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考博英语翻译笔记

考博英语翻译笔记
考博英语翻译笔记

考博英语翻译笔记

倒装和分割结构

为了强调句子的某些部分,或是为了保持句子平衡,英语中常常使用倒装。大体说来,倒装可以分为主谓倒装和非主谓倒装。主谓倒装里又分为完全倒装和部分倒装。在翻译的时候,既可以按照主谓语的顺序翻译,也可以按照字面意思翻译。非主谓倒装只是将强调部分前置,以保持句子平衡或是起强调作用。翻译时可以采用顺序译法或是倒序译法。

1. For example, they do not compensate for social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

分析:本句中had he grown up under more favorable circumstances 属于部分倒装。正常语序为:if he had grown up under more favorable circumstances 。在正式文体中,可以将虚拟条件句中的if 省略,并将助动词提前。

译文:例如,它们(指测试)并不弥补社会的不公,因此不能说明一个贫困青年,要是在比较有利的境况下长大,会有多大才干。

2. Nonstop waves of immigrants played a role, too and so did bigger crops of babies as yesterday's “baby boom ” generation reached its child-bearing years.

分析:该句中so did bigger crops of babies 属于语法倒装。用so 来代替前述肯定句谓语部分所说情况。

译文:不间断的移民浪潮也起了作用——而且随着昔日在“ 生育高峰期” 出生的

一代人达到生育年龄,婴儿的出生数量增加了,这同样起了作用。

3. Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her in thoroughness, whatever the job.

分析:该句的Much as I have traveled 是一个由as 引导的让步状语从句。相当于though I have traveled much ,但语气要比后者强。这种结构要求部分倒装。

译文:我虽然见多识广,但还从未见过比她细心的人,不管什么职业

4. Only when you have acquired a good knowledge of grammar can you write correctly. 分析:相信大家对这种结构都不陌生。Only 后加副词、介词、状语从句时要用部分倒装。但是要注意的是,如果only 修饰的不是状语,则不用倒装。

译文:只有很好地掌握了语法知识,写出来的东西才会正确。

5. Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West .

分析:当句首是否定副词或含有否定词的词语时,一般要部分倒装。

译文:1980 年哪里的人口普查统计资料也不如远西地区的更能生动地说明美国人对宽敞的生活环境的追求。

6. Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.

分析:hardly…when的结构表示“冈U…就…”。含有这种结构的句子常将hardly 置于句首,而采用部分倒装的语序。此外,hardly分句中一般采用过去完成时,而when (或before )分句中使用过去时。还有,与hardly…when… 结构类似的用法还有barely (scarcely)…whe n …

译文:他刚开始讲,听众就打断了他的话。

7. To such length did she go in rehearsal that two actors walked out.

分析:such…that结构可将such或含有such的词组放在句首,使全句采用部分倒装。与此用法

类似的还有so…that结构。

译文:她在排演中搞得太过分,以致两名男演员退出不干了。

8. Certain it is that all essential processes of plant growth and development occur in water.

分析:本句为表语前置,表示强调。正常语序应为:It is certain that…。

译文:植物发育生长的全部基本过程当然是在水中发生的。

9. We rally should not resent being called paupers. Paupers we are, and paupers we shall remain.

分析:这两句话是为了使上下文紧密衔接,从而将第二个并列分句的表语前置。

译文:我们确实不应因为被称作穷光蛋而愤愤不平。我们的确是穷光蛋,而且还会继续是穷光蛋。

10. Then, down the crowed thoroughfare comes the University of Cambridge ' s most distinctive vehicle, bearing its most distinguished citizen.

分析:正常语序应为:The vehicle came down the thoroughfare 。为使语言生动形象,文学作品中常用这类倒装。在翻译时要尽量翻译出原句的语言效果。这里bear=carry 。

译文:从拥挤的街道上驶来了一辆剑桥大学最有特色的车,车上坐着学校最著名的人物。语法关系密切的两个句子成分被其他句子成分分隔的现象称为分割结构。英语中,分割结构的类型是多种多样的。例如,英语句子的主语和谓语一般都紧密相联,它们之间很少插

入介词等比较长的结构。但是,在有些情况下,或是为了保持句子的平衡,避免头重脚轻;或是为了语义严密,结构紧凑,在主语和谓语之间有时也会插入其他成分。此外,还有定语(或定语从句)与其中心词被分隔;某些词语与其所要求的介词被分隔;动词与其宾语被分隔;介词与其宾语被分隔等等。总之,英语的分割应遵循尾重原则(应把长而复杂的成分放在句末,使结构匀称)和句尾信息焦点原则(把新信息,即语意重点放在句末)。同时,在

阅读时要注意找出原来属于一个整体部分的意义。

1. Most novelists and historians writing in the early to mid-twentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all, fe ll under Turner ' s spell.

