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IBT阅读讲义

托福阅读讲义

一.阅读方法

1.精读----句子结构分析和解析方法

(1) 句子阅读中的障碍

1) 定语

前置定语: adj+n

后置定语:

n+ adj phrase形容词短语: a book useful for you

prep phrase介词短语: a pen on the desk

v-ing/-ed phrase分词短语: a person walking on the road; a tool developed

for the project

不定式: a way to solve the problem

注:

?分词短语作后置定语时,其逻辑主语是其修饰的名词

?不定代词只能用后置定语修饰

?不定式作后置定语其逻辑主语是第三方: sb use the way to solve the problem

定语从句:

?关系代词引导定语从句: that, which, who, whom, whose( 其中that,

which, who, whom引导的是非完整句, whose 引导的是完整句)

?关系连词: when, where, why在句子中不作成分, 引导的是完整句

?介词+关系代词: in which, 此关系代词不包括what

2) 同位语: 同插入语一样处理----删除

A, B( 定语从句/同位语从句)

A, or B

A that + 句子( 完整句)

A of B: the city of Beijing

3) 状语: 处理方式----隔离

Adv 副词

Prep phrase 介词短语

分词短语

不定式

注: 非谓语动词作状语其逻辑主语是句子的主语

4) 并列结构

并列连词的用法: 并列连词连接结构\功能\性质均相同的成分----必须完全对等

5) that引导的各种从句

S+V+THAT+句子(完整句)----宾语从句

S+系动词+表语+句子----表语从句

It + Vi + that +句子

It + be + adj +that +句子完整句

That +句子+ V

N+ that +句子+ 同位语(完整句)

定语从句(非完整句)

S + Vi + that+ 句子: The sun rises that is bright.

S + be + adj + that + 句子: The desk is clean that is used by the student(定语从句); The fact is true that Tom is handsome(同位语从句).

(2) 复杂句的阅读方法----层次化句子阅读法

1) 括号匹配

……关联词(完整句)

…… (关联词+ 非完整句)

2) 划右括号的条件:

句子终结

连接句子的并列连词或标点符号之前

例1: However, for many years physicists thought that (atom and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously) and that (stimulated emission thus always would be much weaker)

例2: It appeared that 〔Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families (that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution)〕.

例3: The history of clinical nutrition,or the study of the relationship between

health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances(同位语,删除), can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century (when it was recognized for the first time that (food contained constituents (that were essential for human function) )and that (different foods provided different amounts of these essential

agents).

例4: Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP?s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger(同位语,删除), was able to maintain a steady

position on the ocean?s surface and drill in very deep water, extracting samples of

sediments and rock from the ocean floor.

例5: The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that (reconstruction had to be undertaken also in North, though less spectacularly).

例6: The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth century in which (the making of a clay model was considered the creative act) and (the work was then turned over to studio assistant to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble).

例7: Anyone (who has handle a fossilized bone) knows that (it is usually not exactly like its modern counterpart), the most obvious difference being that( it is often

much heavier) 独立主格结构.

例8: The impressive gain in output 〔stemmed primarily from the way in which (workers made goods since 1790?s)〕, North American enterpreneurs----even without the technological improvement----had broadended the scope of the outwork system (that made manufacturing more efficient by distributing

materials to succession of workers (who each performed a single step of the production process))

例9: The fact that (artisanss, (who were locked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century), (are frequently considered artists today) is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century) 例10: A few art collectors James Bowdoin III of Boston, William Bbyrd of Virginian, and the Aliens abd Hamiltons of Philadelphia (同位语)introduced European art traditions to those colonists〔privileged to visit their galleries, especially aspiring artists〕and established in their respective communities the idea of the value of art and the need for institutions 〔devoted to its encouragement〕.

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

读和写作的关系:

为写作提供原始模仿素材,并且是抽象结构.

Basic to any understanding of the

disadvantages of building a large factory near

a community is _________.

