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第四册 Uint 1 If you ask me, real life is not all it's cracked up to be. Twelve years at school and three years at university, teachers banging on about opportunities in the big wide world beyond our sheltered life as students, and what do I find? Try as I might to stay cheerful, all I ever get is hassle, sometimes with people (especially boys, god, when will they grow up?), but mostly with money. It's just so expensive out here! Everyone wants a slice off you. The Inland Revenue wants to deduct income tax, the bank manager wants repayments on my student loan, the landlord wants the rent, gas, water, electricity and my mobile bills keep coming in, and all that's before I've had anything to eat. And then some bright spark calls me out of the blue, asking if I'm interested in buying a pension. At this rate, I won't even last till the end of the year, letalone till I'm 60. 依我看,现实生活与人们想象的不一样。我们上了12年的中、小学,又上了3年的大学,这期间老师们一直在没完没了地谈论在安宁的学生生活之外那个广阔天地里的各种机会,可我遇到的又是什么呢? 无论我怎么想保持心情愉快,麻烦事总是接踵而来:有时是跟人争吵(尤其是跟男孩,天哪!他们什么时候才能长大?),但通常是为钱发愁。这个地方什么东西都很贵!人人都想从我身上拿点钱去:国税局要收个人所得税,银行经理要我偿清学生贷款,房东催我交房租、燃气费、水费、电费,手机账单也不断地寄来。所有这些还没算上吃饭的钱。更可气的是,不知从哪里冒出一个自作聪明的家伙冷不丁地给我打电话,问我要不要买养老金。照这样下去,我连今年都活不过去了,更别提活到60岁领养老金了。

汉译英 我认为,选修第二专业并不适合每一位本科生。我大学本科主修英语专业,大一时就开始辅修经济学了。无疑,我是班里最用功的学生。我竭尽全力想同时达到两个不同专业的要求,但还是有不及格的时候。因为经济学需要良好的数学基础,我不得不花大量时间钻研数学,因而忽略了英语学习。 If you ask me, taking a second major isn't good for every undergraduate. In my freshman year as an English major, I took economics as my minor. By all odds, I was the most hardworking student in my class. But try as I might to meet the requirements of the two different subjects, I still couldn't do well enough to pass all the exams. Given that the study of economics required a good command of mathematics, I had to spend so much time on math that I neglected my English major.

放弃经济学,以免两个专业都难以完成。当我只需修一个专业的时候,一切似乎又回到了正轨。 (if you ask me; odds; try as ? might; sap one's confidence; given that; bow to fate;come to a close; for fear that; now that)
Failing English Literature and Macroeconomics in the second semester sounded the alarm for me. This was the first time I did not pass a course in my life, which had greatly sapped my confidence. Although I was not a man who could easily bow to fate, as the summer break came to a close, I decided to give up economics for fear that I would fail in both subjects. Now that I had only one subject to attend to,everything seemed to be on the right track again.
第四册Uint2 Indubitably the vast majority of books overlap one another. Few indeed are those which give the impression of originality, either in style or in content. Rare are the unique books – less than 50, perhaps, out of the whole storehouse of literature.In one of his recent auto-biographical novels, Blaise Cendrars points out that Rémy de Gourmont, because of his knowledge and awareness of this repetitive quality in books, was able to select and read all that is worthwhile in the entire realm of literature.Cendrars himself—who would suspect it?—is a prodigious reader. He reads most authors.Not only that, but when he likes an author he reads every last book the man has written, as well as his letters and all the books that have been written about him. In our day his case is almost unparalleled, I imagine.For, not only has he read widely and deeply, but he has himself written a great many books. All on the side, as it were. For, if he is anything, Cendrars, he is a man of action, an adventurer and explorer,a man who has known how to ―waste‖ his time royally. He is, in a sense, the Julius Caesar of literature. 不容置疑的是,大多数书都互相重复。在文体或内容上让人感到具有独创性的书实在是少之又少。在整个文学库藏中,只有极少数作品——或许不到50本——是独具一格的。在最近出版的一部自传体小说中,布莱斯·桑德拉尔指出,古尔蒙之所以能够选择并通读文学领域中一切值得读的书籍,就是因为他知识渊博,并且了解书的这种重复性。桑德拉尔本人就是一个博览群书的人,没有人会怀疑这一点。他阅读了大部分作家的原作.不仅如此,


