搜档网

搜档网

当前位置:搜档网 > GREISSUE题库分类_修锐

GREISSUE题库分类_修锐

蓝色为全国前50+广州区前49

绿色为全国前130+广州区频率在1以上

褐色为全国总频率在2以内的

紫色表示全国前100,广州区为0

Classification of Issue Topics

----整理 by dkflame 按主题分8类:

a.当物之急与百年大计(13)

b.个体和整体(少数和多数,局部与整体)(64)

c.技术进步对人类的影响(28)

d.理性和感性(19)

e.不同领域间的交流(23)

f.统一与分歧(竞争)(49)

g.现实和理想(19)

h.新与旧(26)

------------------------------

A.当物之急与百年大计(13)x

------------------------------

3."It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations."--比较

与其花钱进行可能有助于后代的长期性研究,还不如把钱花在迫在眉睫,已经存在的社会问题上. 当务之急和百年大计的关系

------------------------------

56."Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future."--比较

政府应该把更多的注意力放在解决当务之急,而不是试图解决将来预期的问题上.

时间之当务之急和百年大计

------------------------------ "

20.“National governments should devote more of their social programs and services to children than to adults."--比较

任何一个国家的政府都应该为孩子而不是为成人建设更多的社会项目和服务.

孩子和成人之社会建设

------------------------------

31."Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial."--结论

花在研究上的资金基本上都是不错的投资,即使研究的结果是有争议的.

现实和理想

------------------------------

44."Government should not fund any scientific research whose consequences, either medical or ethical, are unclear."--因果

政府不应该资助任何后果不明的科学研究,无论是医学方面还是伦理方面的。

政府和科研

------------------------------

190."As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate—and, perhaps, even cruel—when one considers all the potential uses of such money."--因果一旦人们限于饥饿,失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能,运用公共资源去扶植艺术是很不恰当的--并且甚至是残忍的--尤其明知这些资金所有可能的用途.

------------------------------

121."At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society

to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species."

在过去不同的地质时期,许多的物种因为自然作用而非人类行为而灭绝。因此,人类社会为了挽救濒危物种而付出的巨大努力,尤其是以大量的资金和工作机会为代价,这样做是毫无道理的。

人类和自然当务之急(资金、工作)和长远考虑(物种)

------------------------------

242."Societies should try to save every plant and animal species, regardless of the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being."--结论

社会应该以不计人类的努力,时间和金钱为代价,尝试挽救每一个动植物物种.

人类和物种

------------------------------

211."Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."--比较任何一个决定,无论它来自于政府,公司还是个人,都必须更多地考虑将来的情况而不是现在的情况.

当务之急和百年大计之决定

------------------------------

193."It is not the headline-making political events but the seldom-reported social tranformations that have the most lasting significance."--比较

Transformation:change

真正具有长远意义的,不是那些被炒作的政治事件,而是那些鲜有报道的社会变化.

------------------------------

244."Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously, even when they claim to admire them."--结论

大多数社会都没把最伟大的思想家当回事,虽然有时候这些社会自称是求才若渴的.

社会和思想家

------------------------------

118."In any field of endeavor—the sciences, the humanities, the social sciences, industry, etc.—it is not the attainment of a goal that matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered on the way to the goal."--比较

在所有的物质领域中--科学,人文科学,社会科学,工业等等--能否达到目的并不重要,而在争取达到目的的过程中获得的想法和发现才更重要.

过程和结果

------------------------------

64."Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it."--比较

很多人懂得如何去获得成功,但是很少有人知道如何最好的去利用成功.

Attain and sustain打江山容易,保江山难

------------------------------

B.个体和整体(少数和多数,局部与整体)(64)x

-----------------------------6."The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth."--问解x

了解当代文明最有效的途径就是去分析当代年轻人的潮流.

文明潮流和年轻人潮流的关系

------------------------------

63."To truly understand your own culture—no matter how you define it—requires personal knowledge of at least one other culture, one that is distinctly different from your own."--问解

为了真正理解你自己的文化--无论你如何去定义它--都至少需要了解另外一种文化,并且该文化与你自己的文化是截然不同的.

旁观者清

------------------------------

10."Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated."--因果 x

政府必须要确保主要城市发展所需的财政支持,因为一个国家的文化传统主要是在城市中得以保存和发展.

城市和国家的关系之文化传统

------------------------------

72."One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities."--问解x

人们可以通过研究一个社会的主要城市来了解它最重要的特点.