例1: Herein (adv) lay(宾语) the beginning of what ultimately(最终) turned from ignorance(无知) to denial of the value of nutrition therapies in medicine(主语).

例2: Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals(主语), sometimes easily recognizable as such, often distorted into gorgeous, weird, but always functional shapes.

例3:With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom( that followed it)独立主格,young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression. 没有倒装

例4: Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20years after the Second World War(宾语) is the country’s impressive population growth(主语).

句子结构: adj + prep +B+ be + A = A + be +adj +prep +B

例5: Among the species of seabirds (that use the windswept cliff of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate, lay eggs, and rear their young) are common murres, Atlantic puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, and northern gannets(主语).

句子结构: Among A + be + B = B是A的一部分

例6: Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well: (that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which (sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony)).

例7: Most important perhaps, was that (they had all maintained with a certain

fidelity(状语) a manner of technique and composition consistent with those of America?s first popular landscapes artist, Thomas Cole, (who built a career painting the Catskill Mountain scenery 〔bording the Hudson River〔)).

句型结构: S + Vt + prep + n1 (介词短语)+ n2, Vt的宾语实际上是n2.

例8: With the turn-of-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional sources of inspiration(独立主格), such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium(主语).

例9: Accustomed though we are to(倒装) speaking of the films made before 1927 as …slient?, the film has never been seen, in the full sense of the word, silent.

句型结构: adj + though + S + be + prep + n = though + S +be + adj + prep + n, 仅发生在让步状语从句中.

例10: Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem(同位语), to the health of the Earth and human well-being(主语).

句型结构: the importance of A to B = A 对B 的重要性

例11: Matching the influx of foreign immigrants into the larger cities of the United States during the late nineteenth century was a domestic migration(主语), from town and farm to city, within the United States.

例12: Indeed, had it not been for the superb preservation of these fossils(虚拟条件句if it had not been) , they might well have been classified as dinosaurs.

(4) 强调句的阅读方法

构成:It + be + 强调成分+that/ who+ 其他成分

注意:把强调结构去掉句子仍然完整\正确的就是强调句.

强调句不强调形容词和代词.

例1: It was just a decade before this (强调句)that many drug companies had found their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins and literature extolling the virtue of supplementation for a vatiety of health-related conditions.

例2: It was she, a Baltimore printer, (强调句)who published the first office copies of the Declaraton, the first copie (that included the names of its singers and therefore heralded the support of all thirteen colonies).

例3: It was in the cities(强调句)that the elements (that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared-----the use of money and commercial paper in

place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy, with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools).

2. 泛读----快速阅读与有效阅读

(1) 阅读中的详略结合-----SKIMMING

1) 需要详细阅读的内容

结构主体的内容

非举例性质的概括描述

题目映射回原文的内容

2) 可以快速浏览的内容

大量的数据堆砌

明显的举例: 为何而举,举例主体,结束位置

对比\类比读一半

让步\转折读一半(转折以后的那一半)

(2) 理解单位扩大和阅读中逻辑的构建----模糊理解理论

1) 阅读中的恶习----指读\声读\回读\视角高度过低\

二次阅读

2) 理解单位和阅读逻辑

加大理解单位,变单词为意群组合----焦点训练法

?可以合并为意群的成分:

?副词

?介词短语

?分词短语

?非谓语的不定式

?主语和谓语或谓语和宾语

?固定搭配

例: Generally, in order to be preserved in the fossil record, organisms must process hard body parts such as shells or bones. Soft, fleshy structures are quickly destroyed by predators or decayed by bacteria. Even hard parts left on the surface for certain length of time will be destroyed. Therefore, organisms must be buried rapidly to escape destruction by elements and to be protected against agents of weathering and erosion. Marine organisms thus are better candidates for fossilization than those living on the land because the ocean is

