n+ adj phrase形容词短语: a book useful for you
prep phrase介词短语: a pen on the desk
v-ing/-ed phrase分词短语: a person walking on the road; a tool developed
for the project
不定式: a way to solve the problem
?不定式作后置定语其逻辑主语是第三方: sb use the way to solve the problem
?关系代词引导定语从句: that, which, who, whom, whose( 其中that,
which, who, whom引导的是非完整句, whose 引导的是完整句)
?关系连词: when, where, why在句子中不作成分, 引导的是完整句
?介词+关系代词: in which, 此关系代词不包括what
2) 同位语: 同插入语一样处理----删除
A, B( 定语从句/同位语从句)
A, or B
A that + 句子( 完整句)
A of B: the city of Beijing
3) 状语: 处理方式----隔离
Prep phrase 介词短语
It + Vi + that +句子
It + be + adj +that +句子完整句
That +句子+ V
N+ that +句子+ 同位语(完整句)
S + Vi + that+ 句子: The sun rises that is bright.
S + be + adj + that + 句子: The desk is clean that is used by the student(定语从句); The fact is true that Tom is handsome(同位语从句).
…… (关联词+ 非完整句)
例1: However, for many years physicists thought that (atom and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously) and that (stimulated emission thus always would be much weaker)
例2: It appeared that 〔Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families (that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution)〕.
例3: The history of clinical nutrition,or the study of the relationship between
health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances(同位语,删除), can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century (when it was recognized for the first time that (food contained constituents (that were essential for human function) )and that (different foods provided different amounts of these essential
例4: Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP?s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger(同位语，删除), was able to maintain a steady
position on the ocean?s surface and drill in very deep water, extracting samples of
sediments and rock from the ocean floor.
例5: The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that (reconstruction had to be undertaken also in North, though less spectacularly).
例6: The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth century in which (the making of a clay model was considered the creative act) and (the work was then turned over to studio assistant to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble).
例7: Anyone (who has handle a fossilized bone) knows that (it is usually not exactly like its modern counterpart), the most obvious difference being that( it is often
much heavier) 独立主格结构.
例8: The impressive gain in output 〔stemmed primarily from the way in which (workers made goods since 1790?s)〕, North American enterpreneurs----even without the technological improvement----had broadended the scope of the outwork system (that made manufacturing more efficient by distributing
materials to succession of workers (who each performed a single step of the production process))
例9: The fact that (artisanss, (who were locked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century), (are frequently considered artists today) is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century) 例10: A few art collectors James Bowdoin III of Boston, William Bbyrd of Virginian, and the Aliens abd Hamiltons of Philadelphia (同位语)introduced European art traditions to those colonists〔privileged to visit their galleries, especially aspiring artists〕and established in their respective communities the idea of the value of art and the need for institutions 〔devoted to its encouragement〕.
Basic to any understanding of the
disadvantages of building a large factory near
a community is _________.
例1: Herein (adv) lay(宾语) the beginning of what ultimately(最终) turned from ignorance(无知) to denial of the value of nutrition therapies in medicine(主语).
例2: Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals(主语), sometimes easily recognizable as such, often distorted into gorgeous, weird, but always functional shapes.
例3:With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom( that followed it)独立主格,young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. 没有倒装
例4: Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20years after the Second World War(宾语) is the country’s impressive population growth(主语).
句子结构: adj + prep +B+ be + A = A + be +adj +prep +B
例5: Among the species of seabirds (that use the windswept cliff of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate, lay eggs, and rear their young) are common murres, Atlantic puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, and northern gannets(主语).
句子结构: Among A + be + B = B是A的一部分
例6: Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well: (that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which (sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony)).
例7: Most important perhaps, was that (they had all maintained with a certain
fidelity(状语) a manner of technique and composition consistent with those of America?s first popular landscapes artist, Thomas Cole, (who built a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery 〔bording the Hudson River〔)).
句型结构: S + Vt + prep + n1 (介词短语)+ n2, Vt的宾语实际上是n2.
例8: With the turn-of-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration(独立主格), such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium(主语).
例9: Accustomed though we are to(倒装) speaking of the films made before 1927 as …slient?, the film has never been seen, in the full sense of the word, silent.
句型结构: adj + though + S + be + prep + n = though + S +be + adj + prep + n, 仅发生在让步状语从句中.
例10: Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem(同位语), to the health of the Earth and human well-being(主语).
句型结构: the importance of A to B = A 对B 的重要性
例11: Matching the influx of foreign immigrants into the larger cities of the United States during the late nineteenth century was a domestic migration(主语), from town and farm to city, within the United States.
例12: Indeed, had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils(虚拟条件句if it had not been) , they might well have been classified as dinosaurs.
构成：It + be + 强调成分＋that/ who+ 其他成分
例1: It was just a decade before this (强调句)that many drug companies had found their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins and literature extolling the virtue of supplementation for a vatiety of health-related conditions.
例2: It was she, a Baltimore printer, (强调句)who published the first office copies of the Declaraton, the first copie (that included the names of its singers and therefore heralded the support of all thirteen colonies).
例3: It was in the cities(强调句)that the elements (that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared-----the use of money and commercial paper in
place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy, with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools).