少数和多数之以小见大

------------------------------

203."The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines."--问解了解一个社会特点最好的办法是去考察被这个社会视为英雄的人们的特点.x

社会英雄观

------------------------------

了解一个社会的方法:

the trends of its youth

one other culture, one that is distinctly different

studying its major cities,that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated

examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines

通过了解个体、部分来了解整体

15."The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior."--问解 x

一个社会的稳定取决于该社会对人们极端行为所作出的反应.

抽象型题目

------------------------------

19."If a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success before the well-being of its individual citizens."--因果 x

如果一个社会要繁荣就必须将社会整体的成败置于单个社会成员的幸福之上.

少数和多数之成功

------------------------------

105."The true strength of a country is best demonstrated by the willingness of its government to tolerate challenges from it's own citizens."--问解 x

一个国家真正的力量可以最好体现在他的政府愿意容忍来自于自己国民的挑战.

精英和大众之开明政府

------------------------------

170."The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people."--比较x

一个伟大国家最真实的体现不是它的统治者,艺术家或者科学家的成就,而是他所有老百姓的普

通福利(幸福).

社会精英和人民大众

the general welfare

------------------------------

62."The widespread idea that people should make self-improvement a primary goal in their

lives is problematic because it assumes that people are intrinsically deficient."--因果 x

认为人们应该把自我进步当作是人生头等大事的流行观点是有问题的,因为这样的观点在假设人们是天生就有缺陷的.

------------------------------

8."It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public."--结论 x

对于政治领导者来说,向人民大众隐瞒信息通常是必要的,甚至是有益的.

少数和多数的关系之

------------------------------

167."It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician."--因果

对于一个英明的政治领导者来说,总是坦白是不可能的.彻底的诚实对于一个政治家来说是无用

的美德.x

领导者问题

useful

------------------------------

108."In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings—trials, debates, meetings, etc.—that are televised, the more society will benefit."--因果x

在很多国家中,现在通过电视来观看政府的运作已经成为可能.观察这些过程有助于人们了解那

些影响他们生活的决策.可以供转播的政府运作越多--审判,辩论,会议等等--对社会的好处就越多.

政府和大众之电子政府

------------------------------

9."Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience, their ideas will have little use."--因果 x

近些年来,学科已经细化到了相当的程度以至于学者们的理念只影响小范围的人群.除非学者们

能拥有影响等大范围的人群,否则他们的理念将几乎毫无用处.

过分专业化问题overspecialization

------------------------------

218."In order for any work of art—whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song—to have merit, it must be understandable to most people."--问解x

任何的艺术作品为了有价值,例如电影,文学,雕塑或者歌曲,都必须让大多数人易于理解.

少数和多数之艺术价值好的艺术一定是雅俗共赏的

------------------------------

22."Many people believe that a few individuals or small groups (family, friends, teachers, celebrities, for example) have caused them to think and behave in the way they do. Yet it is always society as a whole that defines us and our attitudes, not a few individuals."--比较 x

很多人认为只是一些个人或者小团体(比如家庭,朋友,老师,名人)促成了他们的思维和行动.其

实一直以来不是一些个人而是社会作为一个整体在定义我们和我们的态度.

少数和多数之定义人生

------------------------------

113."It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves."--问解

如果我们要定位自己最重要是要定位自己所处的社会团体.

少数和多数之自我定位

------------------------------

145."A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to changing social conventions without sacrificing one's principles."

convention:.Standard and accepted procedures in programs and system analysis.--问解对于个性的最大考验在于一个人是否能够适应不断变化的社会规范而不牺牲自己的原则.x convention:约定,规范.

------------------------------

200."The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is usually acquired through solitude, rather than through interaction with others."--比较 x

Elusive; Abstruse, hard to comprehend

Self-knowledge: knowledge or understandings of one's own capabilities, character, feelings, or motivations

Solitude: alone seclusion

最艰深难懂的学问都是自知之明的,这些学问通常都是独立发展起来的而非通过其他学科的交流.

少数和多数之自知之明的学问

------------------------------

23."Contemporary technology makes available many small pieces of factual information. As a result, people have become so preoccupied with bits of fragmented information that they pay too little attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives."--因果现代技术使获得大量细节信息成为可能.其结果是人们全神贯注于七零八碎的信息而很少去注意更大的问题和全局.x

少数和多数之细节信息

------------------------------

229."The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop a sense of the whole."--比较

学习一门新学科或者新技术的最好方法是深入地学习某一个小的部分或者细节,而不是一开始就试图去从整体来把握.x

整体和局部的关系之伤其十指不如断其一指

------------------------------

29."Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy."--因果 x

像演员,政治家和运动员这样的公众人物应该预料到大众会对他们的私生活感兴趣.当他们希望受人瞩目的时候就应该至少预料到会失去一些隐私.(被大众得知一些隐私)

少数和多数之公众人物的隐私

------------------------------

161."In this age of intensive media coverage, it is no longer possible for a society to regard any woman or man as a hero. The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."--因果 x

在今天这个媒体铺天盖地的社会中,人们已经很难把任何人当作英雄了.任何人只要是沦为媒体的话题,那么他注定会名声扫地.

