（3）以ce, se, ze,（d）ge结尾的名词加s，例如：orange—oranges。
（4）以辅音母加y结尾的词变―y‖为―i‖再加-es,例如：city→cities, factory→factories, country→countries, family→families。但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s，如：b oy→boys, day→days。
【注意】与man和woman构成的合成词，其复数形式也是-men和-women。例如：an Englishman，two Englishmen。但German不是合成词，故复数形式为Germans；man, woman等作定语时，它的单复数以其所修饰的名词的单复数而定，如：men workers，women teachers。
（9）数词+名词作定语时，这个名词一般保留单数形式，中间加连字符。例如：ten-minutes‘ walk, an 8-year-old girl, a ten-mile walk。
专有名词：the United States, Niagara Falls
在英语中，不可数名词如果要表示―量‖的概念，可以用以下两种方法：（1）用much, a little, a lot of/lots of, some, any等表示多少，例如：
The rich man has a lot of money．
There is some milk in the bottle．
Is there any water in the glass？
I don't like winter because there's too much snow and ice．
（2）用a piece of 这类定语，例如：
a piece of paper a piece of wood a piece of bread
a bottle of orange a glass of water（milk） a cup of tea
a cup of tea a bag of rice three bags of rice
two cups of tea
four pieces of paper
three glasses of water
不可数名词也可用a lot of, lots of, some, any, much等来修饰。
1. 表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's,其复数形式是s'，例如：a student's room, students' rooms, father's shoes。
2. 如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's，如：Children's Day。
3. 在表示时间、距离、长度、重量、价格、世界、国家等名词的所有格要用's，例如：a twenty minutes' walk，ten miles' journey，a boat's length，two pounds' weight, ten dollars' worth。
4. 无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构，例如：a map of China，the end of this term，the capital of our country, the color of the flowers。
5. 双重所有格，例如：a friend of my father's。
如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，则表示―分别有‖，例如：John's and Mary's rooms（约翰和玛丽各有一间，共两间）；Tom's and Mary's bikes（两人各自的自行车）。
两个名词并列，只有一个's，则表示―共有‖，例如：John and Mary's room（约翰和玛丽共有一间）；Tom and Mary's mother（即Tom与Mary是兄妹）。
These _________ have saved many children‘s lives.
A. woman doctors
B. women doctor
C. women doctors
D. woman doctor
This is _________ bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much.
A. Anne and Jane
B. Anne‘s and Jane‘s
C. Anne‘s and Jane
D. Anne and Jane‘s
---Are there any ________ on the farm?
---Yes, there are some.
---What would you like to drink, ________ or orange?
1．--- Where have you been, Tim?
--- I‘ve been to ______.
A. the Henry house
B. the Henry family
C. The Henry‘s home
2．In England, if ____ is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper.
3．You looked for it twice, but you have n‘t found it. Why not try ____ .
A. three times
B. a third time
C. the third time
4．--- They are thirsty. Will you please give them ______ ?
A. some bottles of waters
B. some bottles of water
C. some bottle of water
D. some bottle of waters
5．Mike hurt one of his ______ in the accident yesterday.
6．There is some _______ on the plate.
7．In England, the last name is the _______ .
A. family name
C. given name
D. full name
8．The are going to fly _______ to Beijing.
9．The______ has two _______ .
A. boys; watches
B. boy; watch
C. boy; watches
D. boys; watch
10．The little baby has two _______ already.
11．What‘s your _______ for being late again?
12．--- It‘s dangerous here. We‘d better go out quickly.
--- But I think we should let _______ go out first.
A. woman and children
B. women and child
C. woman and child
D. women and children
13．--- You can see Mr. Smith if there is a sign ―_______ ‖on the door of his shop.
C.THIS SIDE UP
14．Are they going to have a picnic on _______ ?
A. Children‘s Day
B. Childrens‘s Day
C. Childrens Day
D. Children Day
15．Where are the students? Are they in _______ ?
A. the Room 406
B. Room 406
C. the 406 Room
D. 406 Room
1. We‘ve got a lot of new ________(杂志) in our school library.
2. Please turn to another _______（频道）, I don‘t like this show.
3. Yesterday the _________(航班) to London was put off because of the bad weather. .
4. Autumn is my favourite (季节)
5. ---How many _______(小刀) do you have?
6. __________ are widely used in the modern world.
7. June 1st is __________(儿童) Day.
8. Mary, would you please tell me your new ________(地址) so that I can write to you.
9. ---Does this piece of ______(音乐) sound nice?
---Yes. It‘s wonderful!