分析:本句的主干结构是:Most novelists and historians … fell under Turner 's spell. Turner 是美国历史学家。under a spell :被迷住,着迷。writing in the early to mid-twentieth century who considered women in the West, when they considered women at all 修饰主语,起分割主谓的作用。而其中的状语从句when they considered women at all 是定语从句who considered women in the

West 中的状语成分。

译文:从本世纪初到本世纪中叶从事写作的小说家和历史学家只要描写妇女,就会描述

西部妇女,而且都被特纳迷住。

2. Abraham Lincoln is the most famous instance of the claim that Americans often made that

in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position.

分析:the claim 和其同位语that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the

highest position 被the claim 的定语从句that Americans often made 分割。同位语从句在翻译时可按

照顺序翻译,将其翻译为分句。

译文:美国人常认为,在他们国家,一个人的地位可以从社会最底层上升到社会最上层,亚伯拉罕? 林肯就是极好的例子。

3. In the last eight years there were difficult, almost non-stop negotiations and reported threats of failure, ultimately overcome by a combination of creative compromise and stubborn determination

—indeed, some call it unprecedented determination —to succeed. 分析:本句的主干结构是:… there were negotiations and … threats of failure 。“ overcome by…”是过去分词短语,修饰threats of failure 。 stubborn determ in ation 和其定语动词不定式“to succeed” 被“ indeed, some call it unprecedented determination ” 分割。译文:在最后的八年里,进行了艰苦卓绝的、几乎是不间断的谈判,其间屡经失败之虞,但最终通过创造性的协调和要取得成功的顽强决心——确实有人称之为前所未有的决心——而渡过难关,取得了胜利。

4. The discovery of surplus value suddenly threw light on the problem, in trying to solve which all previous investigations, of both bourgeois economists and social critics, had been groping in the dark. 分析:in trying to solve插在the problem 和定语从句which…之间,起到承上启下的作用。of both bourgeois economists and social critics 为investigations 的后置定语,起到分割作用。

译文:由于剩余价值的发现,使问题明朗化了。而先前,无论资产阶级经济学家还是社会批评家所从事的一切研究都只是在黑暗中摸索。

5. A better knowledge of China ' s civilization would lay open to us an empire of learning, hitherto fabulously described.

分析:lay open 和an empire of learning 被介词短语to us 分割。本句选自英国前首相撒切尔夫人1982 年在中国欢迎宴会上的讲话。翻译时要注意转译的应用。如把“ better”译为副词“ 更好地” 。

译文:更好地了解中国的文明,将为我们打开一个知识的王国,对这个王国迄今只有神话般的描述。

6. It is the insistence, as a first consideration, upon the interdependence of the various elements in, and parts of, the United States —a recognition of the old and permanently important manifestation of the American spirit of the pioneer.

分析:insistence 后接upon the interdependence of the various elements in, and parts of, the United States, 中间被插入语as a first consideration 分割,做进一步说明。该句选自美国前总统罗斯福在1933 年的就职演说。汉语中动词用得较多,翻译时可把名词转译为动词。

译文:我们首先应考虑的是,坚持美国国内各种因素之间、各个部分之间的相互依赖关系——即承认体现传统的和永远重要的美国开拓精神。

7. Old Henry and his wife Phoebe were as fond of each other as it is possible for two old people to be who have nothing else in this life to be fond of.

分析:连词as 引导的比较状语从句中,it 代替for two old people to be 。to be 后省略了fond of each other 。to be 做分割成分。

译文:象两位老人一生中没有其他什么东西可爱而彼此相爱一样,老亨利和他的妻子芬

比也互相爱慕。

8. As they grow old, people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons: lack of physical and mental energy —both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away —and sentiment.

