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Lesson 1

1.3 美国副总统复旦演讲



1.4 Speech by Wang Guangya at Princeton University

Ladies and Gentlemen,

Good evening.

I am honored to be invited to your seminar tonight. For me, for my colleagues and for many other Chinese, Princeton has long been a familiar name. With a history longer than the country, it has produced many outstanding people, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th US president, Albert Einstein, the great scientist, and T. S. Eliot, the famous poet, to name but a few. As former president Bill Clinton said in 1996 at the celebrations for the 250th anniversary of Princeton, “At every pivotal moment in American history, Princeton, its leadership, faculty and its students have played a crucial role.”

I am more pleased to learn that all of you have a keen interest in China. Though our two countries are geographically far apart, we have a great deal in common in the everyday life. While many Chinese enjoy Hollywood movies and McDonald’s fast food, many Americans find that their clothes

and daily necessities are made in China. I hope that today’s seminar will help you gain a better understanding of China and its foreign policy, thus deepening further our friendship and cooperation.

1.5 新工厂落成典礼上的讲话











Lesson 2

2.3 大提琴家马友友




2.4 CNN interview with Jet Li



?It’s a very special part and a very special movie. I think it’s one of the

most important action films in my life.



?Usually action films have a formula: A child whose parents have been

murdered by bad guys tries hard to learn martial arts and he grows up into an outstanding Kongfu master. He takes revenge and kills the bad buys. But “Hero” has a much broader them.


?No, it’s totally different. I think Ang Lee is a very very talented director.

He uses martial arts to talk about love, you know. But Zhang Yimou tries to tell about Chinese culture, Chinese thinking and their inspirations about the world.



?I think the most important thing is that when I was young, I learnt

martial arts. That is my special key. I can use my unique martial arts skills in the film. I have been thinking about doing something different, like using martial arts to talk about peace and to achieve peace.


?That’s right, because Chinese culture is not just martial arts. That’s

only the physical part. It’s not true that the Chinese people are all Kongfu masters and can just beat up people; and that they have no brains, no thoughts. As a matter of fact, we have a deep, strong and sophisticated philosophy. I feel I have the responsibility to share this information with the worldwide audience.

Lesson 3

3.3 Steve Forbes on Forbes

我祖父二十世纪初来到美国,他离开苏格兰时身上没有什么钱。连他在内有兄弟姐妹10人,不过他自小受到很好的教育。像许多人一样,他也是满怀憧憬和理想来到美国的。** 他创办了《福布斯》杂志,报道那些实干家,那些给商业社会带来变革的人。


** 当前世界信息泛滥,足以将人淹么其中,人们迫切需要一本刊物来解读这些信息,告诉读者哪些重要哪些可以不必理会。这就是《福布斯》的价值所在。我们提供额外的视角和判断。我们从不停留于表面,总想看看公司到底如何经营的,正是当今芜杂繁多的信息使得《福布斯》日益重要。

3.4 Introduction to an arts and crafts company

Distinguished guests, dear friends:

I feel honored to have this opportunity to introduce our company to you through the platform provided by this conference.

Founded 15 years ago, we are a company specializing in the design, manufacture and sales of handicrafts. Fifteen years ago our staff numbered 50; now the figure is 1,700. Fifteen years ago we rented a facility covering a floor space of 4,500 square meters; now our own facility covers a floor space of 24,000 square meters. These figures speak loudly and clearly of our success.

Our leading products are various architectural models, including exotic European cathedrals, the Empire State Building, the White House, and the Pentagon in the U.S., along with cartoon animal toys and Christmas gifts with a variety of designs. Our designs have become trend setters in the industry.

Today, our products are sold worldwide in more than twenty countries including Japan, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, America, the UK, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany. They are well received by both local importers and customers. For fifteen years, our output value has maintained an annual growth rate of 30%.

3.5 财富500强





Lesson 4

4.3 西敏斯特大学介绍






4.4 Preserve core values of the Lunar New Year

To people of Chinese descent around the world, the Lunar New Year (also called Spring Festival) is undoubtedly the most important festival of the year. **Dating back 3,000 years, it celebrates the passing of a peaceful year and welcomes the new one.

The reunion dinner, eaten on New Year’s Eve, is de rigueur, with members of the extended family gathering for the most significant meal of the year. Even the absent members will endeavor to return home in time for it. It underscores the supreme importance of the family in Chinese culture, and aims at strengthening the sense of togetherness and cohesion.

The way people celebrate the New Year embodies two important core

values. *The first value is the sense of family togetherness; members of multi-generation families are all there to have a big reunion dinner. Everyone will follow this custom. The female members are usually held responsible for preparing the dinner, and some rich families may take on extra hands. *The second value lies in the happy visits mutually made between friends and relatives, a good way to strengthen kinship and friendship.

However, economic development has resulted in some changes in lifestyles. After a busy year, people are tired of preparing for the reunion dinner, and would rather hold it in posh restaurants, despite the exorbitant costs. The festival door-to-door visits have given way to New Year greetings via telephone or text messages. Some families go away for a trip or even go to such extreme as to seek temporary refuge in a hotel so as to avoid being visited.

* Some tradition-minded people regard the reunion dinner and visits to relatives and close friends during the New Year as where core values are embodied, without which the holiday would lose much of its significance. Some pessimists contend that, as the popularity of western culture grows, Chinese traditional festivals will gradually lose their original meaning and degenerate into commercial festivals like Christmas.

The Spring Festival is an important part of the Chinese cultural heritage, and it will continue to be celebrated. The modes of celebration may change, but the core value should be sustained: that of respect for kinship and friendship.

4.5 中英教育交流

Q:My question is about educational exchanges. You mentioned in your speech that there are large numbers of Chinese students studying in Britain.

