1．My topic today is “The Car and Air Pollution”.
2．In particular, I want firstly to discuss the ways in which the car causes air pollution; and secondly, how we can control or reduce air pollution from the car.
3．First, then, how does the car cause air pollution?
4．What happens is that the car’s internal combustion engine is a kind of chemical factory on a small scale.
5．It uses a mixture of petrol and air, and this mixture explodes and burns, to produce the energy which propels the car.
6．But while this is happening, many complicated chemical reactions are taking place.
7．In particular, part of the petrol-air mixture is not completely burned up, and so the exhaust gases from the engine contain some very dangerous chemicals, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, lead and hydrocarbons.
具体而言，部分汽油空气混合物不能完全燃烧，并且发动机产生的废气包含着一些非常危险的化学物质，比如一氧化碳、氮氧化物、铅和碳氢化合物。8．This is the situation, then, and it’s going to get much worse, unless we do something about it.
这是一种情况，如果我们不对它采取某些措施，这种情况将会变得越来越糟糕。9．So –let’s focus our attention now on ways of controlling or reducing the amount of air pollution caused by the car.
因此，我们现在应把注意力放在控制或者减少由汽车产生的空气污染方法上来。10．I want to mention five possibilities.
我想谈一下可以采用的 5 中措施：
11．First, we can discourage the use of cars.
12．For example, we can put higher taxes on petrol and on cars themselves - especially the larger ones that use a lot of petrol.
例如，我们可以给汽油和轿车本身价更高的税 - 特别是耗油量高的大型车。
13．Second, we can encourage alternative methods of transport both between and within urban areas.
14．For instance, we can make train and bus services cheaper and more convenient.
15．And we can build a mass transit system in large cities, particularly an underground railway system such as those in London, New York, Moscow and Tokyo.
16．Next, we can use a different and cleaner fuel for the internal combustion engine with other designs.
17．There are several possibilities being researched at present, such as electric, gas turbine, and “steam” engi nes.
目前有几种正在研究中，比如电力引擎、燃气轮机、蒸汽机等。18．However, each of these engine designs has its own disadvantages. 然而，这些引擎的设计自身都有弊端。
19．Last but not the least, we are trying to control the emissions from the internal combustion engine much more strictly.
20．This, for example, is a catalytic converter, which converts the most dangerous ingredients of the car exhaust into water and harmless gases. 比如，催化式排气净化器，它将汽车废气中最危险的成分转变成水和无害气体。21．These are five possible ways, then, of controlling air pollution caused by cars.
22．As I’m sure you can see, there are problems with each of these ways; but at least they’re a step in the right direction.
23．Probable the best answer is a synthesis of all five.
Ladies and Gentlemen:
2．几百年来，中国向全世界传播了其在 5,000 年的历史长河中所积累的医疗保健知识。
For hundreds of years China has spread across the globe its knowledge of traditional medicine and health care, acquired over 5,000 years of history. 3．今日中国的传统保健方法，如太极拳、气功和按摩等，正日益显示其重要性。
Today the traditional Chinese health preservation methods, such as Taijiquan boxing (or shadow boxing), static qigong breathing (controlled deep breathing exercise) and therapeutic massage, are gaining increasing importance.
We Chinese believe that taiji is the origin of all lives on earth. 5．太极分为阴阳二气，阴阳二气产生木、火、土、金、水者五行。
Taiji comprises yin and yang, two types of vital energy. The five elements of wood, fire, earth, metal and water derive from yin and yang.
The five elements correspond or affect, particular human organs. That is the element of the fire corresponds to the heart, the wood to the liver, the earth to the spleen and the stomach, the metal to the lung and the water to the kidney.
The combination of yin and yang gives birth to all lives on earth. 8．太极则代表了阴阳调和。
Taiji represents the harmonious state of balance between yin and yang. 9．根据《易经》记载，保持身心平衡是健康的要素。
According to ancient classic the Book of Changes, maintaining a balance between the mind and the body is vital for health.
