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1)on balance 5)illustrated9)involved

2)resist 6)budget 10)economic

3)haul 7)lowering11)blasting

4)wicked 8)boundary12)just about


1)cut back/ down2)pick up 3)get by 4)get through

5)face up to 6)turn in 7)making up for8)think up


1) pursued his mathematical studies and taught himself astronomy

2) often generate misleading thoughts

3) attach great importance to combining theory with practice in our work

4) be suspected of doing everything for money

5) before he gets through life


1) their indoor, a profit, to invest in

2) device, the improvement, on a global scale

3) stacked, temptation, never dined out

II Confusable Words

1. 1) house 2) Home 3) home, family 4) household

2. 1) doubt 2) suspect 3) doubted 4) suspected 5) suspect

III. Word Formation

1)rise2)final3)regular4)cash5)hows, whys


Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1)get by2)temptation3)get through4)improvements

5)aside from6)suspect7)supplement8)profit

2. (Theme-related)



II. Translation

1.We have a problem with the computer system, but I think it’s fairly minor.

2.My father died when I was too young to live on my own. The people of my hometown took over (responsibility for) my upbringing at that point.

3.The toys have to meet strict/ tough safety requirements before they can be sold to children.

4.Radio and television have supplemented rather than replaced the newspaper as carriers of news and opinion.

5.When it comes to this magazine, it is/ carries a digest of articles from many newspapers and magazines around the world.

A decade ago, Nancy did what so many Americans dream about. She quit an executive position and opened/ set up a household device store in her neighborhood. People like Nancy made the decision primarily for the improvement in the quality of their lives.

But, to run a small business on a small scale is by no means an easy job. Without her steady income, Nancy had to cut back on her daily expense. Sometimes she did not even have the money to pay the premium for the various kinds of insurance she needed.

Fortunately, through her own hard work, she has now got through the most difficult time. She is determined to continue pursuing her vision of a better life.





1)decades 5)slender 9)on the side


3)imposed 7)bade11)terminal

4)religious8)site12)make the best of


1)went through2)stood up for3)laid down4)take on

5)let (us) down6)draw on 7)fall into8)pass for


1) The Europeans are fully confident that the Americans will not be able to justify their measures to protect the struggling American steel industry.

2) Clinton is, in the eyes of Joe Klein, staff writer of the New Yorker and author of The Natural, the most talented politician of his generation and the most compelling.

3) There's not much you can do if people are really intent on destroying themselves with drugs.

4) A different experience of the world could forge a completely different approach to life.

5) It is our conviction that cloning of human beings is bound to cause many ethical and social problems in the long run.


1) As for, do not compel, capture of, have forged

2) At huge risk, the mission, shelter

3) who abolished, In the eyes of, racial

II. Words with Multiple Meanings

1. I'll tell you in a minute how I have attained the genuine sense of belonging in America, but first let me hear about your French trip.

2. Most McDonald's look almost the same on the outside, but actually there are about 16 different basic designs.

3. Loaning money from the banks is but one of the methods we can use to get through a financial crisis.

4. This second-hand car has been nothing but trouble; it's always breaking down.

5. In your resume you've mentioned everything but one vital point.

6. Our technicians have discovered a simple but effective solution to the problem.

7. I am sorry, but I think you shouldn't have lingered on over coffee and missed the last bus..

8. The bankruptcy of the company was not caused by evil, but by simple ignorance

III. Usage

1)lonely 2)friendly 3)weekly, monthly 4)lovely

5)cowardly6)kindly/ saintly 7)lively 8)motherly

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze

1. Text-related

1)forged 2)stand up3)compelled4)convictions 5)mission

6)abolish 7)intent on8)risk 9)in the eyes of10)threats

2. (Theme-related)

1)assistance2)involved3)estimated4)coincidence 5)emerged

6)referred7)numerous8)stationed9)concern 10)capture

II. Translation

1. Though greatly affected by the consequences of the global financial crisis, we are still confident that we can face up to the challenge and overcome the crisis.