10. May 12th is the International _______(护士) Day. Let‘s say ― Thanks‖ to them for their work.
1. ―What‘s your n_______?‖
2. How many d_______ does your uncle have?
3. Please close the w______. It‘s cold outside.
4. If you want study English well, you must pay attention to your p________.
5. A computer is one of the greatest i_________ in the world.
6. Zhang Hui is very excited. He will go to Japan with his p_______ during the Spring Festival.
7. At the a______ of seven, the lonely girl had to work to make living.
8. It‘s only about an h_____ flight from Qingdao to Beijing by air.
9. Health is more important to me than m_______.
10. Be careful! It‘s d__________ to run across the street now.
一．1.D 2.B 3.B 4.B 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.C 11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.B
二．1.magazines 2.Channel 3. flight 4.season 5. knives 6. Computers 7. Children‘s 8. address
9. music 10. Nurses‘
三．1.name 2.daughters 3. window 4. pronunciation 5. inventions 6.parents 7. age 8. hour‘s 9.
money 10. dangerous
(1) 形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 宾语补足语。例如：
Our country is a beautiful country. （作定语）
The fish went bad. （作表语）
We keep our classroom clean and tidy. （作宾语补足语）
(2) 形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,形容词放在名词后面。
I have something important to tell you.
Is there anything interesting in the film.
(3) 用and 或or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一
Everybody, man and woman, old and young, should attend the meeting.
You can take any box away, big or small.
The rich should help the poor.
He studies very hard. （作状语）
Life here is full of joy. （作定语）
When will you be back? （作表语）
时间副词通常用来表示动作的时间。常见的时间副词有：now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always等。例如：
He often comes to school late.
What are we going to do tomorrow?
He is never been to Beijing.
地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有：here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out等。例如：
I met an old friend of mine on my way home.
He went upstairs.
Put down your name here.
方式副词一般都是回答―怎样的？‖这类问题的，其中绝大部分都是由一个形容词加词尾-ly构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。常见的方式副词有：
anxiously, badly, bravely, calmly, carefully, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide等。例如：
The old man walked home slowly.
Please listen to the teacher carefully.
The birds are flying high.
He runs very fast.
程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词，有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。常见的程度副词有：much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, pretty, greatly, completely,
nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly等。例如：
Her pronunciation is very good.
She sings quite well.
I can hardly agree with you.
5)疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有：how, when, where, why等。
How are you getting along with your studies?
Where were you yesterday?
Why did you do that?
Mr Smith works very hard.
She speaks English well.
He usually gets up early.
I‘ve never heard him singing.
She is seldom ill.
It is a rather difficult job.
He runs very fast.
He didn‘t work hard enough.
On my way home, I met my uncle.
The students there have a lot time to do their own research work.
1) very, much
She is a very nice girl
I‘m feeling much better now.
I don‘t like the idea much.
They did not talk much.
2) too, either
这两个副词都表示―也‖，但too用于肯定句，either用于否定句。例如：She can dance, and I can dance, too.
I haven‘t read the book and my brother hasn‘t either.
3) already, yet
He has already left.
Have you heard from him yet?
He hasn‘t answered yet.
4) so, neither
My brother likes football and so do I.
My brother doesn‘t like dancing and neither do I.
Our teacher is taller than we are.
The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class.
(2) most 同形容词连用而不用the,表示"极,很,非常, 十分"。
It's most dangerous to be here.
(3) "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..."表示" 越... 就越..."。
The more you study, the more you know.
(4) " 形容词比较级+ and + 形容词比较级", 表示" 越来越... "。
It's getting hotter and hotter.
This box is as big as mine.
(6) the + 形容词表示某种人。
He always helps the poor.
Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China.
---Which is ________, the sun, the moon or the earth?
---Of course the moon is.
D. the smallest
He has made _______ progress this term than before.
---What delicious cakes!
---They would taste _______ with butter.
Bob never does his homework ________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.
A. so careful as
B. as carefully as
C. carefully as
D. as careful as
1．There are many young trees on sides of the road.
2．--- It‘s so cold today.
--- Yes, it‘s than it was yesterday.
A. more cold
B. more colder
C. much colder
3．Little Tom has friends, so he often plays alone.
B. a little
4．She isn‘t so at maths as you are.
5．Peter writes of the three.
6．He is enough to carry the heavy box.
B. much stronger
D. the strongest
7．I bought exercise-books with money.
A. a few; a few
B. a few; a little
C. a little; a few
D. a little; a little
8．The box is heavy for the girl carry.