The opening chapter of Huang Di’s Canon of Internal Medicine, the encyclopedia of Chinese traditional medicine, introduces the theory of maintaining tranquility to ensure vital energy (which is produced in a spirit form inside the body) and prevent diseases.
This theory has become the theoretical framework for China’s current qigong and health preservation studies.
The three health preservation methods, namely, shadowboxing, static qigong and therapeutic massage, are based on the theories outlined in the Book of Changes and Huang Di’s Canon of Internal Med icine.
13．长期以来，世界只知道中国有指南针、火药、造纸和活字印刷四大发明。For a long period, the rest of the world was only aware of China’s four major inventions: the compass, gun-power, papermaking and movable-type printing.
Very few know about China’s discove ry of jingluo that exits in a human body.
15．经络是指人体内血气运行通路的主干与分支网络，针刺穴位散布其间。Jingluo is a system of internal main and collateral channels, regarded
as a net work of energy passages, along which acupuncture points are distributed.
The existence of jingluo has been testified by using scientific methods at the Beijing jingluo research center.
17．经络的发现为《易经》和《黄帝内经》所提出的理论提供了有力的证据。The discovery of the existence of jinluo provides strong support for the theories advanced in the cla ssics of the Book of Changes and Huang Di’s Canon of Internal Medicine.
There is an increasing number of people worldwide learning shadowboxing, static qigong breathing and therapeutic massage.
These methods are effective not only in preserving physical health, but also in mental health care, sex health care and weight reduction.
1．The concept of information superhighway has been around for more than a decade, but until 1993 it was merely a technological speculation.
信息高速公路的概念 10 年前就被提出过，可是在 1993 年前，信息高速公路还只是停留在研究其技术上的可行性这一阶段。
2．Today information superhighway has become an everyday topic and is making its entry into our lives.
今天信息高速公路已经成为了一个日常话题并正逐渐走入我们的生活。3．Information superhighway is an unprecedented nationwide, or worldwide, electronic communications network that connects everyone to everyone else, and provides just about any sort of electronic communication imaginable. 信息高速公路是一个空前的全国范围的，或者说世界范围的，电子通讯网络，它将人和人之间联系起来，并提供几乎任何一种您所能想象到的电子通讯手段。4．Hook up your computer to the Internet and you are on your information superhighway.
5．The purpose of information superhighway is to provide remote electronic banking, schooling, shopping, taxpaying, game playing, video conferencing, movie ordering, medical diagnosing, etc.
6．Information superhighway can make many things you wan to do easier and more convenient.
7．For example, instead of calling your friends one by one to tell them
the party is canceled, you’ll simply send a single e-mail message to everyone at once.
8．And if you live in a rural area far from a major hospital, telemedicine may allow a specialist in London to diagnose you without you having to travel farther than to your local internist’s clinic.
如果您住在远离大医院的乡村地区，电子诊疗可以让伦敦的专家来诊断您的病情，以免除您远道上大医院的辛劳，之后您只需要去当地医院就诊即可。9．Information superhighway may also pull together newspaper and magazine articles from around the world on a particular topic of your own interest. 信息高速公路也可以就您所感兴趣的一个论题，在全世界范围内为您收集这类报刊文章。
10．If you like to shop with someone who lives in another city, you may call him or her and then do home shopping together for an hour or two. 如果你想和住在另一城市的某个人一起购物，你可以打电话给他或她然后一起进行 1 到 2 小时的不出门购物。
11．Whether you like it or not, information superhighway will change the way we live.
TEXT FOR PRACTICE
1．My topic today is meteor - psychology.
2．Meteor –psychologists are concerned with how the weather affects the behavior of people.
3．One area of their concern is iron balance.
4．Ions are electric charges that exist in the atmosphere, in the air that we breathe.
5．Ions are either positive or negative.
6．In one cubic centimeter of air there are about 2,000 ions.
一立方厘米的空气中约有 2000 个离子。
7．In the air there are more positive ions than negative ones, the radio being about 4 negative ions to 5 positive ions.