As we know, it is extremely difficult to get a scholarship at a British university. But the tuition fees for international students far exceed these for home students. So we can not help wondering about the motivation of British universities in enrolling Chinese students. Is it to promote educational exchanges with China and to liven up campus life in Britain, or just for a commercial purpose? Thank you.

A: 这实际上是出于多种考虑。我不否认有商业考虑,办大学也要花钱,不过教育交流是主要目的。奖学金难申请是因为钱要由政府出,有时候纳税人有意见,说政府应该把奖学金给本国学生而不是外国学生,所以很困难。



Q:Mr. Blair, welcome to Tsinghua University. I was deeply impressed by your support for Sino-British educational exchanges, but I was also sorry to learn that some universities in northeastern Britain have decided to cancel the major of Chinese Culture and Language, among them the University of Durham. Will this affect cultural and educational cooperation between our two countries? If so, what is your solution?

A: 讲到学校的课程,既然我听说了这件事,我打算回去看看究竟,不过大学做出这样的决定原因很多,也许是经济原因,或者是他们面临某种困难,这也是时有的事情。要把想做的事情办成,钱总是不够的。不过我也可以向你保证,我们会一如既往地欢迎中国学生来英国学习,就算杜伦大学没有合适的专业,其他大学也肯定有。

Lesson 5

5.3 温家宝总理在世界旅游组织第15届全体大会上的致词

Mr. Francesco Frangialli, Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization,

Ms. Louise Frechette, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,

All Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen,

At this October time when Beijing is offering us its charming autumn scenery in the freshest air and clearest weather, the 15th General Assembly Session of the World Tourism Organization is officially opened here. On behalf of the Chinese government, I would like to extend our sincere

welcome to all the guests here and to express our warm congratulations on the convening of this session.

Tourism is a nice and pleasant activity that combines sightseeing, recreation and health care. Tourism has been developing with the times. Since the mid of the 20th century, modern tourism has been booming at a fast pace across the world. The number of tourists has been increasing, the scale of tourism industry has kept expanding, and the position of tourism in the economy has been rising. Increasingly, tourism serves as a channel for cultural exchanges, friendship development and varied communication. It exerts more and more extensive influence on human life and social progress.

As a country with an ancient civilization and a long history, China is also a big oriental country full of modern vitality, blessed with a rich supply of unique and varied tourism attractions and resources. Besides the picturesque natural scenery, profound history and extensive culture, China embodies the different folk customs of 56 nationalities/ethnic groups. Currently, 29 properties have been inscribed onto World Cultural and Natural Heritage List. With the reform and opening-up programs, China’s modern construction is surging ahead, and urban and rural areas are all experiencing daily changes. The ancient glory and modern boom combine most impressively to create favorable conditions for domestic and international tourism in China.

The fist 20 years of the 21st century is a strategic period for China to accomplish the all-round construction of a well-off society and to speed up its socialist modernization. It also provides a favorable time for its further development of tourism industry. We shall promote tourism as an important industry in China’s national economy, properly protect and utilize our tourism resources and try to achieve sustainable development. The Chinese government welcomes all international friends to visit China. We shall do our

best to protect their health and safety. Meanwhile, we will encourage more Chinese people to go abroad for visits. We are ready to develop extensive cooperation with other countries and contribute to global tourism growth.

For many years, the World Tourism Organization has made active and effective efforts to gain tourism prosperity and development around the world. It has become a specialized agency of the UN. Here we would like to offer our sincere congratulations. We believe this WTO General Assembly session will give a major push to tourism in the world for greater prosperity and new development.

Finally, I wish the 15th General Assembly Session of the World’s Tourism Organization every success.

Thank you!

5.4 世界旅游组织简介






5.5 现代化与文化遗产的保护

主:Welcome to our studio. My first question is: how many years have you been in China?


主:3 years. I bet you have witnessed a lot of changes in China. Could you tell us your deepest impression of urban development in China?


主:What do you think of all these tall buildings and the widened roads? Do you think that these are signs of modernization? Are all these changes good?


主:Why is it complicated?


主:Then let’s see what are the differences between a foreigner’s expectations and what the Chinese would like to see.



主:That is to say, foreigners are interested in the things unique in China, but there is a contradiction between modernization and preservation, as you mentioned just now from another perspective. The space of a city is limited; the old part of the city should be reconstructed, and in fact the new buildings are symbols of the prosperity of a city. Isn’t this a good thing?


主:You are quite right. People nowadays are starting to realize the importance of the preservation of heritage. Some local governments are making great effort to deal with the contradiction between development and preservation. Well, because of the limitation of the time, I’m afraid we have to stop now. Thank you ever so much for your coming to discuss this topic with us. We hope you’ll come again.

Lesson 6

6.4. 国际烟草控制公约



已经有160多个国家在公约上签字,签约国必须在各自国家批准该公约。迄今为止,已有近60个国家批准了该公约,** 然而只需40个国家批准即可生效。该公约在2005年2月27日生效。









6.5 艾滋病的防治


B:Well, in China, HIV/AIDS has become a very serious problem related to social development. There’ve been cases of people being accidentally infected with HIV/AIDS, through accepting contaminated blood from hospitals, babies acquiring the disease from their mothers, having improper sexual relationships. From the time we discovered the first AIDS patient in 1985, our country has entered a period of rapid increase in AIDS infections. Experts estimate that more than 900,000 people had been infected with HIV by the end of last year. If we don’t take some efficient measures, this number will double by 2010.

A: 您认为增长这么快的主要原因在哪里?

B:First, because of poverty, people lack education and information about the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Second, ignorance. People do not pay much attention to this problem. Third, they lack proper resources, things like training, money and information. According to reports, we do not yet have an efficient medicine to cure HIV/AIDS.