媒体

scrutiny

------------------------------

185."Scandals—whether in politics, academia, or other areas—can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."--因果

丑闻--无论是政治,学术还是其他领域--可能会是有用的.丑闻可以用演说家或者改革家无法使用的手段让我们注意到某些问题.x

------------------------------

45."Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carrying out the will of the people whom they serve."--比较x

政府官员应该依靠自己的判断而不是不管三七二十一的遵从人民的意愿。

少数和多数,政府

------------------------------

24."People in positions of power are most effective when they exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power."--问解x

当掌握权力的人们试图小心而节制的使用权力时,他们是最有效率的.

过犹不及

------------------------------

89."Leaders are created primarily by the demands that are placed upon them."--问解领导者主要是由身负的责任所造就的.x

时势造英雄

------------------------------

160."The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."--因果x

对于一位强有力的领导者来说,最关键的能力就是要对一些原则和目标坚定不移.任何领导很频繁的,很轻易的为大众意志而转移的话,他将会一事无成.

少数和多数之领导与大众

------------------------------

165."In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."--比较 x

在任何领域中,对于起领导作用的人,他们的动力不是去肯定他人的想法,而是喜欢提出不同于大多数人的意见和想法.

少数和多数之标新立异的领导

领导者问题

the leading voices

conviction

------------------------------

40."Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests, however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem."—比较x

学者和研究人员不应该关注他们的工做是否对社会有所贡献;他们追求自己个人的兴趣更为重要,无论那些兴趣看起来是多么不寻常或者多么特殊。

------------------------------

202."Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise."--结论 x

不同于伟大的思想家和艺术家,最杰出的政治领袖通常都必须为了妥协而屈从于大众的意见并且放弃原则.

少数和多数之政治领袖

------------------------------

48."The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten."--比较x

历史研究过于关注个人.历史上最有意义的事件和潮流能够成为可能不是因为几个少数的名人而是一些身份早就被淡忘的人群.

少数和多数,精英和大众

------------------------------

60."The media—and society in general—mistakenly expect an individual to speak for a particular group, whether or not that individual truly represents the views of the entire group."--结论x

媒体和整个社会错误地希望某个人的发言就是代表了某一个特定的群体,无论这个个人是否代表了整个群体的意见.

少数和多数之发表意见

------------------------------

79."Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts, who are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public."--因果x

主要的决策权应该全部交给政治家和其他的政府专家,他们更加见多识广并且比一般的老百姓具有更好的判断能力和洞察力.

少数和多数之决策权

------------------------------

61."High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition."--因果x

最高荣誉比如说诺贝尔奖实际上是在损害社会,因为这种奖项在暗示只有少数人才配得上这样的荣誉.

少数和多数,精英和大众

------------------------------

67."Colleges should require students to engage in public-service activities in order to assure that each student receives a balanced, well-rounded education."--问解x

大学应该要求学生们参加公益活动,这也是为了保证每一个学生都能获得平衡而全面的教育.

少数和多数之社会实践和全面教育

------------------------------

71."Spending time alone makes one a better companion to others."--问解

学会独自消磨时光会使你更好地成为别人的伙伴.

人际关系之个人时间和公众时间

------------------------------

77."People today are too individualistic. Instead of pursuing self-centered, separate goals, people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole."--比较 x

现在的人们太个人主义了.与其追求以个人为中心和孤立的目标,人们更需要明白满足是源于为家庭,社区或者整个社会的更大利益的服务.

少数和多数

------------------------------

171."People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world than are people who try to act for the public good."--比较 x

能够造福社会的是那些纯粹出于个人原因而追求自己兴趣知识的人,而不是那些打算为大众谋福利的人.

个人和整体之动机

------------------------------

93."The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making."--因果x

个人责任的概念是一种很必要的虚构.尽管社会必须让个人对他们自己的行为负责,但是人们的行为很大程度上不是自己能够左右的.

少数和多数之个人责任

------------------------------

156."Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by the society in which we live."--因果 x

选择只是一种假象.实际上,我们的生活是被我们生活其中的社会所控制的.