分析:该句包含了并列结构被分割的情况。lack of physical and mental energy 和sentiment 是并列结构,作two other reasons 的同位语。但是被非限定性定语从句both of which are essential in turning out and throwing away 分割。

译文:人们随着日趋年迈,积存物品还有其他两个原因:一是缺乏体力和精神,两者在清理和扔掉无用之物时不可或缺,二是感情上的原因。

9. Those who believe in capital punishment may have arguments for its retention, but surely

no reasonable argument can be found for retention of the sickening mumbo-jumbo that accompanies it from the moment that the judge dons the black cap with what looks like a pen-wiper balanced on the top of his wig, to the reading of the burial service over the condemned man before he is dead.

总裁助理assistant president

综合治理comprehensive treatment

安居工程housing project for low-income urban residents

信息化information-based; informationization

智力密集型concentration of brain power; knowledge-intensive

外资企业overseas-funded enterprises

下岗职工laid-off workers

分流reposition of redundant personnel

三角债chain debts

素质教育education for all-round development

豆腐渣工程jerry-built projects 社会治安情况law-and-order situation 民族国家nation state

台独"independence of Taiwan"

台湾当局Taiwan authorities 台湾同胞Taiwan compatriots 台湾是中国领土不可分割的一部分。

Taiwan is an inalienable part ofthe Chinese territory.

西部大开发Development of the West Regions

可持续性发展sustainable development

风险投资risk investment

通货紧缩deflation

扩大内需to expand domestic demand 计算机辅助教学computer-assisted instruction ( CAI ) 网络空间cyberspace

虚拟现实virtual reality

网民netizen ( net citizen )

电脑犯罪computer crime

电子商务the e-business

网上购物shopping online 应试教育exam-oriented education

学生减负to reduce study load

下岗laid-off workers

下海plunge into the commercial sea

下网off line

小康之家well-off family; comfortably-off family 新秀up-and-coming star, rising star 新新人类New Human Being ;X Generation 信息港info port

形象小姐/ 先生image representative of a product or a brand 虚拟网virtual net

学生处students' affairs division

研究生毕业证/ 学位证graduate diploma/graudate degree'sdiploma 摇钱树cash cow

以人为本people oriented; people foremost

义务教育compulsory education 易拉罐pop can 应试教育examination-oriented education system 舆论导向direction of public opinion 运球dribble

在职博士生on-job doctorate

早恋puppy love 招生就业指导办公室enrolment and vocation guidance office 证券营业部stock

exchange; security exchange 知识产权intellectual property rights 中专生secondary specialized or technical school student 中流砥柱mainstay, chief corner stone 专卖店exclusive agency; franchised store 自我保护意识self-protection awareness 综合国力comprehensive national strength 综合业务数字网integrated service digital network (ISDN) 公正、公平、公开just, fair and open 好莱坞大片Hollywood blockbuster 黄金时段prime time 假唱lip-synch 劲射power shot 拉拉队cheering squad 来电显示电话机caller ID telephone 论文答辩(thesis) oral defense 泡沫经济bubble economy 票贩子scalper, ticket tout 拳头产品competitive products; knock-out products; blockbuster 三角恋爱love triangle

三维动画片three-dimensional animation

" 扫黄" 、" 打非" eliminate pornography and illegalpublications 申办奥运会bid for the Olympic Games

实现中华民伟大复兴bring about a great rejuvenation of the Chinesenation 市场疲软sluggish market 素质教育education for all-around development 筒子楼:tube-shaped apartment

脱贫致富cast (shake, throw) off poverty and set out on a road toprosperity 网吧Internet bar 网恋online love affair

网上冲浪surf the Internet

网上交易平台online trading platform

网友net friend

无人售票self-service ticketing 无绳来电显示电话cordless telephone with caller ID 无线应用协议WAP (wireless application protocol )英语100 个长难句分析

1. The American economic system is, organized around a basically private-enterprise, market- oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.

[ 参考译文] 美国的经济是以基本的私有企业和市场导向经济为架构的,在这种经济中,消费者很大程度上通过在市场上为那些他们最想要的货品和服务付费来决定什么应该被制造出来。

2. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. [ 参考译文] 因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体消费者的需求与商人试图最大化其利润的欲望和个人想最大化其收入效用的欲望相结合,一起决定了什么应该被制造,以及资源如何被用来制造它们。

3. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product.

