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2016年中考英语复习资料总汇-人教版

2016年中考英语复习资料总汇

(1)名词考点集汇,讲解和训练

一、名词

【考点直击】

1.可数名词和不可数名词的用法;

2.名词所有格的构成及用法;

3.近义名词的辨析。

【名师点睛】

一、名词的数

1.单数和复数

可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。复数形式通常是在单数形式后加词尾―-s‖构成,其主要变法如下:

(1)一般情况在词尾加-s,例如:book→books,girl→girls,boy→boys,pen→pens,doctor→doctors, boy→boys。

(2)以s,x,ch,sh,结尾的词加-es,例如:bus→buses,class→classes,box→boxes,watch→watches,brush→brushes。

(3)以ce, se, ze,(d)ge结尾的名词加s,例如:orange—oranges。

(4)以辅音母加y结尾的词变―y‖为―i‖再加-es,例如:city→cities, factory→factories, country→countries, family→families。但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如:b oy→boys, day→days。

(5)以o结尾的词多数都加-es。例如:hero→heroes,potato→potatoes,tomato→tomatoes,但词末为两个元音字母的词只加-s。例如:zoo→zoos,radio→radios,还有某些外来词也只加-s,例如:photo→photos,piano→pianos。

(6)以f或fe结尾的词,多数变f为v再加-es,例如:knife→knives,leaf→leaves, half→halves。

复数词尾s(或es)的读音方法如下表所示。

复数词尾s(或es)的读音方法

2016年中考英语复习资料总汇-人教版

(7)少数名词有不规则的复数形式,例如:man→men,woman→women,tooth→teeth,foot→feet,child→children,mouse→mice。

【注意】与man和woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men和-women。例如:an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;man, woman等作定语时,它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定,如:men workers,women teachers。

有个别名词单复数一样,例如:Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish等。但当fish表示不同种类的鱼时,可以加复数词尾。

(8)单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people, police等。

(9)数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式,中间加连字符。例如:ten-minutes‘ walk, an 8-year-old girl, a ten-mile walk。

(10)还有些名词仅有复数形式,如:trousers,clothes,chopsticks,glasses,goods,ashes,scissors,compasses。

(11)只用作单数的复数形式的名词有:

科学名词:physics, mathematics/maths

游戏名称:bowls

专有名词:the United States, Niagara Falls

其他名词:news, falls

2.不可数名词―量‖的表示方法

在英语中,不可数名词如果要表示―量‖的概念,可以用以下两种方法:(1)用much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any等表示多少,例如:

The rich man has a lot of money.

There is some milk in the bottle.

Is there any water in the glass?

I don't like winter because there's too much snow and ice.

(2)用a piece of 这类定语,例如:

a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread

a bottle of orange a glass of water(milk) a cup of tea

a cup of tea a bag of rice three bags of rice

如果要表示―两杯茶‖、―四张纸‖这类概念时,在容器后加复数,例如:

two cups of tea

four pieces of paper

three glasses of water

不可数名词也可用a lot of, lots of, some, any, much等来修饰。

二、名词的所有格

名词所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。

1. 表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's,其复数形式是s',例如:a student's room, students' rooms, father's shoes。

2. 如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's,如:Children's Day。

3. 在表示时间、距离、长度、重量、价格、世界、国家等名词的所有格要用's,例如:a twenty minutes' walk,ten miles' journey,a boat's length,two pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth。

4. 无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构,例如:a map of China,the end of this term,the capital of our country, the color of the flowers。

5. 双重所有格,例如:a friend of my father's。

【注意】

如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示―分别有‖,例如:John's and Mary's rooms(约翰和玛丽各有一间,共两间);Tom's and Mary's bikes(两人各自的自行车)。

两个名词并列,只有一个's,则表示―共有‖,例如:John and Mary's room(约翰和玛丽共有一间);Tom and Mary's mother(即Tom与Mary是兄妹)。

【实例解析】

1.(2004年上海徐汇区中考试题)

These _________ have saved many children‘s lives.

A. woman doctors

B. women doctor

C. women doctors

D. woman doctor

答案:C。该题考查的是名词作定语时的变化。woman 作定语时要和被修饰的名词保持数的一致。

2. (2004年河北省中考试题)

This is _________ bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much.