类似于先有环境后有意识

------------------------------

162."One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal

responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed."--因果 x

人们经常听说个人需要为他们自己的生活负责任.然而,人们发现自己所处环境的存在要远远早于人们对其的认识.因此,个人责任的概念要比通常人们想象的要复杂和不切实际.

unrealistic

------------------------------

136."The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare."--结论

没有选择的情况少之又少.x

------------------------------

179."What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but certainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open—but most people prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling truth about anything."--比较 x

大多数人真正想要得到的不是知识而是结论.获得真正的知识需要冒险和不停歇的思考--但是大多数人更愿意获得确定的答案而不去学习复杂而不确定的真理.

独立思考

------------------------------

230."College students—and people in general—prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions. Therefore, colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to offer students clear direction."--因果 x

大学学生和普通大众宁愿听从指示而不愿意自己做决定.因此,大学应该尽可能为学生减少选择以便于为学生们提供一个明确的方向.

精英和大众之选择权

------------------------------

223."Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with school or college."--比较x

教育主要是个人的私事,和中小学或者大学基本上没什么关系.

------------------------------

234."Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference."--比较 x

大多数人更喜欢约束和规则,而不是绝对自由的选择权,尽管他们可能会否认这样的倾向.

自由和约束

------------------------------

140."What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, and individual achievements have often resulted in the greatest discontent."--因果 x

被社会自诩为是它最伟大的社会,政治和个人成就的东西结果往往带来最大的非议.

社会和人民大众

------------------------------

175."It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual."--因果 x

革新的动力往往来自于个人;革新的细节可能来自于团队,但是实质的革新都是个人努力和独特思维的结果.

Enterprise

Unique perception

------------------------------

199."Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from individuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone."--比较x

真正有创意的想法并非来自于群体而是来自于个人.当群体试图创新的时候,它的成员之间会被迫相互妥协,结果就是新想法趋于弱化而更接近于传统.大部分新想法都是来自于独立工作的个人.

少数和多数之新创意

------------------------------

181."The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things."--比较 x

学生和学者们在诠释学术研究对象时使用的方法更多的是一种个性化(因人而异)而非一种培训(模式化).不同的诠释来自于具有不同个性的人在看待相同的目标,事实,数据或者事件的时候以及他们在看待不同事情的时候.

个体和整体之学术方法论

personality

training

------------------------------

208."The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."--问解 x

人们的眼神,穿着和动作都揭示了他们的态度和兴趣.你可以透过观察一个社会中人们的外貌和举止来认识该社会的理念和价值观.

以小见大

------------------------------

97."It is unfortunate but true that political decisions and activities affect all aspects of people's lives."--因果x

尽管很不幸,但是这却是真实存在的事实,政治决策和活动影响着人们生活的方方面面.

政治和生活

------------------------------

123."It is possible to identify a person's politics within a very short time of meeting him or her. Everything about people—their clothes, their friends, the way they talk, what they eat—reflects their political beliefs."--因果x

通过和一个人短时间的接触来了解他的政治信仰是有可能的.和人们有关的一切--人们穿什么样的衣服,结交什么样的朋友,如何说话,吃什么东西--都能够反映出他们的政治信仰.

政治是无处不在的

------------------------------

214."Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped."--问解x

社会应该发现那些具有特殊天赋和能力的孩子,并且在年幼的时候就开始训练他们以便于这些孩子最终可以在他们擅长的领域中出类拔萃.否则这些天才就可能会止步不前.

局部和整体的关系之天才的片面发展

------------------------------

43."To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards."--问解 x

一个公仆如果想成为一位杰出的领导者就必须保持最高的伦理和道德标准.

政治家题目

------------------------------

169."Those who treat politics and morality as though they were separate realms fail to understand either the one or the other."--因果x

那些把政治和道德看成是两码事的人是既不懂政治也不懂道德的.

政治和道德的关系

politics and morality

------------------------------

212."If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."--因果只要值得,被用来达到目的的任何方法是合理的.x

------------------------------

152."The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies."--结论x

公司的经营者们唯一的责任就是在法律规定范围之内为他们的公司赚尽可能多的钱.

------------------------------

231." 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."--因果 x

"做任何事都要适度"这句话是欠考虑的.更确切的说,我们应该"对大多数事情都要适度",因为人类在很多领域中遇到的问题都需要全力以赴(解决),或者至少会从中获益.

度的问题

------------------------------

25."Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction—in other words, to make things as simple as possible."--比较 x

任何人都可以把事情复杂化.但是需要真正努力和勇气的恰恰相反,也就是说应该把事情变得尽可能的简单.

复杂和简单

------------------------------

82."Government should never censor the artistic works or historical displays that a museum wishes to exhibit."--结论x

政府根本就不应该审查一家博物馆计划展出的艺术作品或者历史陈列.

