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ed Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

ed Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

SolarCellsDOI:10.1002/anie.201108076RapidChargeTransportinDye-SensitizedSolarCellsMadefromVerticallyAlignedSingle-CrystalRutileTiO2Nanowires**

XinjianFeng,KaiZhu,ArthurJ.Frank,CraigA.Grimes,andThomasE.Mallouk*

Overthepasttwodecades,dye-andquantumdot-sensitizedTiO2areattractiveforsolarcellandotheroptoelectronicsolarcellsandpolymer/inorganichybridsolarcellshaveapplications.

emergedaspromisingalternativestosolid-statep-njunctionFigure1a,bshow,respectively,cross-sectionalfield-emis-cellsforaddressingtheurgentneedforinexpensive,efficientsionscanningelectronmicroscope(FE-SEM;JEOL6300)solarpower.[1]Attheheartofthesesolarcellsisamesoporousimagestakenatlowandhighmagnification,whichshowTiO2nanoparticle(NP)electrode,whichnotonlyprovides

ahighsurfaceareaforaccommodatingthelight-absorbing

sensitizerbutalsoservesasthestableconductorforphoto-

generatedelectrons.Fastchargetransportinthenetworkis

essentialforeffectivechargecollection,particularlyinsolid-

statecellsinwhichrecombinationisveryfast.[2]Toincrease

theelectronmobility,TiO21Dpolycrystallinenanotube

arrays[3]andsingle-crystallinenanowire(NW)arrays[4,5]

haverecentlybeenproposedandstudiedaselectrode

materialsforsolarcells.However,thereislittleexperimental

evidenceofsubstantiallyenhancedelectrontransportinthese

TiO21Dnanostructure-basedsolarcells.Forexample,thereis

nosubstantialdifferenceinelectrontransportbetween1D

TiO2nanotubeandNP-baseddye-sensitizedsolarcells

(DSSCs).[3c]

Herein,wereportaketone–HClsolvothermalprocessfor

thegrowthofsingle-crystalrutileTiO2NWarraysonF-doped

tinoxide(FTO)substrates.TheTiO2NWsbegintogrow

within15minandlengthsupto10mmcanbeobtainedwithin

http://www.sodocs.net/doc/d09726c4650e52ea541898b7.html ingtheseNWfilms,weshowforthefirsttimethattheFigure1.aandb)FE-SEMcross-sectionalimagesofNWarraysonelectrondiffusioncoefficientofsingle-crystalrutileTiOFTO-coatedglasssubstrateatlowandhighmagnifications,respec-

2NWs

ismorethantwoordersofmagnitudehigherthanthatoftively.c)HR-TEMimageoftheas-synthesizedsingleNW.

rutileNPfilmsatthesamephotoelectrondensity.Inlightof

thefindingsreportedhere,arraysof1Dsingle-crystalrutile

arraysofuniformandwell-separatedNWs.NWsgrow

verticallyfromthesubstratetoanaveragelengthofabout

1.6mmandadiameterof40nmduringareactiontimeof[*]Dr.X.Feng,[+]Prof.C.A.Grimes,Prof.T.E.Mallouk

DepartmentofChemistry,MaterialsResearchInstitute30min.FromthegrazingangleX-raydiffraction(GAXRD)ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversitypatterns(FigureS1intheSupportingInformation),theUniversityPark,PA16802(USA)crystalphaseofthethinbaselayerandnanowirearraysE-mail:tem5@psu.eduwereidentifiedastetragonalrutile(JCPDSfilenumber21-Dr.K.Zhu,[+]Dr.A.J.Frank1276).High-resolutiontransmissionelectronmicroscopeNationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory(HR-TEM)images(Figure1c)confirmthattheNWsare1617ColeBoulevard,Golden,CO80401(USA)singlecrystallineandhavea(110)interplanardistanceof

[+]Theseauthorscontributedequallytothiswork.0.327nm.TheNWsgrowwithapreferred[001]orientation.

[**]WorkatPennStatewassupportedbytheU.S.DepartmentofThelengthofNWsincreasesalmostlinearlywiththereaction

Energy,OfficeofScience,OfficeofBasicEnergySciencesundertime.Forexample,growthof15minresultsinaround260nmgrantnumberDE-SC0001087.WorkatNRELwassupportedbythe

U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,undergrantnumberDEAC36-longNWsandatwohourreactiongivesaround9.6mmlong

08GO28308.ThePennStateNanofabricationfacilityissupportedNWs(seeFigureS2intheSupportingInformation).TheNWbytheNationalScienceFoundationundergrantnumberECS-lengthcanalsobeadjustedbyusingdifferentamountsof0335765.WewouldliketothankDr.BangzhiLiuatthePennStateprecursor.Forexample,forareactiontemperatureof2008CNanofabricationfacilityforhishelpwithFE-SEM,TEM,andHR-andadurationof45minNWswithlengthsofaround1.1andTEM

ed Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

analyses.around4.4mmcanbeobtainedbyusing0.4and0.8mLofSupportinginformationforthisarticleisavailableontheWWWtetrabutyltitanate,respectively(seeFigureS3intheSupport-underhttp://www.sodocs.net/doc/d09726c4650e52ea541898b7.html /10.1002/anie.201108076.

ed Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

ing

ed Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

Information).

Angew.Chem.Int.Ed.2012,51,2727–2730󰀂2012Wiley-VCHVerlagGmbH&Co.KGaA,Weinheim2727

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