A. Anne and Jane

B. Anne‘s and Jane‘s

C. Anne‘s and Jane

D. Anne and Jane‘s

答案:D。该题考查的是并列名词的所有格。两人共有一个房间时,只在后面的名词后加‘s。

3. (2004年吉林省中考试题)

---Are there any ________ on the farm?

---Yes, there are some.

A. horse

B. duck

C. chicken

D. sheep

答案:D。该题考查的是特殊名词的复数形式。从谓语动词来判断,主语应该是复数名词。只有sheep可用作复数名词。

4. (2004年佛山市中考试题)

---What would you like to drink, ________ or orange?

---Orange, please.

A. hamburger

B. chip

C. tea

答案:C。该题考查的是名词的类别。三种东西中只有tea能喝。

【中考演练】

一. 单项填空

1.--- Where have you been, Tim?

--- I‘ve been to ______.

A. the Henry house

B. the Henry family

C. The Henry‘s home

D. Henry‘s

2.In England, if ____ is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper.

A. food

B. lunch

C. breakfast

D. dinner

3.You looked for it twice, but you have n‘t found it. Why not try ____ .

A. three times

B. a third time

C. the third time

D. once

4.--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ?

--- Certainly.

A. some bottles of waters

B. some bottles of water

C. some bottle of water

D. some bottle of waters

5.Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday.

A. tooth

B. feet

C. hand

D. ear

6.There is some _______ on the plate.

A. cakes

B. meat

C. potato

D. pears

7.In England, the last name is the _______ .

A. family name

B. middle

C. given name

D. full name

8.The are going to fly _______ to Beijing.

A. Germen

B. Germany

C. Germanys

D. Germans

9.The______ has two _______ .

A. boys; watches

B. boy; watch

C. boy; watches

D. boys; watch

10.The little baby has two _______ already.

A. tooth

B. tooths

C. teeth

D. teeths

11.What‘s your _______ for being late again?

A. idea

B. key

C. excuse

D. news

12.--- It‘s dangerous here. We‘d better go out quickly.

--- But I think we should let _______ go out first.

A. woman and children

B. women and child

C. woman and child

D. women and children

13.--- You can see Mr. Smith if there is a sign ―_______ ‖on the door of his shop.

--- Thanks.

A.ENTRANCE

B.BUSINESS HOURS

C.THIS SIDE UP

D.NO SMOKING

14.Are they going to have a picnic on _______ ?

A. Children‘s Day

B. Childrens‘s Day

C. Childrens Day

D. Children Day

15.Where are the students? Are they in _______ ?

A. the Room 406

B. Room 406

C. the 406 Room

D. 406 Room

二. 根据下列句子的情景及所给汉语注释,写出所缺单词。

1. We‘ve got a lot of new ________(杂志) in our school library.

2. Please turn to another _______(频道), I don‘t like this show.

3. Yesterday the _________(航班) to London was put off because of the bad weather. .

4. Autumn is my favourite (季节)

5. ---How many _______(小刀) do you have?

---Three.

6. __________ are widely used in the modern world.

7. June 1st is __________(儿童) Day.

8. Mary, would you please tell me your new ________(地址) so that I can write to you.

9. ---Does this piece of ______(音乐) sound nice?

---Yes. It‘s wonderful!

10. May 12th is the International _______(护士) Day. Let‘s say ― Thanks‖ to them for their work.

三. 根据句意和所给首字母写出所缺的单词。

1. ―What‘s your n_______?‖

―Li Lei.‖

2. How many d_______ does your uncle have?

3. Please close the w______. It‘s cold outside.

4. If you want study English well, you must pay attention to your p________.

5. A computer is one of the greatest i_________ in the world.

6. Zhang Hui is very excited. He will go to Japan with his p_______ during the Spring Festival.

7. At the a______ of seven, the lonely girl had to work to make living.

8. It‘s only about an h_____ flight from Qingdao to Beijing by air.

9. Health is more important to me than m_______.

10. Be careful! It‘s d__________ to run across the street now.

【练习答案】

一.1.D 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.C 11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.B

二.1.magazines 2.Channel 3. flight 4.season 5. knives 6. Computers 7. Children‘s 8. address