政府之艺术

------------------------------

224."Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified."--结论x

审查很少能够做到公正.

------------------------------

83."Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely remote and thus accessible to only a few people."--结论 x

政府应该保留国家领土中公共拥有的荒凉地区,即使这些地区往往人迹罕至.

政府之领土

------------------------------

53."College and university education should be free for all students, fully financed by the government."--结论 x

大学教育应该对所有学生免费,由政府来全额资助.

教育问题之奖学金

------------------------------

C.技术进步对人类的影响(28)

------------------------------

7."The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records."--因果

摄像机可以通过如此精确而有力的记录手段来再现当代生活,因此它已经代替书面记录成为了一种更重要的记录手段.

记录手段:现代摄像机和印刷术

------------------------------

38."In the age of television, reading books is not as important as it once was. People can learn as much by watching television as they can by reading books."--因果

电视时代的读书已经不像以前那么重要了.人们通过看电视学到的和他们读书所能学到的一样多.

现代技术之电视和读书

------------------------------

155."Contemporary society offers so many ways of learning that reading books is no longer very important."--因果

当代社会提供了如此之多的学习手段以至于读书已经变得不再那么重要了.

技术进步对人类社会的影响之阅读

------------------------------

150."Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete."--因果

由于电视和全球范围内的计算机网络,人们现在可以熟悉很多以前从未涉足过的地方.其结果就是使得旅游变得过时了.

(旅游将会被淘汰)

技术进步对人类社会的影响之旅游

obsolete:过时的,废弃的

------------------------------

237."Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of original works such as paintings and historical documents available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology is that it will enable anyone—not just scholars—to conduct in-depth research without having access to the original works."--结论

电脑和影像技术可以让普通人接触到像绘画和历史文献这样的原始资料的复制品.这项新技术最大的好处就是可以让任何人,不仅仅是学者们,即使无法接触到这些原始资料也一样可以进行深入地研究.

精英和大众之复制技术与原始资料

------------------------------

16."Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."--比较

尽管许多人认为现代生活的奢华和便利是丝毫没有坏处的,但是这实际上让人们无法成为真正强大和独立的个体.

社会和个人之发展问题

------------------------------

166."Over the past century, the most significant contribution of technology has been to make people's lives more comfortable."--问解

在上个世纪,技术最有意义的贡献就是使得人们的生活越来越舒适了.

技术进步对人类的影响

has been to make

------------------------------

196."Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or damage the quality of life."--比较

技术解决了问题,但是带来了更多的问题,并且可能会威胁或损害生活质量.

技术对人类社会的影响

------------------------------

119."When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?"--问解

当研究的重点被置于科学,教育或者其他领域中时,最重要的问题就是要考虑如果研究获得成功会有多少人的生活得以改善.

技术进步之改善人民生活

------------------------------

30."The primary goal of technological advancement should be to increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure time."--因果

技术进步的首要目标应该是提高人们的效率以便于每个人都享有更多的闲暇时光.

技术进步之空闲时刻

------------------------------

124."Instant foods, instant communication, faster transportation-all of these recent developments are designed to save time. Ironically, though, instead of making more leisure time available, these developments have contributed to a pace of human affairs that is more rushed and more frantic than ever before."--比较

即时食品,即时通讯,更快捷的交通--所有这些最新的发展都是为了节省时间.具有讽刺意味的是,这样的发展并没有带来更多的休闲时间,反而使人们的生活节奏前所未有的匆忙和混乱.

技术进步之生活节奏

------------------------------

58."The increasingly rapid pace of life today causes more problems than it solves."--比较

现代生活越来越快的节奏弊多利少.

弊多利少题型

------------------------------

137."What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one problem for another."--因果我们所称之为进步的过程就是从一个问题变化到另一个问题.

------------------------------

66."As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate."--因果

当人们变得越来越依赖技术解决问题的时候,人类独立思考的能力将肯定会江河日下.

技术进步之人和技术

------------------------------

69."Government should place few, if any, restrictions on scientific research and development"--结论

政府应该少限制科学研究和发展.

技术之政府限制

------------------------------

88."Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics."--结论

技术不仅仅影响而且实际上是决定了社会传统和道德规范.

技术进步之社会影响

------------------------------

107."Instant communication systems encourage people to form hasty opinions and give quick replies rather than take the time to develop thoughtful, well-reasoned points of view."--比较

即时通讯系统促使人们匆忙的作出判断并很快的给出回答,而不是花时间去形成深思熟虑和理由充分的观点.

技术进步之即时判断

------------------------------

151."High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication."--因果

高速电子通讯媒体,例如电子邮件和电视,在逐渐地抑制有意义的和有思想性的交流.