空气中正离子的数量多于负离子的数量，它们的比率约为 4 个负离子对 5 个
8．That means that about 56% of the ions in the air are positive, and that about 44% are negative ions.
空气中正离子约占 56%,负离子约占 44%。
9．Meteor – psychologists are particularly concerned about two things related to ions.
10．One thing is the balance or ratio between positive and negative ions. 一种情况是正负离子平衡问题，或比率问题。
11．When the total number of negative ions decreases, or when the 4 to 5 ratio changes, people’s behavior may also change.
12．Meteor – psychologists have found that when there are too many positive ions in the air, some people tend to become more nervous, more upset, more impatient.
13．When there is a high percentage of positive ions in the air, accidents and crimes are more likely to happen.
14．The second area of concern is the total number of ions in the air. 气象心理学家所关心的另一种情况是空气中粒子的总数。
15．In certain areas with heavy air pollution, the total number of ions is reduced.
16．This reduction in the number of ions tends to make some people feel more depressed.
17．When there are fewer ions in the air, more people tend to have health problems.
18．More people visit doctors during those times.
19．Meteor – psychologists are beginning to understand the connection between ions and health.
20．By studying the effects of ion balance and ion numbers, they hope to find ways to prevent certain health and behavior problem.
Information superhighway refers to a large-scale information network which combines high-speed channels of optical fiber cables, intermediate and low-speed channels of metal cables, and wireless transmission. 2．这个信息网络能够传送任何形式的记录资料，如文字、声音、图像、数码等等。
The network is capable of transmitting just about any form of recorded data – written information, sound, images, or digital flow, etc. 3．人们可以在自己家里或办公室里的终端机上，获取包括娱乐、购物、卫生、金融、教育以及科研等内容的信息。
The information can be obtained from computer terminals at home or in the office, and it can include facts about entertainment, shopping, medical care, finance, education, and scientific research.
The new information system will greatly change the life-style of people. 5．发达国家有一个雄心勃勃的发展信息高速公路的计划，所需投资高达天文数字。
Developed countries have an ambitious plan for expanding such an information superhighway, a plan that will involve an astronomically high investment.
Such an undertaking will be an inevitable trend once telecommunication and other forms of communication have progressed to a certain advanced level.
In China, large central cities and developed areas on the coast are very keen to obtain information, no matter what form it takes.
The Chinese government is being urged to put as soon as possible the topic of establishing information markets on its agenda.
The government is willing to do so by proceeding in an orderly manner. 10．某个研究高速信息网络的小组提出了分两步走的发展战略。
A research group on high-speed information networks has proposed a development strategy to be taken in two stages.
11．从现在起到 2000 年为第一步，在此期间将建立一条信息高速公路主干道，服务对象主要为经济发达地区，同时也为进一步扩展网络打下基础。
The first step, between now and the year 2000, is to set up an initial trunk line of the information superhighway that will serve mainly the economically developed areas and lay a foundation for the further expansion of the network.
12．从 2000 年到 2020 年为第二步，到那时，将建立一张遍布全国各地的国家高速信息网络，把不发达地区一起带入信息网络，向各地提供诸如国家经济或
The second step, from 2000 to 2020, will set up a national hith-speed information network across the entire country, bringing the less developed areas into the system and giving access to information on such matters as the national economy and social issues.
China’s lack of a comprehensive communication system is actually a plus, because the country can start off with the most advanced system right from the beginning.
No other Western country has had this opportunity so far.
Some people predict that China can greatly accelerate its pace, going from an agricultural and industrial society to an information society with one fast step.
Many centuries ago China’s porcelain came to be known in the Western world as “china”.
17．今天，“中国高速信息网络法”的英译文是“China’s High-speed Information Network Approach”，如果我们将其中每个单词的第一个字母相连，可得到“CHINA”一词。
Today, the English version of “China’s High-speed Information Network Approach” is also abbreviated to form the acronym “CHINA”.
This is a good sign, a possible prediction of China’s success i n the world’s information revolution.