2. Under threat of constant sand storms, we were compelled to leave our cherished village and move to the new settlement.

3. According to a recent online survey, a lot of consumers say they may be motivated to consider buying products shown in TV commercials.

4. Having spotted a truck driver dumping contaminated waste alongside the river, the old man reported to the police at once.

5. Some scientists hold to the firm conviction that people will come to like genetically modified crops someday since they can increase yields and help combat hunger and disease in the developing world.

Shortly after he achieved freedom Henson became intent on assisting fugitive slaves. He secretly returned to the United States from Canada several times to help others to travel the Underground Railroad to freedom. Once some slave catchers closed in on the escaping slaves and Henson when they were on the run. He disguised them and successfully avoided capture. Later he built a small settlement in Dresden in Canada for escaped slaves, setting up a chapel and a school. He held to the conviction that slavery would be abolished, and the day was bound to come when racial discrimination no longer existed.




threatens 2) by a small margin 3)civilize 4)closedup 5)wandered 6) paste 7) without so much as 8) sideways

9) hook up to 10) universal 11) chart 12) Bathed in

2. 1)narrowed down 2)looked back on 3)cut off 4)fit into

5)wear(the other) down 6)lies in 7)put up 8)stand for

3. 1)...which is likely to make people vulnerable to asthma has been found by researchers at the Department of Clinical Medicine in Oxford.

2)...with mirrored doors had to be built in so as to make their small bedroom look larger.

3)...feature the space shuttle Challenger blowing up in January 1986---killing all seven crew.

4)...threatened to keep the pupils in after school, they were quieted at once.

5)... are a major barrier to the country's economic growth due to the fact that/because imported oil has absorbed 40% of its foreign exchange.

4. 1) looked back on/ atmosphere/urban life

2)era/ hooked up to the / the electronic

3) the suburb / a sophisticated / system / analyze / make errors

II. 1) away 2)inside/in 3)forward/through 4)back

5)off 6)home 7) back down 8)in...out

III. 1) Internet is not such an unusual word as it used to be

2) Most men do not look unattractive in them

3) Wealthy as she is, she is not unconcerned by her sudden unemployment

4) The claim is not unrealistic in view of a sharp decrease in the city's violent crimes.

5)His poor health is not unrelated to his unhealthy way of life.

Comprehensive Exercises

1. Cloze

1. 1) Statistics 2)rural 3)era 4)stood for 5)on the latch

6)vulnerable 7)barrier 8)electronic 9)reflection 10)civilized

2. 1) together 2)liable 3)shift 4)electric 5)cautious

6)sophisticated 7)thieves 8)break 9)chances 10)signs

II. Translation

The Internet is changing the way people live, (no matter) whether they are in urban or rural areas.

2)Medium-sized and small companies are more vulnerable to the threat of the global economic crisis than large ones.

3) With regard to our term paper, the professor asked us to analyze the unemployment chart first, and then provide critical reflections on the nations economic development.

4)It never occurred to him that their team would win the basketball match by a large margin.

5) Looking back on my twenty years' teaching in high school, I attribute my success to patience, talent, and the constant pursuit of knowledge.

2. It is almost impossible to keep a determined burglar out. All you can do is discourage him for a few minutes. Thus exposing him to police patrols. Common sense tells us that lighting is a barrier to criminal activity. A light should be fixed in the doorway and switched on at night. Make sure/Assure yourself that you don't leave the door on the latch if you happen to be the last to come in. If you decide to buy a sophisticated electronic alarm system, be sure to ask for its signs and put them up on both windows and doors. In addition you may have it hooked up to a police station.




accordingly 2) loose 3) concentration 4)stimulating 5) fabric 6)if anything 7) reality 8) intuition 9) trifle 10) at the turn of the century 11) mess

12) undermine

2. 1) approve of 2) slow down 3) taken in4) sucked into

5) set apart 6) dozed off 7)call forth 8)stretch into

9) keep up with 10)believe in

3. 1)...provided inspiration for many artists and musicians over the decades.