技术进步对人类社会的影响之交流

------------------------------

183."As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and more mysterious."--比较

当我们获得越来越多的知识,事情并没有变得更加透彻,相反是变得更复杂更神秘.

------------------------------

205."As societies all over the world have more and more access to new information, the effects on life-long learning can only be positive."--因果

全世界各个社会获得崭新信息的手段越来越多,这对于人们一生的学习来说是有益无害的.

全球化之信息

215."The bombardment of visual images in contemporary society has the effect of making people less able to focus clearly and extensively on a single issue over a long period of time."--因果

当代社会中视觉形象的冲击导致了人们愈加无法长时间清晰而深刻地将注意力集中在一件事情上.

全球化之信息

------------------------------

219."Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to compete with—much less contribute to—the quantity of information that is now available electronically."--因果

既然电脑技术已经使人们及时接触大量真实信息成为可能,那么人们就不太可能像以前那样去深刻地或者创造性地思考了.对于通过电子手段获得的信息量,人们已经感觉跟不上了,并且个人的作用已经减弱了.

全球化之信息

------------------------------

233."Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning."--比较

尽管诸如电视,电脑和互联网这样的发明似乎给学校教育提供了进步的手段,但是所有这些技术往往也是在偏离真正的学习.

技术对人类的影响之多媒体教育

------------------------------

114."Humanity has made little real progress over the past century or so. Technological innovations have taken place, but the overall condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of humanity."--比较

人类在过去的一百年左右止步不前.技术在不断进步而人类的整体条件却没有改善.战争,暴力和贫困仍然困扰着我们.技术无法改变人类的处境.

技术进步之人类

------------------------------

129."Technology is a necessary but not always a positive force in modern life."--比较

技术对于现代是生活是不可或缺的,但并非总是一种积极的作用.

------------------------------

135."While most of the environmental problems we face result from the use of technology, society must depend upon technology to find solutions to these problems."--问解

虽然我们面临的大多数环境问题都是因为技术的使用,但是社会必须依靠技术来寻求解决的办法.

技术对人类的影响之环保

------------------------------

149."The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through environmentally sensitive projects."--问解

保护野生环境最实际和最有效的途径就是通过环保的(旅游)项目吸引更多的旅游者来这些地区(旅游).

环保和旅游的关系

sensitive:敏感的(详细的解释例子见课上讲过的笔记)

------------------------------

159."The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds."--因果

人类的智慧将总是高于机器,因为机器只是人类智慧的工具.

技术进步对人类社会的影响(类似于影响和决定人类传统)

d.理性和感性(19)

------------------------------

12."People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic."--比较

人们的态度更多的是由临时的情况或者环境所决定,而非人们自身的特点.

心理问题之冲动和可预测

------------------------------

91."Most people think that their deeply held values are the result of rational choice, but reason often has little to do with the way people form values."--比较

大多数人认为他们深信不疑的价值观是理性选择的结果,但是理智往往对于人们形成价值观几乎根本不起作用.

理性和感性之价值观

------------------------------

110."When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."--因果

当我们通过研究历史来考虑自身问题的时候,我们就会变成说故事的人.因为我们不可能直接了解过去,只有通过解释一些史料来构造历史,所以探索历史更多是一件创造性的事业而不是客观的追寻.所有的历史学家都是讲故事的人.

------------------------------

112."Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions."--比较

一些教育体系强调学生逻辑推理思维能力的发展,但是那些教学生们探究自身情绪的教育对学生们才更有好处.

教育之客观与主观

------------------------------

182."It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."--结论

只相信聪明才智是危险的.

------------------------------

47."Society does not place enough emphasis on the intellect—that is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills."--结论

社会对于智力还是重视不够,比如推理和认知的能力。

------------------------------

134."Students should be encouraged to realize that mental agility and rhetorical skill must be accompanied by sincerity and the true conviction of their own beliefs."--结论

学生们应该被鼓励而意识到思维的敏捷和口齿的伶俐必须和真诚与坚持自己的信仰相伴随存在. 现实与道德

------------------------------

126."Society's external rewards are no measure of true success. True success can be measured only in relation to the goals one sets for oneself."--比较

社会给予的客观奖励并不能衡量真正的成功.真正的成功只能是取决于一个人为他自己设定的目标.

客观和主观

------------------------------

115."It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful measurement that we become aware of our progress. Without such tools, we have no reference points to indicate how far we have advanced or retreated."--问解

通过逻辑和精确仔细的衡量,我们得以明白自己的进步.如果没有这些手段,我们就没有参考来了解我们进步了多少或者退步了多少.