A. too; to
B. to; too
C. so; that
D. no; to
9．The ice in the lake is about one meter . It‘s strong enough to skate on.
10．Wu Lin ran faster than the other boys in the sports meeting.
11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an ―A‖ in her maths test.
12. The smile on my father‘s face showed that he was ______ with me.
13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this?
---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this.
A. a better; better than
B. a worse; as good as
C. a cheaper; as good as
D. a more important; good as
14. ---This digital camera is really cheap!
---The ______ the better. I‘m short of money, you see.
D. more expensive
15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible.
16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely.
17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a m an‘s first name.
18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May.
---Right. The government spoke ______ that.
A. highly for
B. high of
C. well of
D. highly of
19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make.
---We know, Miss Gao.
A. The more; the more
B. The fewer; the more
C. The more; the fewer
D. The less; the less
20. I have ________ to do today.
A. anything important
B. something important
C. important nothing
D. important something
1. My purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. __________ (Fortunate), there was no money in it.
2. Mobile phones are _________ (wide) used in most of the cities in China.
3. He put on his coat and went out ________ (quick).
4. She is ______ (good) than Li Ping at swimming.
5. A lot Chinese people are _______ (pride) of Yao Ming, a famous basketball star in NBA.
6. To our surprise, he suddenly returned on a cold ______ (snow) night.
7. Allie asked me ______ (polite) to put the things away.
8. It‘s snowing hard. You must drive ________(careful).
9. The earth we live on is _______ (big) than the moon.
10. Hainan is a very large island. It‘s the second ________ (large) island in China.
1. A large number of mouths must be fed in those less d________ countries.
2. That evening Beethoven played the music for the girl as well as u______.
3. Hawaii is f_______ its beautiful beaches.
4. He often takes an a______ part in the sports meeting and he can get very good results each time.
5. The performance was so w_______ that everyone gave a long and loud applause(鼓掌).
6. Jiefang Road is the b_____ street in our city.
7. She lay a______ for hours thinking over her business.
8. I like ball games very much, but my f_______ sport is playing basketball.
9. The boy is too l______ . He doesn‘t want to do anything.
10. The dictionary is very u________ . It will help you a lot.
一. 1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.A 18.D
二. 1. Fortunately 2. widely 3.quickly 4. better 5. proud 6. snowy 7. politely 8. carefully 9. bigger 10.
三. 1. developed 2. usual 3. famous 4. active 5. wonderful 6. busiest 7. awake 8. favourite 9. lazy 10.
时间状语：every…, sometimes,at…, on Sunday
I leave home for school at 7 every morning.
The earth moves around the sun.
Shanghai lies in the east of China.
Pride goes before a fall.
例：Columbus proved that the earth is round..
I don't want so much.
5) 某些动词如come, go, move, stop, leave, arrive, be, finish, continue, start 等，在一般现在时
The train comes at 3 o'clock.
I'll help you as soon as you have problem.
Tell Xiao Li about it if you meet him.
表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内所发生的动作或情况，通常一般过去式带有表示动作时间状语的词，词组或从句,如yesterday, the day before last, last week, two days ago 等,上下文清楚时可以不带时间状语。
I worked in that factory last year.
1) 过去经常反复发生的动作，也可用used to或would加动词原形来表达，例如：
I used to go fishing on Sundays.
2) “used to”也可用于表示过去曾经存在过的状态。例如：
This river used to be clean.
I shall attend the meeting tomorrow.
He will go to see his mother every Saturdays.
I will do my best to catch up with them.
Shall I open the door?
4）be + going + 动词不定式。也是一种将来时句型，表示打算，计划，最近
I am going to Beijing next week.
5）be + 动词不定式。表示有职责，义务，可能，约定，意图等。
There is to be a meeting this afternoon.
We are to meet the guests at the station.
6）be about + 动词不定式，表示马上，很快作某事。
They are about to leave.
What are you doing now?
I am looking for my key.
The students are preparing for the examination.
3) 某些动词的现在进行时可以表示即将发生的动作，这些动词有arrive, come, leave, start等。
They are going to Hong Kong tomorrow.
②表示认识、知觉和情感的动词，如：know, think, hear, find, see, like, want, wish, prefer
I have bought a ten-speed bicycle.
They have cleaned the classroom.
在完成时常与for 和since 引导的短语或从句连用。
We have lived here since 1976.
They have waited for more than two hours.
I saw this film yesterday.（强调看的动作发生过了，不涉及现在）
I have seen this film. （强调对现在的影响，电影的内容已经知道了。）
I was watching TV when she came to see me.