A: 政府已经采取了哪些具体的措施来控制艾滋病在中国的蔓延呢?有什么国际合作吗?

B:We have already got very strong support from the international community, especially on the technical side. And on the domestic front, we’ve recognized that making our people understand and raising their awareness is very important. So, common sense, health education and behavioral changes are the only way for people to avoid HIV infection.

A: 贵国政府在发布警报以及增强公众对艾滋病传播危险性的认识方面一直都在怎么做?特别是在农村地区?您认为要解决这个问题还应该进一步做些什么?

B: Firstly, I think the government should improve our monitoring system, and

secondly, NGOs should try their best to mobilize all the resources we can use to help the people, especially people at the grass roots and the rural areas, to let them know the terrible results of the spreading of the disease and how to prevent HIV/AIDS. I think we should do more advocacy work among the people.

A: 非常感谢您回答我们这么多问题。预祝你们在与艾滋病的斗争中取得成功。B:Thank you.

7.3 极限运动





7.4 罗格在雅典奥运会上的致辞












7.5 The Olympic flame illuminates Beijing

June 8-9, 2004: history shall forever remember the date. The Olympic

Flame came down to China’s Divine Land with mankind’s yearning for peace, friendship, civilization and progress and with the Greek people’s friendship for the Chinese people. rom Travling from Olympia to the Great Wall, the blazing Olympic torch has brought the Olympic spirit to Beijing, and, after illuminating Chinese people’s desire for peace, their wish for participation and their appreciation of the Olympic spirit, the torch has traveled across the five continents to every corner of the earth with the Chinese people’s hearty blessing.

With the centennial impressiveness of the Olympics and the millennial civilization of Chinese history, the Olympic Flame has tied closely together Beijing and Athens, the Chinese people and the people of other countries.

Wherever the torch went, the TV cameras focused on were like unfolding one by one our beautiful picture rolls of unique traditional eastern culture. Beijing, built more than 3,000 years ago and regarded as the ancient oriental capital for over 850 years, continually radiates its charm, to be found along the wide streets and narrow lanes, between the high buildings and large mansions. Its primitive simplicity and latest modernity, its dignity and vigor reflect Beijing’s greater openness, display the Chinese nation’s progress and civilization, how the people live actively and optimistically, enjoy their lifestyles and yearn for the Olympics, and present the Chinese people’s passionate longing and preparing for the 2008 Beijing Olympic games. Not only in Beijing, but also in Qingdao, the co-host city and

汉英比较翻译教程 第14单元

第14单元 I 提示 同第4单元 II 译法要点 5.1变通:OSV→SVO 5.2非谓语动词时态的语义色彩(I) 5.3 互文性 5.4 直译:名词化形容词 5.5 互文性:主题意象 5.6 互文性:普通名词与专有名词 5.7创新:专有名词 5.8 译文的多样性:短语表达 5.9误用:动词短语 5.10误用:状语的逻辑主语 5.11非谓语动词的时态语义色彩(II) 5.12误用:动词 5.13回译:后置时间状语从句 5.14矛盾修辞与Oxymoron 5.15误用:虚拟语气结构 5.16呼应:语段中的时态 5.17回译:互文词 5.18暗喻与Metaphor 5.19 变通:合译(同位语从句) III 原文与译文 【原文】 向日葵(II) 解放了,我到北京工作,这幅画却没有带来;总觉得这幅画面与当时四周的气氛不相合拍似的。因为解放了,周围已没有落寞之感,一切都沉浸在节日的欢乐之中。但是曾几何时,我又怀念起这幅画来了。似乎人就像是这束向日葵,即使在落日的余辉里,都拼命要抓住这逐渐远去的夕阳。我想起了深绿色的那面墙,它一时掩没了这一片耀眼的金黄;我曾经努力驱散那随着我身影的孤寂,在作无望的挣扎。以后星移斗转,慢慢这一片金黄,在我的记忆里也不自觉地淡漠起来,逐渐疏远得几乎被遗忘了。 十年动乱中,我被谪放到南荒的劳改农场,每天做着我力所不及的劳役,心情惨淡得自己也害怕。有天我推着粪车,走过一家农民的茅屋,从篱笆里探出头来的是几朵嫩黄的向日葵,衬托在一抹碧蓝的天色里。我突然想起了上海寓所那面墨绿色墙上挂着的梵高的《向日葵》。我忆起那时家庭的欢欣,三岁的女儿在学着大人腔说话,接着她也发觉自己学得不像,便嬉嬉笑了起来,爬上桌子指着我在念的书,说“等我大了,我也要念这个”。而现在眼前只有几朵向日葵招呼着我,我的心不住沉落又漂浮,没个去处。以后每天拾粪,即使要