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

. 1. (1) 词汇题简介和提问方式: 参见OG 第25页 (2) 词汇题的解答方法

认识:直接解题,沾边就对。

不认识: 推断: 从词的本身

上下文:因果\对比\解释\定义\同位 代入验证

不认识的不要乱猜

2. 指代题(Reference Question)

(1) 指代题简介和提问方式: 参见OG 第26~27页 (2) 指代题的解答方法 代词

a. 从句的主语指代主语的主宾语(使用属性判断,不用含义)

b. 关系代词指代先行词(插入结构不影响指代关系)

c. 重复概念指代: Tom and his cat(就近原则)

d. some of others

some + n + of + n, others 指名词 some + v, some others 共指之前概念 名词:

a. 优先选择题干的上下意词 a is a kind of A, A 是a 的上意词

b. 若上下意词不唯一则当作代词指代处理 注意:

a.被指代对象往往在代词之前出现

b. 从句开头往后找答案

c. 代词和被指代对象的数性和性质必须一致

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

3. 事实信息题( Factual Information Question)

(1) 事实题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第20页

(2) 事实题的正确选项特征: 原文重现和同义改写

(3) 细节类题目的干扰方式

1) 信息滞留点

信息滞留点的概念

信息滞留点的表现形式

a. A在原文的出现, B在原文中不出现.,A + B在选项中出现.

b. A\B均在原文中出现, A + B在选项中出现.

c. A+ B在原文中出现. A或B在选项中出现.

2) 干扰选项特征

虚假比较: 如果选项中出现了比较级\最高级\绝对化描述或范围的扩张, 则该选项优先不为正确选项,在除非在原文存在比较的一一对应.

答非所问: 确保所选答案和题干构成因果关系,否则符合原文也不对。

无中生有:出现了文中没有的信息

(4)事实信息题的解题步骤

1)根据题目中的关键词进行定位(笔记→原文)

关键词:能够缩小搜索范围的词(段落号\时间和数字\人名\地名\专有名词\名词动词词组\条件词因果词)

Scanning: 在原文中寻找某特定概念

寻找关键词及其同反义词和上下义词

寻找关键词及其相关概念的第一次出现位置

2)根据所读内容形成答案初步判断

3)验证选项,选择与答案内涵一致的选项

4)若无匹配选项则检查读题\定位\理解准确性.

注意:

?验证选项中的概念和最大的概念组合是否在文章中出现.

?确保所选答案和题干构成因果关系

?不要由于个别生词难词而被吸引眼球

4. 否定事实信息题(Negative Information Question)

(1) 否定事实题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第21页

(2) 局部否定事实题目的特点及解答

特点

a. 对应原文某一处描述, 通常是举例

b. 对应原文两处或两处以上描述, 并且通常是分散举例或排比(未被选择的选项应和原文构成一一对应.

解答原则

a. 优先利用笔记进行判断排除

b. 充分利用已做题目进行判断排除

c. 根据选项中的关键词进行定位排除

d. 直选和排除结合

e. 尽量最后再做

5. 推断题(Inference Question)

(1) 推断题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第23页

(2) 推断题的特点和解答

正确答案不在原文中直接出现

推理的逻辑”

?因果:

?对比: 时间对比; 直接对比; 比例对比(在总量构成不变的情况下此消彼

涨)

推理错误: 附加条件(收敛线性推理)

6. 修辞目的题( Rhetorical Purpose Question)

(1) 修辞目的题见解和提问方式: 参见OG第24页

(2) 修辞目的题的分类和解答

段落关系

a. 顺承: 无明显的标志词

b. 转折: 有表示对比转折关系的关联词

c. 支持: 有表示举例的关联词

作者意图: 对应原文如果有表示举例的关联词,则答案在当前句之前出现,否则答案在当前句中出现; 如果找不到概括性描述.则想段落中心或全文中心

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

7. 句子简化题(Sentence Simplification Question)

(1) 句子简化题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第28页

(2) 句子简化的两个层面: 语义和逻辑

(3) 常见的逻辑关系转换----四大“明显”/ “隐含”关系

(4)句子简化题解题步骤

1)寻找给定句子中的逻辑关系:因果\比较\最高级\否定.