过去进行时和一般过去时都是过去发生的事情，但过去进行时侧重表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作或所处的状态，强调动作的连续进行，而一般过去时则表示单纯的过去事实，例如：They were building a house last month. （上个月正在建造，建造好与否不知）
They built a new house last month. （上个月建造好了，动作已经完成）
过去完成时表示过去某一时刻或某一动作之前完成的动作或所处的状态，过去完成时常和by , before 等词组成的短语和从句连用。
We had already learned two thousands words by the end of last year.
When we arrived at the station, they had waited for more than twenty minutes.
They were going to have a meeting.
I told him that I would see him off at the station.
1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是：be +及物动词过去分词
因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者，某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of,
work out, laugh at等，也可用于被动语态。
The children were taken good care of by her.
若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式，变为被动语态时，该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词，如：feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch
The teacher made me go out of the classroom.
I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).
如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等动词虽然用做主动形式却
The food tastes good.
Father will not allow us to play on the street.
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.
这样的动词有感官动词如：see, hear, look, notice, observe, feel等，使役动词如：have, make, leave, keep, get等。接不定式表示动作的完整性，真实性；+doing 表示动作的连续性，进行性。
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
I saw him working in the garden yesterday.（强调"我见他正干活"这个动作）
使役动词如：let, have, make等和感官动词如：see, watch, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补，省略to。在被动语态中则to不能省掉。
1) stop to do停止，中断做某事后去做另一件事。
2) forget to do忘记要去做某事。(未做)
3) remember to do 记得去做某事(未做)
4) try to do努力，企图做某事。
5) go on to do做了一件事后，接着做另一件事。
go on doing继续做原来做的事。
6) mean to do打算、想
(1) say, speak, talk, tell的用法。
He said he would go there.
It's time to leave. We have to say goodbye to you.
Do you speak English?
May I speak to Mr Pope, please?
3) talk表示“谈话”，是不及物动词，与to , about, with等连用，才可以接宾语。
What are you talking about?
Mr Jackson is talking with my father in the office now.
4) tell 表示“告诉，讲述”是及物动词，可以带双宾语或复合宾语。
She told us an interesting story yesterday.
My teacher told me that we would have an English exam the next month.
(2) look, see, watch和watch的用法。
Look! The girl is swimming in the lake.
Look at the picture carefully. Can you find something unusual?
2) see 指“看见”某物，强调的是结果。
They can't see the words on the blackboard.
Does Lily often go to see a film on Sunday?
3) watch 指的是“观看”，“注视”之意。
The twins are watching TV now.
He will go to watch a volleyball match.
Don't read in the sun.
I like to read newspapers when I am free.
(3) borrow, lend和keep的区别。
Meimei borrowed a book from the library just now.
May I borrow your dictionary?
2) lend 是“借出”之意，常常与to连用，同borrow一样，是非延续性动词，只表示瞬
Uncle Wany has lent his car to Mr Li.
Could you lend us your radio, please?
How long can the recorder be kept?
The farmer kept the pat for two weeks.
(4) bring, take, carry 和get的用法。
Bring me the book, please.
May I bring Jim to see you next Saturday?
It looks like rain. Take a raincoat with you.
Mother took the little girl to the next room.
3) carry 是“带着、搬运、携带”的意思，指随身携带，有背着、扛着、抱着、提着的含
Do you always carry a handbag?
The box is heavy. Can you carry it?
Please go to my office to get some chalk.
There is no water in the bottle. Why not get some?
(5) wear, put on和dress的区别
Tom always wears black shoes.
He wears a raincoat even when it is fine.
She doesn't like to wear a red flowers in her hair.
2) put on是“穿上”“戴上”的意思，可以用于穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽等。着重于穿戴的动
It's cold. You'd better put on your coat.
He put on his hat and went out of the room.
只用于穿衣服，不用于穿鞋、戴帽、戴手套。作为及物动词用时，它的宾语是人，不是衣服。dress sb. （给某人穿衣服），而wear作“穿着”用时，也是及物动词，但它的宾语是物，不是人，即wear sth.（穿着衣物）。
She always dresses well.
Get up and dress quickly.
Mary is dressing her child.
(6) take, spend 和use的用法。
1) take指做某事用多少时间，句型是：It takes/took/ will take + sb. +some time + to do sth.
It took me three days to finish the work.
It will take you a while week to travel thought the forest.
It takes only one hour to fly to Shanghai.
Someone spends + money/time + on something(in) doing sth.
She spent more than 500 yuan on that coat.
He didn't spend much time on his lessons.