9. music 10. Nurses‘

三.1.name 2.daughters 3. window 4. pronunciation 5. inventions 6.parents 7. age 8. hour‘s 9.

money 10. dangerous

(2)形容词、副词考点集汇,讲解和训练

二、形容词和副词

【考点直击】

1. 形容词的用法;

2. 副词的用法;

3. 形容词和副词原级、比较级、最高级的用法;

4. 形容词和副词在句中的区别和位置。

【名师点睛】

1. 形容词的用法

(1) 形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 宾语补足语。例如:

Our country is a beautiful country. (作定语)

The fish went bad. (作表语)

We keep our classroom clean and tidy. (作宾语补足语)

(2) 形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,形容词放在名词后面。

I have something important to tell you.

Is there anything interesting in the film.

(3) 用and 或or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一

步解释的作用。

Everybody, man and woman, old and young, should attend the meeting.

You can take any box away, big or small.

(4) the+形容词表示一类人或物

The rich should help the poor.

2. 副词的用法

(1) 副词在句中可作状语,表语和定语。

He studies very hard. (作状语)

Life here is full of joy. (作定语)

When will you be back? (作表语)

副词按其用途和含义可分为下面五类:

1)时间副词

时间副词通常用来表示动作的时间。常见的时间副词有:now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always等。例如:

He often comes to school late.

What are we going to do tomorrow?

He is never been to Beijing.

2)地点副词

地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有:here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out等。例如:

I met an old friend of mine on my way home.

He went upstairs.

Put down your name here.

3)方式副词

方式副词一般都是回答―怎样的?‖这类问题的,其中绝大部分都是由一个形容词加词尾-ly构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。常见的方式副词有:

anxiously, badly, bravely, calmly, carefully, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide等。例如:

The old man walked home slowly.

Please listen to the teacher carefully.

The birds are flying high.

He runs very fast.

4)程度副词

程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词,有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。常见的程度副词有:much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, pretty, greatly, completely,

nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly等。例如:

Her pronunciation is very good.

She sings quite well.

I can hardly agree with you.

5)疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有:how, when, where, why等。

例如:

How are you getting along with your studies?

Where were you yesterday?

Why did you do that?

(2)副词在句中的位置

1)多数副词作状语时放在动词之后。如果动词带有宾语,则放在宾语之后。例如:

Mr Smith works very hard.

She speaks English well.

2)频度副词作状语时,通常放在行为动词之前,情态动词,助动词和be动词之后。例如:

He usually gets up early.

I‘ve never heard him singing.

She is seldom ill.

3)程度副词一般放在所修饰的形容词和副词的前面, 但enough作副词用时,通常放在被修

饰词的后面。例如:

It is a rather difficult job.

He runs very fast.

He didn‘t work hard enough.

4)副词作定语时,一般放在被修饰的名词之后。例如:

On my way home, I met my uncle.

The students there have a lot time to do their own research work.

(3)部分常用副词的用法

1) very, much

这两个副词都可表示―很‖,但用法不同。Very用来修饰形容词和副词的原级,而much用来修饰形容词和副词的比较级。例如:

She is a very nice girl

I‘m feeling much better now.

Much可以修饰动词,而very则不能。例如:

I don‘t like the idea much.

They did not talk much.

2) too, either

这两个副词都表示―也‖,但too用于肯定句,either用于否定句。例如:She can dance, and I can dance, too.

I haven‘t read the book and my brother hasn‘t either.

3) already, yet

already一般用于语肯定句,yet一般用于否定句。例如:

He has already left.

Have you heard from him yet?

He hasn‘t answered yet.

4) so, neither

so和neither都可用于倒装句,但so表示肯定,neither表示否定。

例如:

My brother likes football and so do I.

My brother doesn‘t like dancing and neither do I.

3. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

(1) 两个人或事物的比较时(不一定每一方只有一个人或一个事物),用比较

级。

Our teacher is taller than we are.

The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class.

(2) most 同形容词连用而不用the,表示"极,很,非常, 十分"。

It's most dangerous to be here.

在这儿太危险。

(3) "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..."表示" 越... 就越..."。

The more you study, the more you know.

(4) " 形容词比较级+ and + 形容词比较级", 表示" 越来越... "。

It's getting hotter and hotter.