《汉英翻译教程》-作者不详,在此致谢! 第一章 词的选择 词义的正确选择首先取决于对原文的确切理解,而对原文词义的确切理解又取决于对原文上下文的推敲。有些词看起来很简单,翻译时一下子就会想到常用的对应词。但又是最常用的对应词却不能准确地表达原作的意思。例如: 还要努力读一点历史和小说。 We should also find time to read some history books and novels. 这里“努力”一词理解为“挤出时间”是对的,如译为make an effort,则会使人误解为我们文化水平低,读历史和小说很费力。 再比如“水平”一词译成英语,不一定都是level, 要根据句子的含义确定译法。 1.他的英语水平比我的高。 He knows more English than I. 这里,汉语“水平”一词虽未译出,但其以已含在句子中。若照汉语字面应译成:The level of his English is higher than that of mine.就不符合英语表达习惯。 2.要奋发图强,把我军的军政素质提高到一个新的水平……。 We must work hard to r aise to a new height the military and political quality of our army……. 这里“水平”指高度,故译作height,和动词搭配也比较顺。 3.各级领导干部必须提高领导水平。 Cadres at all levels should improve their art of leadership. 这里的“领导水平”,实际上指领导能力、领导艺术、故译作art of leadership. 以上的例子说明一个词的具体含义往往要结合上下文才能确定,在翻译的时候也只有结合上下文来考虑怎样处理这个词,才能译得准确。因此在辨析词义和正确选词时可注意下列几种情况。 (一)注意词的广义与狭义 英语中有不少同义词的词义有广、狭之区别,运用范围也就各不相同。例如 1.农业是国民经济的基础。 Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. 原文“农业”一词是广义,指一切农业经济(农、牧、林、渔),古译作agriculture。但在“农林牧副渔结合的方针”中,农与林木副渔并立,是指耕作的农业,不是指整个农业经济,古译作farming。整个词组应译为the principle of combining farming, forestry, animal husbandry, side-occupations and fishery. 2.他从不喝酒。 He never touches wine. 原文“酒”是指一切酒类,故译作wine。但在“他不喝烈性酒”一句中,“酒”是狭义,是和淡性酒相对而言的,又需译作spirits。 (二)注意词义的强弱 3.反动派的暴行激起了人民的极大愤怒。 The atrocities of the reactionaries roused the people to great indignation. 这里的“愤怒”含义强烈,故在译文中选用了indignation,而不用anger. 4.孙中山是个好人。 Dr. Sun Y et-sen was a man of integrity. 如果译作a good man, 则与这位伟大的革命先行者的身份不相称。 (三)注意词义的褒贬


Exercise I. Translate the following sentences into English. 1.如今,作为东方艺术的一颗璀璨的明珠,京剧不仅在中国各地喜闻乐见,而且已被全世界人民广泛接受。 2.根据所表演角色的性别、年龄和社会地位的不同,演员角色分成四类:生(男角)、旦(女角)、净(花脸男角)、丑 (丑角)。 3.京剧的独特艺术魅力使它经久不衰:它创造了一种台上台下演员观众相互交融的美学欣赏与享受。 4.他曾成功地塑造了许多古代中国妇女的形象,完美地表现了她们的温柔、优雅和细腻。 5.梅兰芳也是把京剧介绍到国外的第一人。 6.作为中国的文化瑰宝,京剧必将获得全中国和全世界人民越来越多的喜爱。 Key to Exercise I. 1.Today, as one of the glowing pearls of oriental arts, not only has Beijing Opera been widely enjoyed all over China, it has also been well received all over the world. 2.According to the gender, age and social position of the different roles which they play, actors and actresses are divided into four categories: sheng (male roles), dan (female roles), jing (male roles with facial paintings) and chou (clowns). 3.The uniqueness of Beijing Opera makes its artistic charm so everlasting: the creation of an aesthetic co-appreciation between the actors and actresses on stage and the audience off stage. 4.Mei Lanfang had created very successfully various images of ancient Chinese women and expressed their tenderness, elegance and subtlety. 5.Mei Lanfang was also the first person who introduced Beijing Opera to foreign countries. 6.Being a great treasure of the Chinese culture, Beijing Opera will surely be more and more appreciated by people in China and in the whole world. Exercise II. Make a web advertisement in English, based on the information given in Chinese. 著名的京剧武生徐力先生最近接受了我们舞蹈学校的邀请,担任高级舞蹈教员。武生是京剧中的一个重要生角。武生的特点是武艺好,身手矫健敏捷。武生演员常通过在舞台上翻滚武打(tumbles, tweists, and somersaults)来表现他们高超的武艺。武生的动作准确有力,是大量艰苦训练的结果。 中国古典舞蹈和民族舞蹈的舞台技巧和身段(floor skills and postures)大多来自中国传统戏曲的武功(acrobatic skills)。我们舞蹈学校非常荣幸能够请到徐先生教授女子班毯子功(floor skills)和男子班的功夫课。有关课程安排请点击此网址。 Key to Ex. II Make a web advertisement in English, based on the information given in Chinese. A Rare Opportunity The famous Beijing Opera performer of Wu Sheng (acrobatic male role), Mr Xu Li, recently accepted an engagement with our Dancing School. Wu Sheng is a very important role in Beijing Opera. It requires a high level of acrobatic skills. Wu Sheng actors often show off their skills with tumbles, twists, and somersaults on the stage. These skills and movements require great precision in timing and strength, which takes a lot of training and exercise. Many of the floor skills and postures of classic and ethnic Chinese dances were originally from the acrobatic skills of traditional Chinese operas. Our dancing school is very fortunate to have Mr Xu Li to teach our Floor Skills class for girls and Kungfu class for boys. For class schedule, please click HERE. Exercise III. Translate the following sentences into English. 1.齐白石以革新水墨画和毕生献身于这项中国的传统艺术形式而闻名于世。 2.他在几天后把那幅画重画了很多次,但是总比不上他当天即兴完成的作品。 3.兰亭序的极高的艺术价值促使更多书法家临摹王羲之的字体。 4.一个好的书法家所写出来的字必须充满生气,活力并具备完美的形体。 5.书法是一门艺术,它需要清醒的头脑以及对毛笔有全面的掌握。 6.这个年轻演员认识到自己的演技还差,无法与他老师的演技相提并论。 Key Exercise III.


