they contain higher levels of saltiness.

39.Supertasters prefer highsalt cheese because

A. it is good to health.

B. it is rich in nutrition.

C. it has intense bitter tastes.

D. it tastes less bitter.

40.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that taste acuity is

A. identified with certain chemicals.

B. developed over time after birth.

C. related to one’s eye and hair color.

D. genetically determined.

第三篇Cell Phones; Hang Up or Keep Talking?

Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places it is actually considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular with young people. They

find that the phones are more than a means of communication—having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.

The explosions around the world in mobile phone use make some health professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future many people may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phones are bad for your health.

On the other hand, why do some medical studies show changes in the brain cells of some people who use mobile phones? Signs of change in the tissues of the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning( 扫描)equipment. In one case, a traveling salesman had to retire at a young age because of serious memory loss. He couldn't remember even simple tasks. He would often forget the name of his own son. This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day, every day of his working week, for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use, but his employer’s doctor didn’t agree.

What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful? The answer is radiation. Hightech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile phones. Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation, but they say the amount is too small to worry about.

As the discussion about their safety continues.it appears that it’s best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you want to talk for a long time. Use your mobile phone only when you really need it. Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient, especially in emergencies. In the future, mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health. So for now, it’s wise not to use your mobile phone too often.

41.People buy cell phones for the following reasons EXCEPT that

A. they’re popular.

B. they’re useful.

C. they’re cheap.

D. they're convenient.

42.The word “detected” in paragraph 3 could be best replaced by

A. cured.

B. removed.

C. discovered.

D. caused.

43.The salesman retired young because

A. he couldn’t remember simple tasks.

B. he disliked using mobile phones.

C. he was tired of talking on his mobile phone.

D. his employer's doctor persuaded him to.

44.On the safety issue of mobile phones, the manufacturing companies

A. deny the existence of mobile phone radiation.

B. develop new technology to reduce mobile phone radiation.

C. hold that the amount of radiation is too small to worry about.

D. try to prove that mobile phones are not harmful to health.

45.The writer’s purpose of writing this article is to advise people

A. to use mobile phones less often.

U. to buy mobile phones.

C. to update regular phones.

D. to stop using mobile phones.

第5部分:补全短文(第46~50题,每题2分,共10分)

下面的短文有5处空白,短文后有6个句子,其中5个取自短文,请根据短文内容将其分别放回原有位置,以恢复文章面貌。

Mt. Desert Island

The coast of the State of Maine is one of the most irregular in the world. A straight line running from the southernmost coastal city to the northern most coastal city would measure about 225 miles. If you followed the coastline between these points, you would travel more than ten times as far. This irregularity is the result of what is called a drowned coastline ________ (46) At that time, the whole area that is now Maine was part of a mountain range that towered above the sea. As the glacier (冰川) descended, however, it expended enormous force on those mountains, and they sank into the sea.

As the mountains sank, ocean, water charged over the lowest parts of the remaining land, former a series of twisting inlets and lagoons(咸水湖). The highest parts of the former mountain in range, nearest the shore, remained as islands ________ (47) Marine fossils found here were 225 feet above sea level indicating the level of the shoreline prior to the glacier.

The 2,500milelong rocky coastline of Maine keeps watch over nearly two thousand islands. Many of these islands are tiny and uninhabited, but many are home to thriving communities. Mt Desert Island is one of the largest, most beautiful of the Maine coast islands. Measuring 16 miles by 12 miles. Mt. Desert was essentially formed as two distinct islands ________ (48).

For years, Mt. Desert Island, particularly its major settlement, Bar Harbor, afforded summer homes for the wealthy. Recently though, Bar Harbor has become a rapidly growing arts community as well. But, the best part of the island is the unspoiled forest land known as Acadia National Park. Because tile island sits on the boundary line between the temperate(温带) and subArctic zones, the island suppers the plants and animals of both zones as well as beach inland, and alpine (高山的)plants. ________ (49) The establishment of Acadia National Park in 1916 means that this natural reserve will be perpetually available to all people, not just the wealthy. Visitors to Acadia may receive nature instruction from the park naturalists as well as enjoy camping, cycling and boating. Or they may choose to spend time at the archeological museum, learning about the Stone Age inhabitants of the island.