例: Generally, in order to be preserved in the fossil record, organisms must process hard body parts such as shells or bones. Soft, fleshy structures are quickly destroyed by predators or decayed by bacteria. Even hard parts left on the surface for certain length of time will be destroyed. Therefore, organisms must be buried rapidly to escape destruction by elements and to be protected against agents of weathering and erosion. Marine organisms thus are better candidates for fossilization than those living on the land because the ocean is
. 1. (1) 词汇题简介和提问方式: 参见OG 第25页 (2) 词汇题的解答方法
不认识： 推断： 从词的本身
2. 指代题(Reference Question)
(1) 指代题简介和提问方式: 参见OG 第26~27页 (2) 指代题的解答方法 代词
c. 重复概念指代: Tom and his cat(就近原则)
d. some of others
some + n + of + n, others 指名词 some + v, some others 共指之前概念 名词:
a. 优先选择题干的上下意词 a is a kind of A, A 是a 的上意词
b. 若上下意词不唯一则当作代词指代处理 注意:
3. 事实信息题( Factual Information Question)
(1) 事实题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第20页
(2) 事实题的正确选项特征: 原文重现和同义改写
a. A在原文的出现, B在原文中不出现.,A + B在选项中出现.
b. A\B均在原文中出现, A + B在选项中出现.
c. A+ B在原文中出现. A或B在选项中出现.
虚假比较: 如果选项中出现了比较级\最高级\绝对化描述或范围的扩张, 则该选项优先不为正确选项,在除非在原文存在比较的一一对应.
4. 否定事实信息题(Negative Information Question)
(1) 否定事实题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第21页
a. 对应原文某一处描述, 通常是举例
b. 对应原文两处或两处以上描述, 并且通常是分散举例或排比(未被选择的选项应和原文构成一一对应.
5. 推断题(Inference Question)
(1) 推断题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第23页
?对比: 时间对比; 直接对比; 比例对比(在总量构成不变的情况下此消彼
6. 修辞目的题( Rhetorical Purpose Question)
(1) 修辞目的题见解和提问方式: 参见OG第24页
a. 顺承: 无明显的标志词
b. 转折: 有表示对比转折关系的关联词
c. 支持: 有表示举例的关联词
作者意图: 对应原文如果有表示举例的关联词,则答案在当前句之前出现,否则答案在当前句中出现; 如果找不到概括性描述.则想段落中心或全文中心
7. 句子简化题(Sentence Simplification Question)
(1) 句子简化题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第28页
(2) 句子简化的两个层面: 语义和逻辑
(3) 常见的逻辑关系转换----四大“明显”/ “隐含”关系
?明显否定关系的特色词汇: no, not, none, never, neither, deny
?隐含否定关系的特色词汇: fail to, absent from, lack, lack of, refuse, few,
?明显因果关系的特色词汇: because, because of, since, for, as, due to,
owing to, in that, so, so that, as a result, therefore, there by, hence,
a. 表示导致含义: lead to, cause, result, result in, give rise to, render,
produce, make, 使役动词, support, support, stimulate, spur, spark, fuel, motivate, prompt.
b. 由……而来: come from, result from, originate, derive from, initiate from,
stem from, be attibutable to, be responsive to.
c. 反映,体现: reflect, present, suggest, show, imply, demonstrate.
d. 考虑到…, 依赖…: give, considering, on account of, in view of, thanks to,
according to, rely on, depend on, resort to.
e. 条件关系: if, when, while, as, as soon as, as long as, 虚拟条件句.
a. “变化”: change, vary, alter, modify, revise, increase, decrease, crect, destroy, develop, improve, progress, advance, grow, degenerate, continue, remain, stay, stable, still.
b. “差异”: same, different.
c. “超越”: surpass, exceed, transcend, excel.
?明显最高级/绝对化关系的特色词汇: -est/ 比较级
a. 自身含有最高级含义: maximum, minimum, outstanding, extreme.
b. 否定加比较: nothing can better than that
8. 句子插入题(Insert Text Question)
(1) 句子插入题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第29~30页.
1) 明确逻辑链: 连接关系体现(OG)
2) 语义场连接: 重复信息和指代关系.
9.文章小结题(Prose Summary Question)
(1) 文章小结题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第32页
10. 完成表格题(Fiil in The Table Question)
(1) 完成表格题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第35页
glory in/believe in/dictate/celebrate/value
critical/crucial/decisive/earnest/exceptional/marked meaningful/momentous/paramount/salient/significant/weighty eminent/influential/outstanding/distinctive/esteemed/grand honored/illustrious/leading/majestic/notable/powerful prominent/remarkable/solid/superior/conspicuous
limit/confine/compress/decrease/lessen narrow/bar/bind/cap/check/constraint/curb impede/inhibit/obstruct/restrict/cramp diminish/block/choke/frustrate/hamper hinder/retard/stall/throttle/thwart
decrease/abate/curb/curtail/drop/ebb evaporate/fade/lower/reduce/restrain/shrink slacken/slump/subside/wane/diminish/subtract
increase/develop/enlarge/expand/grow/raise advance/aggrandize/amplify/augment/boost/ broaden/enhance/enlarge/escalate/extend further/heighten/inflate/magnify/mount progress/proliferate/spread/swell/widen
develop/advance/evolve/expand/flourish foster/grow/maturate/mature/promote/ripen thrive/amplify/augment/broaden/cultivate deepen/enlarge/enrich/extend/intensify magnify/perfect/refine/spread/strengthen enhance/stretch/widen/hike/aid/assist/
begin/start/commence/originate/initiate generate/form/unfold/arise/create/kindle ignite
extinguish/abolish/annihilate/crush/destroy eliminate/eradicate/erase/extirpate/obliterate quell/remove/stamp out/suppress/repress quench/smother/stifle/suffocate/trample disappear/depart/disperse/dissipate/dissolve ebb/end/evaporate/expire/fade/fade away/flee
obliterate/revoke/retract/delete/erase/efface counteract/offset/act against
cope with/handle/administer/demand/command/conduct dominate/employ/exercise/govern/manipulate supervise/utilize/wield/dispose (of)/array
copious/ample/bountiful/extensive/full/generous lavish/liberal/lush/overflowing/plentiful/profuse prolix/replete/rich/abundant/capacious/substantial sufficient
介词：despite/in spite of