He spent much time (in) correcting students' exercises.
Mother spent her evenings (in) washing clothes.
Do you know how to use the computer?
Shall we use your car?
(7)reach, get 和arrive的区别。
After the train had left, they reached the station
We reached the top of the mountain at last.
2) get是不及动词，常与to连用，再接名词，后面接表示地点的副词时，不用to，get to
When the students got to the cinema, the film had begun.
My sister was cooking when mother got home.
3) arrive是不及物动词，表示到达一个小地方时，用arrive at, 到达一个大地方时用arrive
The soldiers arrived at a small village
The foreigners will arrive in Shanghai tomorrow.
I‘m interested in animals, so I ________ every Saturday working in an animal hospital.
答案：D。该题考查的是pay, get, take spend这四个动词的用法区别。在这四个动词中，只有spend常用于―spend …ding sth.‖的句型里，所以选D。
---Listen Helen is singing in the next room.
---It _________ be Helen. She has gone to Beijing.
---I called you yesterday evening, but there was no answer.
---Oh, I am sorry I _________ dinner at my friend‘s house.
C. was having
D. have had
---How long have you _______ the moteobike?
---For about two weeks.
1. Listen! Some of the girls ________ about Harry Potter. Let‘s join them.
A. are talking
C. will talk
2. Our teacher, Miss Chen, ________English on the radio the day bore yesterday.
C. will teach
D. had taught
3. I don‘t think I _________ you in that dress before.
A. have seen
B. was seeing
4. Susan‘s parents have bought a large house with a swimming pool. It _______ be very expensive.
5. Coffee is ready. How nice it ________ ! Would you like some?
6. ― Mr. Zhu, you‘d better _______ too much meat. You are already over weight,‖ said the doctor.
A. not to eat
B. to eat
C. not eat
7. ―Don‘t always make Michael ________ this or that. He is already a big boy, dear,‖ Mr. Bush said to his wife.
B. to do
8. Sorry, I can‘t hear you clearly. Will you please ________ your E-mail address? I‘ll
write it down.
9. Don‘t ________ your coat, Tom! It‘s easy to catch cold in spri ng.
A. take away
B. take off
C. take down
D. take out
10. You _______ go and ask Meimei. She _______ know the answer.
A. must; can
B. must; may
C. need; can
D. can; may
11. I‘m sorry you‘ve missed the train. It ________ 10 minutes ago.
B. has left
C. had left
D. has been left
12. I bought a new dictionary and it ________ me 30 yuan.
13. ---Mum, may I go out and play basketball?
---_______ you _______ your homework yet?
A. Do; finish
B. Are; finishing
C. Did; finishing
D. Have; finished
14. I have to go now. Please remember to ________ the lights when you leave.
A. turn off
B. turn down
C. turn up
D. turn on
15. A talk on Chinese history ________ in the school next week.
A. be given
B. has been given
C. will be given
D. will give
16. Look! How heavy the rain is! You‘d better ________.
A. don‘t go now
B. stay here when it stops
C. not leave until it stops
D. not to leave at once
17. You may go fishing if your work ________.
A. is done
B. will be done
C. has done
D. have done
18. Cotton _______ nice and soft.
A. is felt
B. is feeling
19. ---Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick?
20. ---Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _______?
---No. She got up too late.
A. had she
B. hadn‘t she
C. did she
D. didn‘t she
My name is Wang Bing. I‘m from China. Now I ___1____ (study) at this school. I ____2___ (arrive) here on January 8. Since then, I ____3____ (make) a lot of friends. At school we speak English all the time. Next week, some new students from Africa, Asia and Latin America ____4____ (come) to our school. I‘m very glad to know this because I enjoy ____5____ (meet) people from other countries.
1. study/am studying
3. have made
4. will come
Since 1946, one of the most important inventions has been the computer. It has been changing all our lives.
The first computer ____1___ (build) in 1946. It ____2____ (be) as large as a room and very difficult and slow ____3____ (use). But since the invention of silicon ―chip‖（硅片），computers
____4____ (become) smaller, easier and faster to operate. Some computers ____5____ (be) as small as TV sets. Some can even ____6___ (make) smaller than a book. And computers ____7____ (get) smaller and smaller all the time. Who knows what the computers of tomorrow ____8___ (be) like?
There ____9___ (be) several reasons why the computer is useful to us. First, a lot of information can ____10____ (put) into computer. Second, the computer works very quickly---thousands of times faster than a man and it will not be tired. Third, modern computers can be built into other kinds of machines, like radios, cars and planes. So today people can spend less time doing more work with a computer.