第三章名词的抽象和具体译法第一节名词的抽象译法(p68) 粗枝大叶to be crude and careless (with big branches and large leaves) 海阔天空to talk with random( with a vast sea and boundless sky) 灯红酒绿dissipated and luxurious (with red lights and green wine) 纸醉金迷of life of luxury and dissipation (with drunken paper and bewitched gold) 单枪匹马to be single-handed in doing sth (with a solitary spear and a single horse) 赤胆忠心ardent loyalty (with red gut and heart) 无孔不入to take advantage of every weakness (to get into every hole) 扬眉吐气to feel proud and elated (to raise the eyebrows and let out a breath) 开门见山to come straight to the point (to open the door and see the mountain) 大张旗鼓on a large and spectacular scale (to make a great array of flags and drums) 风雨飘摇(of a situation) being unstable (the wind and rain are rocking) 二.翻译下列句子 (1)这是他们夫妻之间的事情,你去插一脚干吗? That’s a business of their own, between husband and wife. Why should you get involved in? (2)别人家里鸡零狗碎的事情你都知道得这么全,真是个顺风耳啊! You know all the bits and pieces of trifles of other families. You are really well informed. (3)这消息让我出了一身冷汗。 I’m extremely terrified by the news. (4)她毛遂自荐来这所小学做老师。 She volunteered for the teaching post in this primary school. (5)我不敢班门弄斧,诚望您发表高见。 I dare not show off in the presence of(在……面前)an expert. I hope you would be kind enough to enlighten(启发,启蒙)us on this matter. (6)敌军闹得全村鸡犬不宁。 The enemy troops threw the whole village into great disorder. (7)敌军军官听说后路已被切断,吓得目瞪口呆。 The enemy officer was stunned by the news that the route of retreat had been cut off. (8)这些问题盘根错节,三言两语说不清楚。 These problems are too complicated to be explained clearly in a few words.

英汉汉英翻译学习 译后感

至今为止,已经学了一个学期的翻译基础。虽说未涉及汉译英的学习,但从过去这一学期对英译汉理论与实践的学习,我深知翻译并非一件容易的事。对我来说,学好翻译这门课程并将其运用到实践中去,任重而道远。 在未上翻译课之前,每每听人提及翻译,以为就只是单纯的两种语言的转换;谁知经过一个学期的翻译课学习,才知道自己竟是大错特错了。当代英国翻译理论家纽马克的翻译理论及其语言六大功能(表达功能、信息功能、祈使功能、人际功能、审美功能、元语言功能),我国翻译家严复的“信、达、雅”三大翻译标准等,让我更进一步了解什么是翻译。 对于我们初学者来说,在进行翻译活动时,除了要遵循翻译的两大原则(忠实、通顺)外,还要注意直译与意译、异化与归化等翻译技巧的运用。否则,翻译时,容易出现“翻译腔”。如;And so you shall be my darling----when l tell you! 译文一:当我告诉你的时候——我的宝贝,你会知道的。译文二:那你等着吧——等到我告诉了你,你就懂得了!这两种翻译中,第一种机械地模仿原文,不知变通,是典型的“翻译腔”。而第二种摆脱了原文的结构束缚,用符合目的语的语言表达形式再现了原文的意义和精神。 此外,对一些翻译技巧(如:词类转换法、重复法、正反反正翻译法、抽象与具体转换法、抽词拆译法、增词语省略法、物称人称转化法、形合意合转换法、视点转换法等)的学习及反复练习,也让我在学习的同时发现并总结出一些翻译时常出现的问题。如:的、地、得的正确使用(美丽的太阳花、吃力地行走、高兴得手舞足蹈);量词的正确使用(一只小熊、一头大熊、一个熊妈妈);标点符号的正确使用(注意句子的停顿);“so·····that”不能译成“如此·····以至于”可译成“那样·····因此or所以”;“when·····”不能译成“当······时”;人的mate译成“伙伴”,动物的mate译成“配偶”,而人的“配偶”是spouse;“go down the wind”译成顺着风走,“go up the wind”译成逆着风走;定语从句的译法:分片——逐个译出——理解大意——调整语序。 另外,长句的翻译也是一大难点。像顺序法、分译法、逆序法、综合法等长句翻译方法都可用于翻译中,才能译出更好的译文。 与汉语习惯不同,在英语中,为了避免重复,通常用同义词、近义词代替前文出现过的词。同时,英语中通常用大量的连词,是句子更紧凑,而汉语恰恰相反。因此,在英译汉时,要尽量避免将关联词“和、所以、因此、而且····”翻译出来。 我深知自己基础比较薄弱,因而在学习时也比较吃力,但我不会因此而自暴自弃,相反,我会加倍努力,尽自己最大的努力学好翻译这门课程。


第8章翻译写作篇 8.1 复习笔记 一、汉语的表达优势和行文特点 1. 精炼简约 汉语文章的这一特点,与汉语词汇的特点有关。 (1) 词本身没有形态变化,即它没有性、数、格、时态这些形式上的变化。如“你去”“我去”“今天去”“明天去”,都是一个“去”,词的语音和书写都没有发生变化。 (2) 语词具有一定的伸缩性。许多单音节和双音节的词一经重叠,即表示另外的意思,词性也可能发生变化。如“人——人人”“说——说说”“高兴——高高兴兴——高兴高兴”等。 (3) 许多双音节词还可以在特定的语境下节缩,并不影响原来意思的表达。如“无(执)照经营”“毫不利(自)己,专门利(他)人”“供(应)需(求)见面”等。 (4) 大量的成语、典故、俗语、谚语、格言等,以极少的文字包容了大量的信息。如“负荆请罪”“叶公好龙”等。 2. 富于意象 所谓意象,即感情与形象的有机结合。如“木欣欣以向荣,风飘飘而吹衣”能构成鲜明的意象美。汉字独特的形声构成,是汉语富于意象的重要因素。 3. 中文思维导致汉语文本独特的语言结构和形式要素。 中文思维有“象性原则”“并置原则”“对偶原则”“殿后原则”“铺排原则”“凝