2)...is credited to his powers of imagination

3)...on the foundations of an agricultural revolution

4)...not to make any complaints in the presence of the nurse.

5)...the outbreak of the Second World War.

4. 1) flaw/came to the conclusion/would get nowhere

2) in a row/dozed off/a mess of

3) outbreak of/ has undermined / has strained

II. 1)With Christmas only a week away

2) With his physical condition improving day by day

3) With our GDP growing steadily

4)With all the shops closed

5) with her eyes closed

6) With the fog lifting during the night

III. 1) like/as 2) as 3) like 4) like/as

5) as/like 6) as 7)like 8) as

Comprehensive Exercises

1. Cloze

1. 1) caution 2) came to the conclusion that3)never get anywhere

4)undermining 5) not give/care a fig 6) flaw

7) beyond any doubt 8)foundation 9)remarkable/impressive

10) imagination

2. 1) extent 2)inventions3)bet4)manages 5)vision

6)eventually 7)achievement 8)poverty 9) utilized10)breakthrough

II. Translation

The volunteers sent/assigned by the Red Cross disinfected, with great caution, the drinking water in the village so as to avoid an outbreak of plague.

2)Einstein spent many years trying to unify the theories of electromagnetism and gravity but failed.

3)Professor Wang received/won the Presidential Award for his excellence in stimulating students' creative imagination.

4) As there were some major design flaws, the board of directors didn't approve of the economic stimulus package.

5) Having realized that nobody could help him, Jordan finally came to the conclusion that he had to face reality and take up/meet the challenge by himself.

2. What was remarkable about 2005 was perhaps that the UN declared it "The World Year of Physics". It was the 100th anniversary of Einstein's theory of relativity and the 50th anniversary of his death. In 1905 Einstein published five highly important essays in the history of science, thus revolutionizing physics. His great achievements can be credited to his impressive powers of imagination, constant questioning, and not giving a fig for authority. It is beyond doubt that Einstein was the greatest scientist in the 20th century.

Unit 6 The Human Touch

Text A

Content Questions()

1.They found their tastes in art, chicory salad and bishop sleeves so much in tune

that they set up a joint studio.

2.Johnsy would be able to recover from pneumonia if she wanted to live.

3.She wanted to paint the Bay of Naples some day.

4.She could see a bare yard, and an old ivy vine climbing half way up the brick wall.

5.Because she thought that she would die when the last leaf fell.

6.No. Because in the text the author mentions that Behrman was a failure in art. For

forty years he had been always about to paint a masterpiece, without ever actually starting one.

7.He was upset that Johnsy should have such a silly idea.

8.Because they were afraid that Johnsy would die if the leaves on it were all gone.

9.She saw the last leaf on the vine.

10.It rekindled her will to live. And she realized that it was a sin to want to die.

11.He caught pneumonia because he painted the last leaf on a rainy and cold night in

the yard and was wet through.

12.Yes, he finished his masterpiece eventually. It was his fine painting of the last leaf,

the painting that saved Johnsy.

Text Organization


1).She made up her mind to die when the last leaf fell.

2).She decided not to give up her life.

3).Behrman, a kind neighbor, who was aware of Johnsy's state of mind, risked death to

paint the last leaf and save her.

4).Because it was so perfect the girls both mistook it for the real thing.



Language Sense Enhancement

I. 1) curling 2) looking the part

3) masterpiece 4) to excess

5) For the rest 6) smelling strongly of

7) fancy 8) light and fragile

9) slight hold upon the world 10) streaming

Language Focus


1. 1) masterpieces 2) fragile

3) fancy 4) nonsense

5) cling to 6)endure

7) acute 8) whistle

9) mock 10) subtracted

11) Sin 12) flutter/fluttering


1) gave in/gave up 2) figure out

3) sized up 4) wiped out

5) pulling up 6) wear away

7) sit up 8) hear of / about

3.(P. 178)

1) Illnesses usually stand out in childhood memories.