(5) 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。

This box is as big as mine.

(6) the + 形容词表示某种人。

He always helps the poor.

(7) 形容词和副词最高级用于三个或三个以上的人和物进行比较。

Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China.

【实例解析】

1. (2004年北京市中考试题)

---Which is ________, the sun, the moon or the earth?

---Of course the moon is.

A. small

B. smaller

C. smallest

D. the smallest

答案:D。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级的用法。因为是

太阳,地球和月亮三者进行比较,选用形容词的最高级,而且最高级之前要加定冠词the。所以选D。

2. (2004年上海徐汇区中考试题)

He has made _______ progress this term than before.

A. little

B. less

C. fewer

D. much

答案B。该题考查的是形容词比较等级的用法。因为是现在和过去进行比较,所以要用比较级,又因为是修饰不可数名词,只能用less, 而不能用fewer。

3. (2004年江西省中考试题)

---What delicious cakes!

---They would taste _______ with butter.

A. good

B. better

C. bad

D. worse

答案:B。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级。答话人的意思应该是―如果加上点黄油,这些蛋糕会更好吃。‖这里就有一种比较:加黄油和不加黄油。既然是比较,就要用比较级。因为这里讲的是好吃和更好吃,所以C,D要舍去,而选better。

4. (2004年河北省中考试题)

Bob never does his homework ________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

A. so careful as

B. as carefully as

C. carefully as

D. as careful as

答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。因为该词修饰的是动作―做家庭作业‖,所以要用副词。又因为表示一方不如另一方要用句型―not as+副词原级+as‖,所以只能选B。【中考演练】

一. 单项填空

1.There are many young trees on sides of the road.

A. every

B. each

C. both

D. all

2.--- It‘s so cold today.

--- Yes, it‘s than it was yesterday.

A. more cold

B. more colder

C. much colder

D. cold

3.Little Tom has friends, so he often plays alone.

A. more

B. a little

C. many

D. few

4.She isn‘t so at maths as you are.

A. well

B. good

C. better

D. best

5.Peter writes of the three.

A. better

B. best

C. good

D. well

6.He is enough to carry the heavy box.

A. stronger

B. much stronger

C. strong

D. the strongest

7.I bought exercise-books with money.

A. a few; a few

B. a few; a little

C. a little; a few

D. a little; a little

8.The box is heavy for the girl carry.

A. too; to

B. to; too

C. so; that

D. no; to

9.The ice in the lake is about one meter . It‘s strong enough to skate on.

A. long

B. high

C. thick

D. wide

10.Wu Lin ran faster than the other boys in the sports meeting.

A. so

B. much

C. very

D. too

11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an ―A‖ in her maths test.

A. happy

B. happily

C. angry

D. angrily

12. The smile on my father‘s face showed that he was ______ with me.

A. sad

B. pleased

C. angry

D. sorry

13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this?

---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this.

A. a better; better than

B. a worse; as good as

C. a cheaper; as good as

D. a more important; good as

14. ---This digital camera is really cheap!

---The ______ the better. I‘m short of money, you see.

A. cheap

B. cheaper

C. expensive

D. more expensive

15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible.

A. often

B. long

C. hard

D. soon

16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.

A. many

B. some

C. few

D. more

17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a m an‘s first name.

A. never

B. usually

C. often

D. sometimes

18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May.

---Right. The government spoke ______ that.

A. highly for

B. high of

C. well of

D. highly of

19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make.

---We know, Miss Gao.

A. The more; the more

B. The fewer; the more

C. The more; the fewer

D. The less; the less

20. I have ________ to do today.

A. anything important

B. something important

C. important nothing

D. important something

二. 用所给单词的适当形式填空

1. My purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. __________ (Fortunate), there was no money in it.

2. Mobile phones are _________ (wide) used in most of the cities in China.

3. He put on his coat and went out ________ (quick).

4. She is ______ (good) than Li Ping at swimming.

5. A lot Chinese people are _______ (pride) of Yao Ming, a famous basketball star in NBA.

6. To our surprise, he suddenly returned on a cold ______ (snow) night.

7. Allie asked me ______ (polite) to put the things away.

8. It‘s snowing hard. You must drive ________(careful).

9. The earth we live on is _______ (big) than the moon.

10. Hainan is a very large island. It‘s the second ________ (large) island in China.

三. 用适当的形容词或副词填空(首字母已给出)