练原则”和“协律原则”。 从翻译的角度看,直接对译文写作有影响的有: (1) 并置原则 汉语写作中常有“叠言”“叠句”“叠章”的语言形式。作者通过“并置”的语句,创造意象纷呈、语义丰满、语势张扬的叙述话语。如,“诚信是……;诚信是……”,不仅有声有色地强化了文意,同时还把文意展示为一个细腻、立体的意脉网络,见出才华和文采。 (2) 对偶原则 强调词性、词义的相反相成。在写作上,最典型的就是骈体文和近体诗的写作,它们都要求对仗,并形成了严格的规范。 这种对偶句式积淀在民族文化心理结构中,在写作中我们有了上句,往往下意识地就生带出下一句来。翻译到顺手处,译者自然也会写出这种句式。 (3) 凝练原则 中国人讲究“炼字”“炼句”“炼篇”和“炼意”,讲究“推敲”,林语堂认为,汉语的单音节性“造就了极为凝练的风格”。 (4) 声律原则 这一原则对诗和散文创作影响非常大。声律还包括节奏。“譬如仄声的字容易表示悲苦的情绪,响亮的声音容易显出欢乐的深情,长的句子表示温和弛缓,短的句子代表强硬急迫的态度”(梁实秋《论散文》)。 只要我们掌握了汉语的行文特征和神韵,我们就能在翻译过程中,自觉地在字里行间继承发扬这种文字传统,创造出灿烂的译文篇章。 二、翻译写作论

汉英翻译基础教程 第1章 练习参考答案

第一章汉英词汇比较与翻译 第一节翻译中的选义 一、结合语境选择较贴切的译文 1. b 2. a 3. b 4. a 二、译出下列词语,注意词语的不同搭配 1. a swarm of bees a brood of chickens a litter of pups 2. a bevy of beautiful ladies a pack of hounds a team of ducks a herd of antelopes 3. unfailing support proactive fiscal policy make effective use of overseas resources 4. make a phone call take a taxi knit a woolen sweater fetch water play basketball spray insecticide 5. basic wage capital construction essential commodity primary industry fundamental interest 三、翻译下列句子,注意画线词语的理解 1. The two leaders exchanged views on bilateral relations and issues of common concern 2. Party members should listen carefully to the opinions of the general public. 3. They offered some suggestions for the revision of the plan. 4. Everyone complained against such a practice. 5. They had a dispute at the meeting. 6. You should follow the doctor's advice. 7. They reached a consensus on this issue. 8. There is still some unfinished business to settle. 9. We have consulted him about the matter. 10. Please go back. There is nothing of your concern now 第二节翻译中的选词 一、翻译下列各句,注意词的选择和搭配。 1. That depends upon circumstances. 2. This state of affairs must be changed. 3. How do matters stand with them?

第2章 汉英翻译基础知识(新编汉英翻译教程 陈宏薇)

“文化”(culture) 物质文化(material culture) 制度文化(institutional culture) 心理文化(也称观念文化)(mental culture)咖啡(coffee)、 巧克力(chocolate)、 色拉(salad)、 三明治(sandwich)、 歇斯底里(hysteria)、 休克(shock)、 基因(gene)、 钙(calcium)、 维他命(vitamin)、 奥林匹克(Olympic)、 雷达(radar)、 先令(shilling)、 夹克(jacket)、 电视(television)、 激光(laser)、 飞机(aeroplane)、 火车(train)、 交响乐(symphony)、 基督徒(Christian)、 面包(bread)、 盲文(brail)、 圣诞老人(Santa Claus)、 圣经(Bible)、 马海毛(mahair)、 贝雷帽(beret)、 革命(revolution) 、营养(nourish)、 解放(liberate)、 民主(democracy)、 科学(science)、 独裁(dictatorship)、 心理学(psychology)、 形而上学(metaphysics)、 图书馆(library)、 想象(imagination)、 暗示(hint)、 投资(investment) 磁卡电话(card phone)、 立交桥(overpass)、 隐形眼镜(contact lenses)、

下拉菜单(pulldown)、 软驱(floppy drive)、 光驱(CD drive)、 鼠标(mouse)、 电脑(computer)、 内存条(RAM chip)、 复印机(xerox machine)、 安乐死(euthanasia)、 艾滋病(AIDS)、 香波(shampoo)、 连锁店(chain store)、 热狗(hot dog)、 自助餐(buffet)、 牛仔服(cowboy suit)、 T恤衫(T-shirt) 意合(parataxis) 隐性(covertness) 显性(overtness) 形合(hypotaxis) 伦理(ethics) 认知(cognition) 顺其自然(Let nature take its course in accordance with its natural tendency)、 听其自然(leave the matter as it is; take the world as it is)、 听天安命(accept the situation)、 听天由命(be at the mercy of nature; be left to God's mercy; let fate have its way; submit the will of Heaven; wait for one's fate)。 individualism( 不管别人怎样做)只按个人方法行事的感觉或行为;我行我素 个体主义”。 整体(integrity) 综合性(synthetic) 个体(individuality)、 分析性(analytic) 直觉(intuition) 实证(evidence) 天人合一”(The Unity of Man and Heaven