[ 参考译文] 另一方面,如果大量制造某种商品导致其成本下降,那么这就有可能增加卖方和制造商能提供的供给,而这也就会反过来降低价格并允许更多的消费者购买产品。

4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.

[ 参考译文] 在美国经济中,私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权,也指其他一些特定的权利,如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体(经济单位)自由签定合同的权利。

5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns.

[ 参考译文] 同时这些计算机记录下哪些时间是最忙的,哪些员工工作效率最高,这样就能相应地做出人员人事安排。而且它们(计算机)也能为促销活动找到那些拥有优先权的顾客。

6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.

[ 参考译文] 不计其数的其他商业企业,从剧院到杂志出版商,从公用燃气电力设施到牛奶处理厂,都通过计算机的使用给消费者带来更好、更有效率的服务。

7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences. [ 参考译文] 残疾儿童在许多关键方面都与其同龄人不同。为了让这些孩子发展其全部的成

人后的潜能,他们的教育必须适应这些不同。,

8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.

[ 参考译文] 在过去的30 年中,公共教育中显示的对残疾儿童的巨大关注表明了我们社会中的一种中强烈的情绪,那就是所有的公民,不管其情况有多特殊,都应享有充分发展其能力的机会。

9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing

a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.

[参考译文] 它(广告)能够直接帮助货物以比较合理的价格被迅速分销出去,因此可以(使公司)建立一个坚固的国内市场,同时也使以具有竞争力的价格提供出口变得可能。

10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. [参考译文] 除去议会有27 件法案来规范广告的条件,没有任何一个正式的广告商敢于推销一种商品却不能兑现其在广告中的承诺。

11. If its message were confined merely to information and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising wound be so boring that no one wound pay any attention.

[ 参考译文] 如果其信息只被局限于告知一一就广告而言,如果这不是完全不可能达到的,也是非常难做的,因为即便是一个诸如衬衫的颜色的选择这样的细节都会具有微妙的说服意味,那么广告就会如此地乏味以至于没有人会关注它。

12. The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts.

[ 参考译文] 得到了升迁的工人们,成绩进步的学生,学会了一门新语言的外国人一一这些

都是那些有可衡量的结果宋显示其努力的人们的例证。

13. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. [ 参考译文] 随着家庭离开他们原来稳定的社区,离开他们多年的朋友和扩展的家庭关系,非正式的信息流动被切断了,随之而去的是对在需要时能获得可靠和值得信赖的信息的信心。

14. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time--consuming,

and sometimes even overwhelming.

[ 参考译文] 现在每个人能够得到的信息比任何时代的人都多,而找到与他/她的特定问题相

关的那一点信息的任务不仅复杂、耗时,有时甚至令人难以招。

15. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. [ 参考译文] 通过远程会议,专家知识可以在全世界范围内被分享,而争论的问题能够得到解决,同时相关人员也不必离开他们的家庭或工作跑到一个遥远的开会地点。

16. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates oragainst the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B type fellows.

[ 参考译文] 现在这种让孩子们和其同学或时间竞争的热情导致了一个双层结构,在这个结构里面善于竞争的 A 类好像在某个方面要比他们 B 类的同辈更胜一筹。

17. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

[ 参考译文] 在跟你谈话的时候,可能成为你的雇主的人就一直在衡量你的教育、经验和其

他资格是不是值得他雇用你,而你的"商品" 和能力一定要以一种有条不紊而且合情合理的相互关联的方式被展示出来。

18. The Corporation will survive as a publicly funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programs are now the subject of a nation wide debate in Britain.

[ 参考译文] 英国广播公司将作为一个公共基金支持的广播组织存在下来,至少目前会这样,但是它的角色、它的规模和它的节目现在在英国成了全国上下的讨论话题。

19. The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC--including ordinary listeners and viewer to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.

[ 参考译文] 这场辩论是由政府发动的,政府请任何一个对英国广播公司有意见的人一包括

普通的听众和观众一来说说这个公司好在哪里或坏在哪里,甚至要说说他们是否认为这个公司值得被保留下来。

20. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large profess signal element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

[ 参考译文] 这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求,并且它(这种变化)防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二代和第三

代人(领导公司)的时候,经常会毁掉那些家族公司的财富。

21. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners: and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.

[ 参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的*纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为

一个阶级的重要性,这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素,这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任,而且几乎同样与公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。

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