技术进步之人类进步

------------------------------

127."Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions."--因果

事实都是固执的.它不可能随着我们的愿望,喜好或者情绪而改变.

客观和主观

------------------------------

177."The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."--问解

对于一门学科的研究会改变我们对世界的看法.在学习这门学科之后,我们看到的世界一如既往,但是我们本身的角度和眼光已然不同.

知识对于人类的影响

------------------------------

178."It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts and minds."--因果

通过法律可以控制或者限制人们的行为,但是立法是无法是无法改变人类本性的.法律无法改变人们的感情和思想.

Hearts and minds

------------------------------

157."There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires."--因果

纯粹客观的观察是不存在的.所有的观察都是主观的;观察总是被观察者的预期或者喜好所左右的.

主观和客观之观察

------------------------------

184."It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."--因果

在掌握足够资料之前建立理论会导致严重的错误.

theorize

------------------------------

192."Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning."--比较

在生活的所有领域中,成功往往更多的来自于把握机会或者冒险而不是通过仔细谨慎的计划.

冒险和计划

------------------------------

216."Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."--因果

最重要的发现或是创造都是偶然的:在我们为一个问题寻求答案的时候,通常通过这个答案获得另外的收获.

必然与偶然之一箭双雕

Come across the answer to another.

------------------------------

33."Creating an appealing image has become more important in contemporary society than is the reality or truth behind that image."--比较

在当代社会,打造一个引人如胜的外表已经变得比外表下的内容更加重要了.

外表和内容

------------------------------

109."The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves."--因果很多广告的目的是要消费者去购买一件产品以使得消费者们--"像"广告中的人物.这类广告很有效因为它不仅是在销售产品更是在帮助人们自我感觉更好.

广告

------------------------------

206."People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do."--比较

人们现在太急于采取行动,实际上人们应该先停下来考虑一下他们这么做可能导致的结果.

现在和将来之思维和行动

------------------------------

E.不同领域间的交流(23)

------------------------------

4."No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study."--问解

在任何一个研究领域当中,除非有该领域之外的人引进他们的知识和经验,否则该领域就很难获得巨大的发展.

Outsider: a person does not belong to a particular group

闭门造车,旁观者清

------------------------------

138."Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress."--问解

失败是成功之母.

------------------------------

50."In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach."--问解

为了改善大学的教学质量,所有的教员都应该被要求花一定时间到学术领域以外去参加和他们所教科目相关的工作.

孤立的教育

------------------------------

154."Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators."--因果

父母和社会都必须参与到地方的学校中。教育太重要了以至于不能把教育完全交给一群职业教育者.

教育之合作

------------------------------

81."Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress."--因果

出于爱国对于一个国家的尊崇往往不是促进进步而是障碍进步.

沙文主义

------------------------------

94."Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated."--因果

大学应该要求每一个学生在自己专业课外选修各种学科,因为获得各种学科的知识才是获得真正教育的最好途径.

教育之必修课和选修课

------------------------------

131."The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the otherwise hidden ideas and impulses of a society."--问解

艺术(绘画,音乐,文学等等)揭示了隐藏的其他方面的社会理念和动力.

艺术

------------------------------

132."The university community consists of three different worlds—the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. Because each world operates on its own assumptions and has its own special habits of thinking, rarely is there meaningful interaction among the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences."--因果

大学包括了三个不同的领域--科学,人文学科以及社会学科.因为每一个领域都根据自己的前提运转,每一个领域都有自己独特的思维习惯,所以在自然科学,人文科学和社会科学之间几乎是不存在有意义的交互的.

学科之间的关系

------------------------------

158.”The arts (music, dance, visual arts, etc.) are vitally important to students' education and should therefore receive as much emphasis as mathematics, science, reading and other mainstream subjects."--因果

艺术(音乐,舞蹈,视觉艺术等等)对于学生们的教育至关重要,因此应该和数学,自然科学等主流学科一样受到重视.

艺术

------------------------------

176."The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each."--比较

科学的作用是解惑;艺术的目的是创新.只有这样他们才各得其所.

Reassure

upset

------------------------------

197."The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."--因果

一个国家的物质进步和安定和其他国家的物质进步和安定是紧密相关的.

国家之间的关系

------------------------------

41."Such nonmainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by mainstream science."--因果

研究界的一些非主流领域,比如星象学,占卜术和意念及超自然探索,在社会中起到了很重要的作用,因为它们满足了人们无法从主流科学获得的需求.

少数和多数之非主流学科

------------------------------

220."The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize. As a result, the distance between fields of specialization has become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to influence each other."--因果

知识的增加促使了人们的专业化.其结果是不同专业化领域之间的差异变得越来越大以至于各个领域中的专业人员很少能够互相影响了.