2)According to the bulletin, Albright College now offers a joint bachelor's degree

program in environmental studies together with Duke University.

3)The new government is less oppressive, but violence still stalks the country.

4)There is scarcely any surface water in the desert.

5)The demand for change in the election law is so persistent that both houses have

promised to consider it.

4. (P. 178—179)

1) It was dreary lying in the tent with nothing to read, so we built a camp fire. Soon the smell

of steaks, bread and coffee mingled with that of fresh grass and earth. Other campers seemed to be doing the same. Here and there people were eating, drinking or dancing to their hearts' content, if not to excess. What a merry night!

2)Miss Florence, our music teacher, called to us to stop singing. I didn't realize why

until Sally told me in a whisper: " You are not in tune with the group!"

3)The angry wife poured a bucket of water over her drunken husband, who was

immediately wet through and stumbled backward: " You can't do without drinks I won't hear of any excuses. You certainly don't need it to turn loose your tongue!" II. Words with Multiple Meanings (P. 179—180)

1.He went to Paris on business last month.

2.The train to Brussels goes at 2:.

3.As soon as they arrived at the meadow, the shepherd let the sheep go.

4.We went exploring together in the mountains. / We will go exploring together in the


5.Let's go and have a drink in the bar.

6.The store is going to close up soon.

7.South Koreans went crazy when their soccer players beat the Spanish team in the


8.When Mother came out of the house, she found her children gone.

III. Usage (P. 180)

1. a little white wooden house

2.long, curly red hair

2.a large old round table

3.a cheap Indian restaurant

4.a huge cool chocolate ice-cream

5.rapid technological advance

6.a handsome young Chinese American

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze (P. 181)



1. (P. 182)

1).The red house stands out against the old trees that reach high up to the sky.

2).The salary in/for my new job is great, but for the rest, I’m not satisfied.

3).The waters of the two streams mingle near our village.

4).We should not mock at other people’s religious beliefs.

5).The curtains of the room are not quite in tune with the style of the furniture.

2. (P. 182)

Here and there we see young artists who stand out from other people. They may be in worn out jeans all the year round, or walk barefoot / in bare feet even in winter, or drink to excess, or cling to the fancy of creating a masterpiece without actually doing any creative work. In fact, many of them act like this just to look the part, or to be "in tune with" other artists. They have forgotten that only through persistent effort can one achieve success.

Unit 7

Text A

Part II Text A

Content Questions

1.A surgeon’s scar cuts across his lower back. The fingers on his right hand are so twisted that he can’t tie his shoes. His mother’s challenges and the voices of those who believed him stupid, incapable of living independently keep him going on. 2.He is a door-to-door salesman. His weapons are: dark slacks, blue shirt and matching jacket, brown tie, tan raincoat, hat and a briefcase.

3.He is afraid that someone will steal his briefcase. He was different in that cerebral palsy affected his speech, hands and walk.

4.First a school for the disabled and then Lincoln High School, where he was placed

in a class for slow kids.

5.She was certain that he could rise above his limitations.

6.He applied for a salesman’s job.

7.With his mother setting up a meeting with a Watkins representative, as well as by his own persistence.

8.He lacked confidence. It took him quite a while to have the courage to ring the first doorbell.

9.He keeps coming back until the customer buys. He tells himself not to worry if hid day has not turned out to be profitable.

10.Because he was laid up for five months after band surgery and couldn’t work. 11.Like a home of the past era. He leads a solitary life.

12.No, he doesn’t. Because he lives a life of dignity.

Text Organization 1.





1) disabled 2) impatient 3) solitary 4) crushed

5) feel like 6) lashed 7) echoing 8) paused

9) betrayed 10) laundry 11) section 12) tilted


1) cared for 2) hang on

3) was laid up with 4) are gaining on

5) kicked up 6) went off

7) drop ... off 8)straighten out


1) … sometimes didn't register with her.