The best view on Mt. Desert Island is from the top of Cadillac Mountain. ________ (50) From the summit, you can gaze back toward the mainland or out over the Atlantic Ocean and contemplate the beauty created by a retreating glacier.

A. This mountain rises 1,532 feet, making it the highest mountain on the Atlantic seaboard.

B. It is split almost in half by Somes Sound, a deep and narrow stretch of water, seven miles long.

C. It also lies in a major bird migration lane and is a resting spot for many birds.

D. The term comes from the activity of the ice age.

E. Mt. Desert Island is one of the most famous of all the islands left behind by the glacier.

F. The wealthy residents of Mt. Desert Island selfishly kept it to themselves.

第6部分:完形填空(第52~65题,每题1分,共15分)

下面的短文有15处空白,请根据短文内容为每处空白确定1个最佳选项。

Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ Scores

Young adults who are fit have a higher IQ and are more likely to go on to university .reveals a major new study_________ (51) out at the Sahlgrenska Academy and Sahlgrenska University Hospital.

The results were recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The study__________ (52)1.2 million Swedish men doing military service who were born between 1950 and 1976. The research group analyzed the__________(53)of both physical and IQ tests the youngsters took right after they started serving the army.

The study shows a clear link__________ (54) good physical fitness and better results for the IQ test. The strongest links are for__________( 55)thinking and verbal comprehension. But it is only fitness that plays a__________ (56)in the results for the IQ test, and not strength. “Being fit means that you also have good heart and lung__________ (57)

and that your brain gets plenty of oxygea.”says Michael Nilsson professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy and chief physician at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. “This may be one of the reasons why we can see a clear link with fitness, but not with muscular __________(58). We are also seeing that there are growth factors that are important.

By analyzing data for twins, the researchers have been__________(59)to determine that it is primarily environmental factors and not genes that__________(60) the link between fitness and a higher IQ.

“We have also shown that those youngsters who__________(61)their physical fitness between the ages of 15 and 18 increase their performance," says Maria, Aberg, researcher at the Sahlgrenska Academy and physician at Aby health centre. “This being the case, physical education is a__________(62)that has an important place in schools, and is an absolute must__________(63) we want to do well in maths and other theoretical subjects. ”

The researchers have also compared the results from fitness tests during national service__________(64) the socioeconomic status of the men later in life. Those who were fit at 18 were more__________(65)to go into higher education and many secured more qualified jobs.

51. A. put B. carried C. cut D.

taken

52. A. kept B. involved C. found D.

helped

53. A. answers B. questions C. standards D. results

54. A. among B. behind C. between D. inside

55. A. imaginary B. typical C. positive D.

logical

56. A. game B. place C. role D.

trick

57. A. shape B. capacity C. disease D.

treatment

58. A. exercise B. training C. movement D.

strength

59. A. able B. clever C. clear

D. lucky

60. A. expect B. explain C. connect D.

classify

61. A. improve B. prefer C. ignore D. determine

61. A. improve B. prefer C. ignore D. determine

62. A. rule B. test C. subject

D. score

63. A. if B. until C. though

D. so

64. A. with B. from C. of

D. at

65. A. likeable B. unlike C. likely D. alike

第1部分:词汇选项

1-5 DCBAA 6-10 BDCAB 11-15 BACDC

第2部分:阅读判断

16-22 BACBCAC

第3部分:概括大意与完成句子

23-30 FCEDFCBD

第4部分:阅读理解

31-35 BDBCD 36-40 BADDD 41-45 CCACA

第5部分:补全短文

46-50 DEBFA

第6部分:完形填空

51-55 BBDCD 56-60 CBDAB 61-65 ACAAC