汉译英 张磊是在毕业工作后才开始意识到读书的乐趣的。反思自己的大学教育时,他感慨不已:他的一些同学都沉浸于从图书馆或书店找到的各种有趣的书籍,而他却只读了一些教科书,其中连一本真正能让他爱不释手、值得一读的书都没有。他可以说是被剥夺了通过书了解作家奇妙世界的特权。 It was not until after he had graduated from university and started to work that Zhang Lei became aware of the pleasure of reading. Reflecting on his undergraduate studies, he lamented that he, unlike his classmates who had immersed themselves in various interesting books they were able to lay hands on from the library or bookshop, had only read textbooks, none of which was really worthwhile, or could be read in one sitting. He was deprived of the privilege of gaining access to the writers' fantastic worlds through the windows their books have opened, so to speak.

如今,他嗜书如命,废寝忘食,好像要把大学期间没机会读的好书全都读一遍。到目前为止他已经利用业余时间读了几百本小说、传记和游记。他意识到书不仅能向他展示一个充满希望的前景,帮他消除现实生活中的压力和疲劳,而且能够帮他澄清一些误解,找到生活的真谛. Now he has become an avid and omnivorous reader. It is as if he wants to make up for those marvelous books he hadn't had a chance to read in his university days. By now, in his spare time, he has read several hundreds of books, including novels, biographies and travel notes. He realizes that books can not only reveal to him the vista of a hopeful future and help him withstand stresses and strains, they can also help him clear up some misconceptions and discover the
true meaning of the life. 添加 Women can't even fill out a form without telling stories about themselves. Most application forms now give four choices for titles. Men have one to choose – ―Mr.‖ – so their choice carries no meaning other than to say they are male. But women must choose among three, each of them marked. A woman who checks the box for ―Mrs.‖ or ―Miss‖ communicates not only whether she has been married but also that she has conservative tastes in forms of address, and probably other conservative values as well. Checking ―Ms.‖ declines to let on about marriage (whereas ―Mr.‖ declines nothing since nothing was asked), butit also marks the woman who checks it on her form as either liberated or rebellious, depending on the attitudes and assumptions of the one making the judgment. I sometimes try to duck these variously marked choices by giving my title as ―Dr.‖ – and thereby risk marking myself as either uppity (hen

ce sarcastic responses like ―Excuse me!‖) or an over-achiever (hence reactions of congratulatory surprise, like “Good for you!”). 女人一填表就会暴露自己的个人经历。给出四种称谓
。 汉译英 我们对理想丈夫或理想妻子的假设显示出我们的性别期待以及我们对性别期待的反应。如果大多数年轻姑娘希望她们的未婚夫强悍、能干、可靠,那么小伙子们也就别无选择,只能把自己训练得强悍、能干、可靠,这样才能赢得女孩子的芳心。如果他们的做法与性别期待背道而驰,那么他们很可能会在悲叹自己的光棍生涯中度过下半辈子。根据同样的不成文法则,如果多数年轻男子希望他们的未婚妻温柔体贴、耐心、忠贞,认为这些比什么都重要,那么姑娘即便不是这种人,也会假装自己将来会成为贤妻良母。深入研究一下这种性别期待,我们就会发现这是受生理和社会因素制约的。无疑,女性为孕育婴儿做好了生理准备,而男人则完全不适合这项工作。男人只有努力挣钱养家,才能让一家人过上好日子。
Our presumptions about what ideal husbands or wives are like reveal a lot about our gender expectations as well as our responses to them. If most girls want their fiancés to be tough, capable and reliable, there is no option left for young men other than to be trained as tough, capable and reliable if they want to win girls' heart. If they act to the contrary, they will most probably bemoan their bachelor's status for the rest of their lives. Following the same unwritten rule, if most boys expect their fiancées to be caring, patient and faithful more than anything else,