2)… in disorder, drawers pulled out, shoes and boots scattered.

3)… was transferred from Father's account to my account.

4)… a pledge to contribute 1000,000dollars to the Children in Needed charity


5)… the most profitable business in that province.

4. 1) gaining on; off balance; was laid up in; scar on

2) a cripple\ crippled ; surgery , limitations, in literature.

3) commission ; on the phone ; his territory ; never registers with

II. Usage

1.I never did go over these books, although I probably should have.

2.I know this is a personal question. You don't have to answer me if you don't want


3.I think this topic should have attracted far more attention from philosophers than

it has.

4."I think you're right." — "I'm sure I am."

5."He thought that the condition was hereditary in his case." —"Well, it might be."

6."Sugar" ---- "No. Maybe next time."

7.The house is only a building. It is a place to live, nothing more.

8.DIANE: You didn't! Tell me you didn't! FATHER:

Oh, yes. Anything for my children.

III. Word Family

bored2) boredom

3) bored4) boringly

5) boring

2. 1) encouraged2) encouragingly

3) encouraging4) encouragement

3. 1) frozen2) freeze

3) freezing4) freezer

5) freeze

Comprehensive Exercises

I Cloze

1. Text-related

1) off … feet 2) signature 3) commission 4) on the phone

5) laid up 6) surgery 7) territory 8) disorder

9) applying for 10) dignity

2. Theme-related

1)didn’t 2) read 3) come 4) money

5) because 6) earning 7) doing 8) own

9) obviously 10) value

II. Translation

I. I grew terribly scared when I heard sound of footsteps echoing round the hallway

at midnight yesterday.

2. The name-brand sports shoes are guaranteed for 12months.

3. Snowstorms threw communications and transportation into disorder.

4.I’ve been suffering a lot of stress from work lately, I feel like taking a vacation at the


5. Living in an apartment is all right, but it has its limitations--- for example, you don’t

have your own gardens.

6. Tom was born a cripple, with one of his lower limbs useless. Early in his childhood, he learned that unless he so exerted himself as to rise above his limitations, he could not earn a living, and unless he succeeded in making a living on his own, he could not win/gain the respect of others. That was the price he had to pay for his dignity as a human being.

Tom applied for numerous jobs, only to be turned down, before he finally got one as a delivery boy for a Pizza Hut. He then worked as a sales representative for a sportswear company in a territory no one else would want. Today he owns a fairly profitable retail shop in his hometown, and hires several people to work for him.

Part III TextB

Comprehension Check

1. c 3. a 5. d

2. d 4. d 6. b








Language practice

1. 1) h 2) c 3) e 4)f 5) b 6) d 7) a 8) g

2. 1) institutions 2) campus 3) myth 4) advertise 5) criticized 6) took on 7) putting…through 8) settled into 9) come down to 10) lucrative 11) loaded 12) scratch

Unit 8


Text A

Content questions

1.at his mother’s funeral, the writer swore that one day he’d do something about

conditions like hers

2.one night,the writer went out for dreinks with another gentleman whose father had

died of ALS. They talked about their parents then and wanted to do something as a

legacy for them. The stem cell research company Stemagen thus came into existence

3.they are concerned about the reproductive possibilities of cloning when Dolly was born

4.human reproductive cloning is ethically wrong because the majority of reproductive

clones in other species are actually abnormal,with very high miscarriage rates, very high

stillbirth rates, fetal anomalies, death soon after birth,etc.

5.the writer shows a positive attitude towards therapeutic cloning. He holds that

therapeutic cloning does not involve any type of rist to human life and actually provides

tremendous potential for the relief of suffering in human beings who are undergoing

some awful things.

6.the writer honestly thinks that someone will attempt human reproductive cloning and

there is no way to stop it

7.because by doing so, they could make cloning very real so that people around the world

know that cloning is coming along

8.their purpose in creating disease-specific stem cell lines is to study the causes of specific

diseases,and then research a variety of treatments for these diseases. If the stem cell lines are created for any given individual and are later transplated back into the individual, they will not be rejected by the individual.