2)确定与逻辑相关的语义:原因和结果,作用对象,最简化原则

3)验证选项,选择与题干逻辑和相关语义均一致的选项,先验证逻辑(由主到次)再验证逻辑.

否定

?明显否定关系的特色词汇: no, not, none, never, neither, deny

?隐含否定关系的特色词汇: fail to, absent from, lack, lack of, refuse, few,

little, 否定词缀less.

因果

?明显因果关系的特色词汇: because, because of, since, for, as, due to,

owing to, in that, so, so that, as a result, therefore, there by, hence,

consequently, accordingly.

?隐含因果关系的特色词汇:

a. 表示导致含义: lead to, cause, result, result in, give rise to, render,

produce, make, 使役动词, support, support, stimulate, spur, spark, fuel, motivate, prompt.

b. 由……而来: come from, result from, originate, derive from, initiate from,

stem from, be attibutable to, be responsive to.

c. 反映,体现: reflect, present, suggest, show, imply, demonstrate.

d. 考虑到…, 依赖…: give, considering, on account of, in view of, thanks to,

according to, rely on, depend on, resort to.

e. 条件关系: if, when, while, as, as soon as, as long as, 虚拟条件句.

f. 粉刺短语\不定式\独立主格作状语

比较

?明显比较关系的特色词汇: 同级比较\比较级

?隐含比较关系的特色词汇:

a. “变化”: change, vary, alter, modify, revise, increase, decrease, crect, destroy, develop, improve, progress, advance, grow, degenerate, continue, remain, stay, stable, still.

b. “差异”: same, different.

c. “超越”: surpass, exceed, transcend, excel.

最高级\绝对化

?明显最高级/绝对化关系的特色词汇: -est/ 比较级

?隐含最高级\绝对化关系的特色词汇:

a. 自身含有最高级含义: maximum, minimum, outstanding, extreme.

b. 否定加比较: nothing can better than that

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

8. 句子插入题(Insert Text Question)

(1) 句子插入题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第29~30页.

(2) 句子插入过程的逻辑链

1) 明确逻辑链: 连接关系体现(OG)

2) 语义场连接: 重复信息和指代关系.

IBT阅读讲义

9.文章小结题(Prose Summary Question)

(1) 文章小结题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第32页

(2) 文章小结题解答

a. 优先考虑笔记中结构主体的内容

b. 充分利用已经完成的题目信息

c. 根据选项中关键词进行定位判断

d. 所选答案应在原文中找出明确依据

e. 直选和排除相结合

10. 完成表格题(Fiil in The Table Question)

(1) 完成表格题简介和提问方式: 参见OG第35页

(2) 完成表格题的解答

a. 优先考虑笔记中的分类信息

b. 其次考虑笔记中的结构主体

c. 充分利用已完成的题目信息

d. 根据选项中的关键词进行定位判断

e. 直选和排除结合

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

IBT阅读讲义

托福核心词汇

思考类动词总结

Think/assume/conceive/conclude/expect/

determine/hold/judge/presume/reckon/see/

sense/suppose/comprehend/consider/deduce

infer/deliberate/evaluate/examine/meditate/

mull/mull over/muse/ponder/rationalize/

reason/reflect/resolve/ruminate/speculate/

study/turn over/weigh/contemplate/convey

思考类名词总结(观点/概念/理论)