girls are prone to let on that they will become faithful wives and loving mothers even if they are not the type.Looking into such gender expectations, we may find that they are based on both physiological and social factors. It goes without saying that women are physical
ly prepared to bear children, whereas men are utterly unfit for the job. Therefore, a family is better-off when its
male members devote their time to providing food and other necessities for it. UNIT3 Sometimes the hemline indicator, as it's called, can even precede and predict a change in the mood of the stock market long before it actually happens. In September 2007, at the New York fashion shows, which were displaying their styles for spring 2008, the trend was for much longer dresses and skirts, many to mid-calf or even down to the ankles. Some people felt this showed that the hemline indicator was no longer reliable, and that designers no longer dictated what people would wear. During the London and New York fashion shows in September 2008, hemlines continued to drop. But sure enough, in the fall of 2008, the stock market indexes fell dramatically when the banking crisis hit the US, Europe and then the rest of the world. Hemlines were no longer following the stock market – they were showing the way and indicating future economic trends. 有时候,所谓的裙摆指标甚至能事先早早就预告股市的变化。2007年9月,纽约时装展展示了2008年春季流行风格,潮流转向了长衣、长裙,许多裙摆降至小腿中线,甚至到了脚踝。有人觉得,这表明裙摆指标靠不住了,或者服装设计师不再左右着装的趋势了。在2008年9月的伦敦和纽约时装展中,裙摆继续下降。在2008年9月的伦敦和纽约时装展中,裙摆继续下降。果然,2008年秋天金融危机袭击美欧,波及全球,股指急跌。此时,裙摆不再被动追随股市升跌,而是引领潮流,预示未来的经济趋势了。
汉译英 一个人的穿着似乎能影响他的行为方式。譬如,在校内要穿校服是中小学生所必须严格遵守的规矩之一。倘若在学生着装整齐划一和行为的统一规范之间不存在一种象征性关联的话,校服便不可能如此盛行。然而,多年的学校生活让学生在内心里对随处可见的校服产生了抵触情绪,校服毕竟压制了个性的表达。为了弥补这种损失,学生常常会在周末穿流行的休闲装。直到上了大学,他们才会享受真正的着装自由,而服装上的无序与大学培养创造力、鼓励自由表达思想及展露才华密切相关。可惜这样的好景不会太长,经过一段相对短暂的自由之后,他们在毕业工作之后将再次经历着装规范的压力。(hard and fast; there is no doubt that; currency; correlation; backlash; ubiquitous; compensate for; anarchy; obtain; revive) What you wear s

eems to dictate the kind of person you are supposed to be. Take primary school and high school students for example. One of the hard and fast rules they have to observe is that they must wear uniforms at school. There is no doubt that school uniforms would not have achieved their currency without a symbolic correlation betwee
n the uniformity of clothes and the students' conformity to some common code of conduct.However, after years of school life, there is always a backlash secretly nursed in the students' mind against the ubiquitous uniform which suppresses the expression of individuality. To compensate for this loss, students try to hunt for more casual and popular clothes and wear them on weekends. It is not until they start university, however, that they can really enjoy the freedom of dress, an anarchy associated with the cultivation of creativity and the encouragement of the free expression of ideas and talents.But this situation won't obtain for long. After a relatively short time of liberty, they may experience again the revived pressure
of dress code as soon as they become professionals. Uint4 Today, while most of us marry for romantic reasons, marriage at its core is still a financial union. So much of what we want – or don't want – out of life boils down to dollars and cents, whether it's how hard we choose to work, how much we consume or how much we save. For some people, it's working 80-hour weeks to finance a third home and country club membership; for others, it means cutting back on office hours to spend more time with the family. 如今,尽管我们大多数人是因相爱而结婚,婚姻从根本上讲仍然是金钱上的结合。不管是工作的努力程度,还是决定消费多少或储蓄多少,我们生活中想要得到的——或不想得到的——许多东西归根结底都跟钱有关。对有些
人来说,他们想要的就是一周工作80小时来支付第三套房的房款和乡村俱乐部的会员费;而对另一些人来说,他们想缩短上班时间,花更多的时间陪伴家人。 ―A lot of the debates people have about money are code for how we want to live our lives,‖ said Betsey Stevenson, assistant professor of business and public policy at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School, who researches the economics of marriage and divorce. ―A lot of the choices we make in how we want to live our lives involve how we spend our money.‖ “关于钱的许多争论是提示我们想如何生活的密码,而生活方式的许多选择则与如何花钱密切相关。”宾夕法尼亚大学沃顿商学院的商业及公共政策助理教授贝齐·史蒂文森如是说,他研究婚姻和离婚经济学。 Making those choices as a team is one of the most important ways to preserve your marital assets, and your union, experts say. But it's that much easier when you already shar