9.the writer holds that in reality it is transcendent because when you look through the

microscope, you see what you may have looked like a long ago, at least in part

10.it brought teras to his eyes because the research was done for his mother,and he

realized that if she had only been able to live a few years longer, maybe they could have used this technology to help her

11.in the process of analysis, the embroys were destroyed by necessity. In other words, to

get the genetic material from inside the cells to analyze it, they had to destroy the cell\

12.because the writer thinks that logically, an embryo is not life, although it is a potential

life. The vast majority of embroys never become life—they just generate , don't implant and die

Language sense enhancement

1) in some ways 2)make the most of 3)individual 4)replicated 5)roadmap 6)in place 7) resulst from 8)dissuade 9)Quite honestly 10)legislate


complications 2)tremendous 3)brillian 4)analysis \

5)transplant , transplant 6)In a sense 7)consented 8)In some ways 9)eyesight 10)in reality 11)implanted 12) procedures

2. 1)focus 2)come forward 3)result from 4)go through

5)carry out 6)work on 7)feed on 8)settled over

3. 1)resulted from a childhood illness

2)was condemmed by the trade unions as endangering jobs

3)in place,even those with presistent, long-term mental illness can usually learn to manage

their symptoms and live productive lives

4)but apparently showed disapproval of his behaviour

5)you should make the most of any advice which you can get from the interviewer

4. 1)misconceptions, potential, make the most of ,

2)donated, cntentious issue, and opponents

3)a fraud , in some ways, condemn him

II Collocation

1)permission to adopt her

2)a willingness to restart peace talks

3)failure to find meaning in life

4)his determination to realize his ideals

5)attempt to blow up the bridge

6)an opportunity to pursue a college degree

III. Usage

1)do you consider it any good continuing your investigations

2)It is reported that two people were killed in the explosion

3)I owe it to you that I have been able to get back to my studies

4)It is no good bothering about such a trifle

5)It wont do you any good to hide your sickness for fear of treatment

6)We all think it a pity to give up the experiment half way

Comprehensive exercises

1)issue 2)contenious 3)clones 4)potential 5)condemn

6)misconceptions 7)opponents 8)results from 9)come forward 10)donated

1)prospect 2)intention 3)despite 4)developing 5)publish

6)condemned 7)among 8)standpoint 9)standard 10)rejection


1.1)Medical experts debated whether the cloning of human beings should be permitted and

what its potential effects on society might be

2)eighty-five percent of the people in the local area in full-time employment ;only 3% describe themselves as unemployed

3). The departments concerned in China will speed up legislation to protect rights of migrant workers

4). In recent years, some psychologists have tried to explain intelligence from a biological standpoint

5). The global finanical crisis has had a huge impact on that country’s export industry. In no more than six months,many factories have closed down by necessity.

2. Dolly the sheep resulted from a cloning experiment by a group of Scottish scientists in 1997. A

fierce debate on human cloning has ever since been going on. This contentious issue has focused on ethical and social implications of the technology:what the technology might do to the very meaning of human reproduction,child rearing, individuality, etc.

The majority of scientists are adamantly opposed to reproductive cloning and support

therapeutic cloning for treating diseases. The reason is that therapeutic cloning does not involve any type of relief of suffering in human beings. Scientists believe that with politics and monitoring in place to ensure that therapeutic cloning is used safely, we can all benefit from this procedure.

Text B

Comprehension check:

1. d 2, c 3,b 4, d 5, b 6, c

Translation :

1.时至今日,眼看着新一轮要求对克隆人全面禁止而非简单规范的呼声即将再起,我倒想说: “慢一点来。”




Language practice

1.1)c 2)h 3)g 4)e 5)a 6)b 7)d 8)f

2.1)artificial 2)labeled 3)objections 4)appealed to

5)reinforce 6)by virtue of 7)come to terms with 8)in essence

9)prohibited 10)origin 11)debate 12)arise

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