1. A large number of mouths must be fed in those less d________ countries.

2. That evening Beethoven played the music for the girl as well as u______.

3. Hawaii is f_______ its beautiful beaches.

4. He often takes an a______ part in the sports meeting and he can get very good results each time.

5. The performance was so w_______ that everyone gave a long and loud applause(鼓掌).

6. Jiefang Road is the b_____ street in our city.

7. She lay a______ for hours thinking over her business.

8. I like ball games very much, but my f_______ sport is playing basketball.

9. The boy is too l______ . He doesn‘t want to do anything.

10. The dictionary is very u________ . It will help you a lot.

【练习答案】

一. 1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.A 18.D

19.C 20.B

二. 1. Fortunately 2. widely 3.quickly 4. better 5. proud 6. snowy 7. politely 8. carefully 9. bigger 10.

largest

三. 1. developed 2. usual 3. famous 4. active 5. wonderful 6. busiest 7. awake 8. favourite 9. lazy 10.

useful

(3)动词考点集汇、讲解和训练

三、动词

【考点直击】

1.动词的八种时态的构成及用法;

2.动词被动语态的构成及用法;

3.非谓语动词的构成及用法;

4.近义动词的用法区别。

【名师点睛】

1.动词的时态

英语时态用共有十六种时态,其中常用的有8种,它们是:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在进行时、现在完成时、过去进行时、过去完成时和过去将来时。

(1)一般现在时的基本用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。

时间状语:every…, sometimes,at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.

Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall.

【注意】此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.

5) 某些动词如come, go, move, stop, leave, arrive, be, finish, continue, start 等,在一般现在时

句中可用来表示将来肯定会发生的动作。

The train comes at 3 o'clock.

6) 在时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,一般现在时代替一般将来时。

I'll help you as soon as you have problem.

Tell Xiao Li about it if you meet him.

(2)一般过去时的用法:

表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况,通常一般过去式带有表示动作时间状语的词,词组或从句,如yesterday, the day before last, last week, two days ago 等,上下文清楚时可以不带时间状语。

I worked in that factory last year.

【注意】

1) 过去经常反复发生的动作,也可用used to或would加动词原形来表达,例如:

I used to go fishing on Sundays.

2) “used to”也可用于表示过去曾经存在过的状态。例如:

This river used to be clean.

(3)一般将来时的用法

1)表示将来的动作或状态。例如:

I shall attend the meeting tomorrow.

2)表示将来反复发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:

He will go to see his mother every Saturdays.

3)表示将来的意愿,决心,许诺,命令等时常用will,征求对方意见,主语是第一人称时,常用shall。

I will do my best to catch up with them.

Shall I open the door?

4)be + going + 动词不定式。也是一种将来时句型,表示打算,计划,最近

或将来要作的某事。

I am going to Beijing next week.

5)be + 动词不定式。表示有职责,义务,可能,约定,意图等。

There is to be a meeting this afternoon.

We are to meet the guests at the station.

6)be about + 动词不定式,表示马上,很快作某事。

They are about to leave.

(4)现在进行时的用法

1) 现在进行时的用法表示说话者说话时正在发生或者进行的动作,它注重

现在正在进行的动作,而不管动作从什么时间开始,到什么时间结束。

What are you doing now?

I am looking for my key.

2) 现在进行时表示目前一段时间内正在进行的动作(但说话时这个动作不一定在进行)。

The students are preparing for the examination.

3) 某些动词的现在进行时可以表示即将发生的动作,这些动词有arrive, come, leave, start等。

They are going to Hong Kong tomorrow.

【注意】有些动词一般不可以用于进行时态

①表示状态的动词,尤其是静态动词,如:be, have

②表示认识、知觉和情感的动词,如:know, think, hear, find, see, like, want, wish, prefer

等。

(5)现在完成时的用法

1) 现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。

I have bought a ten-speed bicycle.

They have cleaned the classroom.

2) 现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动作或状态。现

在完成时常与for 和since 引导的短语或从句连用。

We have lived here since 1976.