e similar outlooks on money matters –or when you can, at the very least, find some middle ground. 专家们说,夫妻共同做出这些选择是维护婚姻资产及婚姻关系的最重要的方法之一。当然,如果夫妻双方一开始
就在钱的问题上看法相似,或者至少能够在钱的问题上相互妥协,那么事情就好办多了。 汉译英 谈及目前经济萧条所带来
的影响,学生活动的减少就是一个很好的例证。为了活跃校园生活,大学愿意划拨一部分资金来资助学生社团活动,但由于今年学校的预算大幅减少,对社团的资助也相应缩减了不少。显然,学生社团要恢复以前的活力就必须想办法克服自身的经济困难。有人主张招募更多会员,因为会员费的增加可以帮助他们度过难关。 When it comes to the effects of the current economic downturn, the decrease of student activities is a good case in point. To enliven campus life, the university is always willing to carve out some money for activities organized by student clubs and societies, but such sponsorships have been pared down this year because of huge budget cut.Apparently, student organizations need to weather their own financial crisis if they want to recover from their current state of inactiveness. Some suggest enrolling more club members, on the ground that the consequent increase of membership fees may help them get out of the difficulty. 当然,如果有更多的会员交年费,而且缩减一些日常开支,我们还是能省下一些钱来组织活动的。但是,问题的关键在于社团活动的费用与参加活动的人数是成正比的,因此这种方法恐怕不太可行。要推进社团活动,同时又不使经费超支,我们必须群策群力,拿出别的筹钱方法,而不是仅仅依赖学校拨款和会员费。 No doubt, if we have more members paying the annual fee, and if we cut back on our daily expenses, we can spare some money for organizing activities. But the bottom line is that the expenses of these activities are in proportion to the number of participants. I'm afraid this won't be of much help. To boost student activities and to avoid going into the red, we still need to pool our ideas and come up with some other ways of raising money, in lieu of relying only on university grants and membership fees.
第三册Uint 9 In Europe, the Romans started calling people by their given name and family name in Latin from 300BC, but it wasn't common practice throughout Europe until the 10th or 11th century, when first, the lords and gentry, then middle-class citizens, and finally everyone used surnames. The necessity for surnames arose when the population began to grow. Suddenly there was more than one person with the same name in a village, so surnames were used. Generally, these surnames were not handed down to the next generation, b

ut after the fall of the Roman Empire, Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt hereditary surnames, and Irish surnames are found as early as the10th century. 在欧洲,罗马人从公元前300 年起就用拉丁文的姓和名来称呼别人,但是一直到公元10 或者11 世纪,这种做法才在整个欧洲流行起来,最先是在贵族阶层中间,然后是城市的中产阶级,到最后所有人都开始使用姓氏。因为随着人口的增长
,姓氏就显得越来越有必要了。忽然间,在一个村子里出现了两个同名的人,所以人们就开始用姓氏来区分他们。一般来说,这些姓氏不会传给下一代,但在罗马帝国灭亡后,爱尔兰成了最早使用世袭姓氏的欧洲国家之一,而且爱尔兰姓氏早在公元10 世纪就出现了。 To make matters more complicated, a survey out last week suggests teenagers are a lot more conservative than we might think. They're in favour of the monarchy, long prison sentences and patriotism, so this would lead us to believe they'd be against having silly names such as Rawlplug.