Notion/idea/view/concept/perception

perspective/observation/examination

witness/judgment/approach/hypothesis

impression/supposition/theory/thought

apprehension/comprehension/realization

consideration/interpretation/understanding

speculation/version/picture/inclination/ideology

支持类单词总结

Support/maintain/insist/hold/uphold/agree/

accede/admit/consent/assent/verify/revel in/

glory in/believe in/dictate/celebrate/value

反对类单词总结

Contradict/decline/disagree/dispute/dissent/

oppose/protest/refuse/abandon/neglect/

disapprove/condemn

核心的;主要的;基本的;内在的

essential/chief/crucial/core

fundamental/main/key/inborn

principal/elementary/primary

indispensable/central/vital

underlying/inherent/intrinsic/inborn

重要的;显著的

important/valuable/substantial/big/considerable/

critical/crucial/decisive/earnest/exceptional/marked meaningful/momentous/paramount/salient/significant/weighty eminent/influential/outstanding/distinctive/esteemed/grand honored/illustrious/leading/majestic/notable/powerful prominent/remarkable/solid/superior/conspicuous

限制/阻挠

limit/confine/compress/decrease/lessen narrow/bar/bind/cap/check/constraint/curb impede/inhibit/obstruct/restrict/cramp diminish/block/choke/frustrate/hamper hinder/retard/stall/throttle/thwart

退步

decline/halt/repress/recession/cease/fall

减少

decrease/abate/curb/curtail/drop/ebb evaporate/fade/lower/reduce/restrain/shrink slacken/slump/subside/wane/diminish/subtract

增加/发展

increase/develop/enlarge/expand/grow/raise advance/aggrandize/amplify/augment/boost/ broaden/enhance/enlarge/escalate/extend further/heighten/inflate/magnify/mount progress/proliferate/spread/swell/widen

发展/进步/加强/丰富/增加

develop/advance/evolve/expand/flourish foster/grow/maturate/mature/promote/ripen thrive/amplify/augment/broaden/cultivate deepen/enlarge/enrich/extend/intensify magnify/perfect/refine/spread/strengthen enhance/stretch/widen/hike/aid/assist/

boost/boom/blossom/expedi(a)te

开始/产生

begin/start/commence/originate/initiate generate/form/unfold/arise/create/kindle ignite

消灭/消失/消散

extinguish/abolish/annihilate/crush/destroy eliminate/eradicate/erase/extirpate/obliterate quell/remove/stamp out/suppress/repress quench/smother/stifle/suffocate/trample disappear/depart/disperse/dissipate/dissolve ebb/end/evaporate/expire/fade/fade away/flee

recede/retire/retreat/sink/wane/withdraw

废除/取消/抵消/使无效

abolish/eliminate/annul/nullify/annihilate

cancel/dissolve/invalidate/negate/neutralize

obliterate/revoke/retract/delete/erase/efface counteract/offset/act against

改变

change/alter/vary/modify

adapt/adjust/convert/evolve/diverge/lower

diversify/diminish/fluctuate/merge/reform

reduce/regenerate/remake/renovate/resolve revolutionize/shape/shift/substitute/temper

transform/turn/vacillate/revise/customize

不改变

continue/hold/keep/persist/remain/stay/sustain maintain/retain/reserve/preserve/conserve/fix

保__

留 preserve

守 conserve

存 reserve

持 keep/retain/maintain/sustain

uphold/perpetuate/persevere

persist

怀疑(的)

suspicous/doubtable/dubious/rule out

with hold/skeptical

确认/验证/证明/论证

corroborate/approve/authenticate/certify

confirm/endorse/justify/prove/ratify

substantiate/support/validate/verify

affirm/ascertain/attest/determine/manifest

settle/tesify/uphold/warrant

处理/管理/命令/控制/支配

cope with/handle/administer/demand/command/conduct dominate/employ/exercise/govern/manipulate supervise/utilize/wield/dispose (of)/array

大量的

copious/ample/bountiful/extensive/full/generous lavish/liberal/lush/overflowing/plentiful/profuse prolix/replete/rich/abundant/capacious/substantial sufficient

少的/缺乏的

lacking/meager/scarce/insufficient

转折词

副词:alternatively/conversely/nevertheless however/instead/still

连词:but/while/whereas/and/nevertheless

介词:despite/in spite of

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