第一章 汉英语言对比 相关参考: 翻译教学和研究的经验表明:翻译理论和技巧必须建立在不同语言和文化的对比分析基础上。英汉互译的几项基本原则和技巧,如选词(Diction)、转换(Conversion)、增补(Amplification)、省略(Omission)、重复(Repetition)、替代(Substitution)、变换(Variation)、倒臵(Inversion)、拆离(Division)、缀合(Combination)、阐释(Annotation)、浓缩(Condensation)、重组(Reconstruction),以及时态、语态、语气、习语、术语等的译法,都集中地体现了英汉的不同特点。机器翻译是让计算机按照人们所制定的程序和指令进行不同语言的对比转换,也离不开对比分析。翻译之所以困难,归根结底是因为语言差异和文化差异。因此,对比、分析和归纳这些差异,便是翻译学的重要任务。 不同语言的对比分析不仅有利于教学和翻译,也有助于语言交际。通过对比分析,人们可以进一步认识外语和母语的特性,在进行交际时,能够有意识地注意不同语言各自的表现方法,以顺应这些差异,防止表达错误,避免运用失当,从而达到交际的目的。 ——连淑能,《英汉对比研究》 纪德是最理解莎士比亚的法国作家之一。在他看来,“没有任何作家比莎士比亚更值得翻译”,但同时,“也没有任何作家比他更难翻译,译文更容易走样”。纪德对莎士比亚的理解是双重的,既是精神的,也是语言的。他在与莎士比亚的相遇与相识中,经历了一系列的考验。对他在翻译中经历的这番历史奇遇,他曾在为七星文库出版的《莎士比亚戏剧集》撰写的前言中作了详尽的描述:描述了两种文化与两种语言之间的遭遇,也揭示了翻译中译者所面临的种种障碍。 纪德首先看到的,是语言与文化层面的逻辑性,这涉及到不同语言的思维方法。他说:“莎士比亚很少考虑逻辑性,而我们拉丁文化缺了逻辑性就踉踉跄跄。莎士比亚笔下的形象相互重现,相互推倒。面对如此丰富的形象,我们可怜的译者目瞪口呆。他不愿意对这种绚丽多彩有丝毫遗漏,因此不得不将英文原本中用仅仅一个词表示的暗喻译成一个句子。原来像蛇一样紧紧盘成一团的诗意,如今成了松开的弹簧。翻译成了解释。逻辑倒是很满意,但魅力不再起作用。莎士比亚的诗句飞跃而过的空间,迟缓的熊虫一瘸一拐才能走完。”在紧密的逻辑与丰富的形象之间,英语与法语的天平有所侧重,在两者的遭遇中,译者的无奈与局限源于文化与语言的巨大差异。 头脑清醒的纪德没有丝毫责备英语或莎士比亚的语言的意思,相反,在翻译莎士比亚的戏剧中,他充分意识到了母语的缺陷。他说:“只有在接触外语时,我们才意识到本国语言的缺陷,因此,只会法语的法国人是看不到缺陷的。”他的这一观点与德国作家歌德的观点几乎是一致的。异之于我,可作一明镜,从异中更清楚地照清自身。在这个意义上,与异语文化的接触,有助于认识母语与母语文化的不足。看清了自身的不足,便有可能从异语异文化中去摄取营养,弥补自身,丰富自身。 在艰难的翻译中,纪德亲历了种种障碍,他结合翻译中的具体例证,作了某



第一章汉英词汇比较与翻译 第一节翻译中的选义 一、结合语境选择较贴切的译文 1. b 2. a 3. b 4. a 二、译出下列词语,注意词语的不同搭配 1. a swarm of bees a brood of chickens a litter of pups 2. a bevy of beautiful ladies a pack of hounds a team of ducks a herd of antelopes 3. unfailing support proactive fiscal policy make effective use of overseas resources 4. make a phone call take a taxi knit a woolen sweater fetch water

play basketball spray insecticide 5. basic wage capital construction essential commodity primary industry fundamental interest 三、翻译下列句子,注意画线词语的理解 1. The two leaders exchanged views on bilateral relations and issues of common concern 2. Party members should listen carefully to the opinions of the general public. 3. They offered some suggestions for the revision of the plan. 4. Everyone complained against such a practice. 5. They had a dispute at the meeting. 6. You should follow the doctor's advice. 7. They reached a consensus on this issue. 8. There is still some unfinished business to settle. 9. We have consulted him about the matter. 10. Please go back. There is nothing of your concern now


一、汉译英部分 1.道可道,非常道;名可名,非常名。 ?Tao Te Ching - The Way of Life - The Wisdom of Ancient China ?The tao that can be described is not the eternal Tao. ?The name that can be spoken is not the eternal Name. The Way that can be told of is not an Unvarying Way; The names that can be named are not unvarying names. 2.子曰:“学而时习之,不亦说乎?有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?” ?The Master "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application? ?"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters? ?"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?" ?The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue." 曾子曰:“吾日三省吾身:为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?” The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on three points:-whether,in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher." 3. 子曰:“不患人之不己知,患不知人也。” ...子曰:“学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。” The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men." …The Master said, "Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous." 子曰:“温故而知新,可以为师矣。” The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others." 4. 古之学者必有师。师者,所以传道受业解惑也。人非生而知之者,孰能无惑?惑而不从师,其为惑也,终不解矣。生乎吾前,其闻道也,固先乎吾,吾从而师之;生乎吾后,其闻道也,亦先乎吾,吾从而师之。吾师道也,夫庸知其年之先后生于吾乎?是故无贵无贱,无长无少,道之所存,师之所存也。 In ancient times those who wanted to learn would seek out a teacher, one who could propagate the doctrine, impart professional knowledge, and resolve doubts. Since no one is born omniscient, who can claim to have no doubts? If one has doubts and is not willing to learn from a teacher, his doubts will never be resolved. Anyone who was born before me and learned the doctrine before me is my teacher. Anyone who was born after me and learned the doctrine before me is also my teacher. Since