They have waited for more than two hours.

【注意】

一般过去时与现在完成时的区别

过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响;一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用。

试比较:

I saw this film yesterday.(强调看的动作发生过了,不涉及现在)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了。)

(6)过去进行时的用法

表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。例如:

I was watching TV when she came to see me.

【注意】

过去进行时和一般过去时都是过去发生的事情,但过去进行时侧重表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或所处的状态,强调动作的连续进行,而一般过去时则表示单纯的过去事实,例如:They were building a house last month. (上个月正在建造,建造好与否不知)

They built a new house last month. (上个月建造好了,动作已经完成)

(7)过去完成时的用法

过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态,过去完成时常和by , before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。

We had already learned two thousands words by the end of last year.

When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than twenty minutes.

(8)过去将来时的用法

过去将来时表示从过去某个时间看将要发生的动作或存在地状态,过去将来时较多地被运用在宾语从句中。例如:

They were going to have a meeting.

I told him that I would see him off at the station.

2.动词的语态

语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。

主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。

(1)被动语态

1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是:be +及物动词过去分词

2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词

因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of,

work out, laugh at等,也可用于被动语态。

The children were taken good care of by her.

【注意】

短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。

3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加“to”的情况

若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词,如:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch

等。例如:

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

4) 主动形式表示被动意义

如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等动词虽然用做主动形式却

表示被动的意义。例如:

The food tastes good.

3.非谓语动词

对非谓语动词的考点是:感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词ing形式作宾语补足语的用法;一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变为被动语态时就要带to;有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词ing形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。这些都是历年中考的重点。(1)非谓语动词的形式

非谓语动词指的是在句中起名词,形容词或副词作用的动词形式,而不是作谓语的动词形式。动词的非谓语形式分为动名词,分词,动词不定式。

(2)不定式作宾语补足语

Father will not allow us to play on the street.

(3)不定式作目的状语

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.

(4)用不定式和分词作补足语都可以的动词

这样的动词有感官动词如:see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel等,使役动词如:have, make, leave, keep, get等。接不定式表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性。

I saw him work in the garden yesterday.

昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)

I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)

昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

(5)用不带to不定式的情况

使役动词如:let, have, make等和感官动词如:see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。在被动语态中则to不能省掉。

(6)接动名词与不定式意义不同

1) stop to do停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。

stop doing停止做某事。

2) forget to do忘记要去做某事。(未做)

forget doing忘记做过某事。(已做)

3) remember to do 记得去做某事(未做)

remember doing记得做过某事(已做)

4) try to do努力,企图做某事。

try doing试验,试着做某事。

5) go on to do做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。

go on doing继续做原来做的事。

6) mean to do打算、想

mean doing意味着

4. 容易混淆的常用动词的辨析

(1) say, speak, talk, tell的用法。

1) say表示讲话,作为及物动词使用,后跟宾语或宾语从句。

He said he would go there.

It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you.

2)speak表示“讲话”,一般作为不及物动词使用,而有时作为及物动词后面跟上各种语

言作为宾语。

Do you speak English?

May I speak to Mr Pope, please?

3) talk表示“谈话”,是不及物动词,与to , about, with等连用,才可以接宾语。

What are you talking about?

Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now.

4) tell 表示“告诉,讲述”是及物动词,可以带双宾语或复合宾语。

She told us an interesting story yesterday.

My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month.

(2) look, see, watch和watch的用法。

1) look强调“看”这个动作,是不及物动词,常与at连用,然后接宾语。

Look! The girl is swimming in the lake.

Look at the picture carefully. Can you find something unusual?

2) see 指“看见”某物,强调的是结果。

They can't see the words on the blackboard.

Does Lily often go to see a film on Sunday?

3) watch 指的是“观看”,“注视”之意。

The twins are watching TV now.

He will go to watch a volleyball match.

4)read指“看书”、“看报”、“阅读”之意。

Don't read in the sun.

I like to read newspapers when I am free.

(3) borrow, lend和keep的区别。

1) borrow意思为“借入”,常常与from连用,是非延续性动词,表示瞬间即能完成的动

作。

Meimei borrowed a book from the library just now.

May I borrow your dictionary?