------------------------------

221."The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."--问解

研究历史最大的好处就是打破了这种假象:不同时代的人们之间基本上是完全不同的.

------------------------------

54."History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today."--因果

历史只教会了我们一件事:了解过去无助于人们今天作出重要的决定.

时间问题之历史不是今天的一面镜子

------------------------------

243."The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments."--比较

一个文明的真正价值是反映在艺术创造中的而不是它的科学成就.

艺术和科学

------------------------------

74."The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language."--比较

和一大群人交流想法或者价值观的最有效方式是图象而非语言.

------------------------------

57."The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is much richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience."--比较

通过书本获得的知识要比通过直接体验获得的知识要更加丰富和广泛.

直接经验和间接经验

------------------------------

204."We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all."--因果

我们通过直接经验来学习,如果没有通过体验来接受一个理论就等于根本没学.

直接经验和间接经验(教材14题)

------------------------------

28."Students should memorize facts only after they have studied the ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts. Students who have learned only facts have learned very little."--因果

学生们只有在学习了事实的来龙去脉后才有必要记住这些事实。只学习事实本身的学生是学不到多少东西的

局部和整体之触类旁通

------------------------------

174."Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."--比较

法律不应该是僵化或固定的,而应该根据不同的环境,时期和地点而足够灵活.

法律的灵活性

------------------------------

180."Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."--因果

现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的,因为道德行为是无法用法律约束的.

道德和法律

------------------------------

39."The intellectual benefits of attending a university or college are vastly overrated: most people could learn more by studying and reading on their own for four years than by pursuing a university or college degree."--因果

大学学习的好处被过分地高估了:大多数人如果通过研究和阅读的方式自学四年的话,会比追求一个大学学位学到的更多.

大学和自学

------------------------------

F.统一与分歧(竞争)(49)

------------------------------

1."We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own; disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning."--比较通常,我们从与我们意见相同的人身上学到的要比从那些与我们意见相悖的人身上学到的东西要多得多;(因为)意见不统一会带来压力并且阻碍学习.

统一与分歧之(与我们)持相同意见者和持不同意见者对学习的作用

------------------------------

2."Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society."--比较

归根结底,竞争对于社会是利多弊少.

竞争对于社会的优点和缺点

------------------------------

5."A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer."--比较

一个国家应该要求所有的学生进入大学之前都学习由国家统一制定的课程,而不是允许由国家不同地区的学校去决定课程的安排.

国家统一和地区单独安排课程

------------------------------

17."There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."--问解

有两种法律:公正的和不公正的.每个社会成员都有责任遵守公正的法律,但是更重要的是,更应该不遵守和反抗不公正的法律.

社会和个人之法律公正么?

------------------------------

18."Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and contrasting views of others does one really discover the value of that idea."--问解

只有通过排除异议和对照其他的观点来捍卫一个理念,人们才能真正的发现该理念的价值所在. ------------------------------

35."No matter what the situation, it is more harmful to compromise one's beliefs than to adhere to them."--比较

无论什么时候,折衷自己的信仰要比坚持有害.

信仰

------------------------------

37."In most societies, competition generally has more of a negative than a positive effect."--比较

在大多数社会中,竞争一般是弊多利少.

弊多利少之竞争

------------------------------

46."While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of competition, a society can better prepare its young people for leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation."--比较

当政府,体育界,工业界和其他领域中的一些领导者将他们的成功归因于一种高度的竞争意识时,一个社会还是应该更好的为那些即将成为领导者的年轻人灌输一种合作的意识。

竞争和合作

------------------------------

52."Education encourages students to question and criticize, and therefore does little to promote social harmony."--因果

教育鼓励学生们提出问题和进行批判,这样做的结果无助于促进社会懂得和谐.

教育问题

------------------------------

59."Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of copying others, people should learn to think and act independently and thus make the choices that are best for them."--比较

太多的注意力被放在了模式化方面.与其模仿别人,人们还不如学习独立思考和作出最适合自己的选择.

模式化和独立思考

------------------------------

65."People have been so encouraged by society to focus on apparent differences that they fail to see meaningful similarities among ideas, individuals, and groups."--因果

人们被社会鼓励而将注意力集中于显而易见的差异上,以至于人们已经无法看到各种理念,个人和群体之间的有意义的相似.

统一和差异

------------------------------

68."People make the mistake of treating experts with suspicion and mistrust, no matter how valuable their contributions might be."--结论

人们经常错误的猜疑和不信任专家,无论专家们的贡献是多么的有价值.

怀疑权威

------------------------------