2) lend 是“借出”之意,常常与to连用,同borrow一样,是非延续性动词,只表示瞬

间即能完成的动作。

Uncle Wany has lent his car to Mr Li.

Could you lend us your radio, please?

3) keep是“保存”的意思,动作可以延续。

How long can the recorder be kept?

The farmer kept the pat for two weeks.

(4) bring, take, carry 和get的用法。

1) bring意思为“拿来”、“带来”。指将某物或某人从别处“带来”。

Bring me the book, please.

May I bring Jim to see you next Saturday?

2) take意思是“拿走”,“带走”,把某物或某人从这里“带来”或“拿到”某处之意。

It looks like rain. Take a raincoat with you.

Mother took the little girl to the next room.

3) carry 是“带着、搬运、携带”的意思,指随身携带,有背着、扛着、抱着、提着的含

义,不表明来去的方向。

Do you always carry a handbag?

The box is heavy. Can you carry it?

4) get是去某处将某物拿回来。

Please go to my office to get some chalk.

There is no water in the bottle. Why not get some?

(5) wear, put on和dress的区别

1) wear是“穿着”“戴着”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽子、戴手套、佩戴首

饰等,强调“穿着”的状态。

Tom always wears black shoes.

He wears a raincoat even when it is fine.

She doesn't like to wear a red flowers in her hair.

2) put on是“穿上”“戴上”的意思,可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽等。着重于穿戴的动

作。

It's cold. You'd better put on your coat.

He put on his hat and went out of the room.

3) dress可以作及物动词和不及物动词,有“穿着”“打扮”的意思。作“穿着”解时,

只用于穿衣服,不用于穿鞋、戴帽、戴手套。作为及物动词用时,它的宾语是人,不是衣服。dress sb. (给某人穿衣服),而wear作“穿着”用时,也是及物动词,但它的宾语是物,不是人,即wear sth.(穿着衣物)。

She always dresses well.

Get up and dress quickly.

Mary is dressing her child.

(6) take, spend 和use的用法。

1) take指做某事用多少时间,句型是:It takes/took/ will take + sb. +some time + to do sth.

It took me three days to finish the work.

It will take you a while week to travel thought the forest.

It takes only one hour to fly to Shanghai.

2) spend指某人在某事(物)上花费时间或钱。句型是:

Someone spends + money/time + on something(in) doing sth.

She spent more than 500 yuan on that coat.

He didn't spend much time on his lessons.

He spent much time (in) correcting students' exercises.

Mother spent her evenings (in) washing clothes.

3) use表示使用工具、手段等。

Do you know how to use the computer?

Shall we use your car?

(7)reach, get 和arrive的区别。

1) reach是及物动词,后面要直接跟表示地点的名词作宾语。

After the train had left, they reached the station

We reached the top of the mountain at last.

2) get是不及动词,常与to连用,再接名词,后面接表示地点的副词时,不用to,get to

常用于口语中。

When the students got to the cinema, the film had begun.

My sister was cooking when mother got home.

3) arrive是不及物动词,表示到达一个小地方时,用arrive at, 到达一个大地方时用arrive

in。

The soldiers arrived at a small village

The foreigners will arrive in Shanghai tomorrow.

【实例解析】

1. (2004年北京海淀区中考试题)

I‘m interested in animals, so I ________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital.

A. pay

B. get

C. take

D. spend

答案:D。该题考查的是pay, get, take spend这四个动词的用法区别。在这四个动词中,只有spend常用于―spend …ding sth.‖的句型里,所以选D。

2. (2004年安徽省中考试题)

---Listen Helen is singing in the next room.

---It _________ be Helen. She has gone to Beijing.

A. can‘t

B. mustn‘t

C. may

D. should

答案:A。该题考查的是情态动词的用法。表示否定地推测通常用can‘t。

3. (2004年江西省南昌市中考试题)

---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer.

---Oh, I am sorry I _________ dinner at my friend‘s house.

A. have

B. had

C. was having

D. have had

答案:C。该题考查的是动词的时态。他们谈论的是昨天晚上某一时刻发生的事情,所以用过去进行时。

4. (2004年哈尔滨市中考试题)

---How long have you _______ the moteobike?

---For about two weeks.

A. bought

B. had

C. borrowed

D. lent

答案:B。该题考查的是延续性动词和非延续性动词的用法区别。这四个动词中只有had 是延续性动词,它的现在完成时可以同表示一段时间的时间状语连用。

【中考演练】

一.单项填空

1. Listen! Some of the girls ________ about Harry Potter. Let‘s join them.

A. are talking

B. talk

C. will talk

D. talked

2. Our teacher, Miss Chen, ________English on the radio the day bore yesterday.

A. teaches

B. taught

C. will teach

D. had taught

3. I don‘t think I _________ you in that dress before.

A. have seen

B. was seeing

C. saw

D. see

4. Susan‘s parents have bought a large house with a swimming pool. It _______ be very expensive.

A. must

B. can

C. mustn‘t

D. can‘t

5. Coffee is ready. How nice it ________ ! Would you like some?

A. looks

B. smells

C. sounds

D. feels

6. ― Mr. Zhu, you‘d better _______ too much meat. You are already over weight,‖ said the doctor.

A. not to eat

B. to eat

C. not eat

D. eat

7. ―Don‘t always make Michael ________ this or that. He is already a big boy, dear,‖ Mr. Bush said to his wife.

A. do

B. to do

C. does

D. did

8. Sorry, I can‘t hear you clearly. Will you please ________ your E-mail address? I‘ll

write it down.

A. review

B. recite

C. report

D. repeat

9. Don‘t ________ your coat, Tom! It‘s easy to catch cold in spri ng.

A. take away

B. take off

C. take down

D. take out

10. You _______ go and ask Meimei. She _______ know the answer.

A. must; can

B. must; may

C. need; can

D. can; may

11. I‘m sorry you‘ve missed the train. It ________ 10 minutes ago.

A. left

B. has left

C. had left

D. has been left

12. I bought a new dictionary and it ________ me 30 yuan.

A. paid

B. spent

C. took

D. cost

13. ---Mum, may I go out and play basketball?

---_______ you _______ your homework yet?

A. Do; finish

B. Are; finishing

C. Did; finishing

D. Have; finished

14. I have to go now. Please remember to ________ the lights when you leave.

A. turn off

B. turn down

C. turn up

D. turn on

15. A talk on Chinese history ________ in the school next week.

A. be given

B. has been given

C. will be given

D. will give

16. Look! How heavy the rain is! You‘d better ________.

A. don‘t go now

B. stay here when it stops

C. not leave until it stops

D. not to leave at once

17. You may go fishing if your work ________.

A. is done

B. will be done

C. has done

D. have done

18. Cotton _______ nice and soft.

A. is felt

B. is feeling

C. feel

D. feels

19. ---Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick?

---John _________.

A. cleaned

B. does

C. did

D. is

20. ---Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _______?

---No. She got up too late.

A. had she

B. hadn‘t she

C. did she

D. didn‘t she

二. 阅读短文,并用括号中所给动词的适当形式填空。

A

My name is Wang Bing. I‘m from China. Now I ___1____ (study) at this school. I ____2___ (arrive) here on January 8. Since then, I ____3____ (make) a lot of friends. At school we speak English all the time. Next week, some new students from Africa, Asia and Latin America ____4____ (come) to our school. I‘m very glad to know this because I enjoy ____5____ (meet) people from other countries.

1. study/am studying

2. arrived

3. have made

4. will come

5. meeting

B

Since 1946, one of the most important inventions has been the computer. It has been changing all our lives.

The first computer ____1___ (build) in 1946. It ____2____ (be) as large as a room and very difficult and slow ____3____ (use). But since the invention of silicon ―chip‖(硅片),computers

____4____ (become) smaller, easier and faster to operate. Some computers ____5____ (be) as small as TV sets. Some can even ____6___ (make) smaller than a book. And computers ____7____ (get) smaller and smaller all the time. Who knows what the computers of tomorrow ____8___ (be) like?

There ____9___ (be) several reasons why the computer is useful to us. First, a lot of information can ____10____ (put) into computer. Second, the computer works very quickly---thousands of times faster than a man and it will not be tired. Third, modern computers can be built into other kinds of machines, like radios, cars and planes. So today people can spend less time doing more work with a computer.

三. 用所给动词的适当形式填空

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