中原文化与中原崛起 解读中原文化,我们不难看出,历史上的河南之所以能够长期成为中国政治经济文化中心,成为中华崛起的高地,与根深叶茂的繁荣文化是分不开的。当历史的车轮进入21世纪后,我们要实现中原崛起,很重要的一个方面,就是要开发我们的文化,发展我们的文化,创新我们的文化,要把我们丰富的文化资源变为强大的文化力量,促进又好又快发展,推动中原崛起。所以省八次党代会明确提出要实现经济大省向经济强省跨越、文化资源大省向文化强省跨越。这两个跨越相辅相成、缺一不可。特别是随着经济文化化、文化经济化、经济文化一体化时代的到来,我们只有把这两大跨越有机结合起来,才能加快中原崛起的进程。这次我们举办“中原文化香港行和2007年豫港贸易洽谈会”,实际上就是要充分展示中原文化的魅力,发挥中原文化的潜力、增强中原文化的吸引力,形成推动中原崛起的新动力。为此,我们将坚持先进文化的前进方向,大力发展先进文化与和谐文化,坚持用科学理论引领中原崛起,用人文精神凝聚中原崛起,以文化产业支撑中原崛起,以人才智力支持中原崛起,以创新文化推动中原崛起,全面提升中原文化的引领能力、服务能力和创新能力,为实现中原崛起提供强大的精神支持、智力支持和不竭动力。现阶段,我们首先要把家底摸清,弄清到底有多少文化的“金矿”、“银矿”、“铜矿”、“铁矿”。这项工作,目前已经全面启动,在全省范围内展开了文化资源的普查,一俟普查结束我们就制定开发利用的规划。从当前掌握的情况看,我们至少有以下八大产业可以很好地发展,这就是传媒出版、文博会展、文化旅游、功夫娱乐、影视动漫、戏曲演艺、书法绘画、网络创意等八大产业。我省的这八大产业都是省委、省政府下一步将重点支持发展的产业,无论从资源禀赋看,还是市场潜力看,都具有明显的比较优势和可期的经济效益。比如书法绘画,我们商丘市有一个王公庄村,家家户户画老虎,一年卖画四百万。我们的开封市多数成年人都是书法爱好者或者是各级书协会员。书法绘画在河南不仅有广泛的群众基础,而且有全国领军人物,现任的中国美协主席和中国书协主席都是我们河南人。再如功夫产业,少林功夫影响已经波及世界,来自国内外学习武术的学员仅登封一地就有10万多人,俄罗斯总统普京访问中国时专程拜访少林寺。陈氏太极拳也已经走出国门,开始在澳大利亚、美国等国家设馆收徒,吸引了大量国外的年轻人。河南文化产业的发展前景由此可见一斑。在此,我真诚的欢迎香港的企业家和有识之士到河南去看一看,也欢迎大家积极参与到河南文化产业的开发中来。我相信,只要我们团结一心,措施有力,有9800万勤劳智慧的中原儿女的奋发进取,有包括香港同胞在内的海内外朋友的热情参与,中原文化就一定能够迎来发展的春天,就一定能够放射出更加瑰丽的光彩,成为推动中原崛起的强大动力。 The Culture and the Development of the Central Plain of China A close examination of Central China’s culture clearly reveals that its culture with long and deep roots has contributed tremendously to its central position as the heart of politics and economy in the history of China. At the turn of the 21st century, it is of vital importance to exploit, develop and rejuvenate our culture in the project of resurrecting Central China’s economy , thus giving


《汉英翻译教程》 练习1 1、翻译的任务是什么? 2、翻译有哪几种种类? 3、翻译的标准是什么? 4、如何正确理解和表达? 练习2 翻译下列各句,注意词的选择和搭配: 1、那个受惊的小孩紧紧抓住他母亲的手。 2、他把自己的一生献给为人民服务的事业。 3、新生儿需要细心护理。 4、该委员会由五人组成。 5、我借一下你的电话好吗? 练习3 翻译下列各句,根据需要增补适当的词语: 1、中国总是要前进的。 2、你想看这本书,就先看吧。 3、所有公民在法律面前一律平等。 4、他们一听说有新任务就坐不住了。 5、只要中国人民积极奋斗,这个宏伟的战略目标是能够达到的。练习4 翻译下列各句,注意省略: 1.新老干部要互相学习,互相帮助,取长补短。 2.他一开口总是三句话不离本行。 3.每条河流都有上游、中游和下游。 4.一五一十地都给父母讲了。 5.他们是亲密无间的朋友。 练习5 翻译下列各句,注意划线部分词类的转换: 1.中国成功地爆炸了第一颗原子弹,在全世界引起了巨大的反响。2.共产党员应该吃苦在前,享受在后。 3.我们觉得解决这个问题并不难。 4.我们科学研究发展的特点是理论联系实际。 5.社会主义革命的目的是为了解放生产力。 练习6 翻译下列各句,注意划线部分在句中的位置: 1.他们最近的成就表明他们所取得的巨大进步。 2.这是唯一可能的解决的办法。 3.不论晴雨,我们明天非去不可。 4.我们必须清楚了解所有牵涉到的问题。

5.我率领的部队南征北战,越战越强。 练习7 翻译下列各句,注意运用语态变换的方法:1.关于这个问题,已经说得很多了。 2.医院立即收下那个重伤的男孩。 3.认识落后,才能改变落后。 4.这篇文章需要再润色一下。 5.他的话使我感到莫名其妙。 练习8 翻译下列各句,注意恰当运用正说与反说的技巧:1.他的暗示没有引起我的注意。 2.你恐怕弄错了。 3.他不在,我感到很寂寞。 4.只要他没有病倒,他是不会不来的。 5.是重力使我们不致于从地球上抛出去。 练习9 采用适当的方式翻译下列无主句: 1.以其人之道,还治其人之身。 2.前头坐着一位老人。 3.没有矛盾,就没有世界。 4.不入虎穴,焉得虎子。 5.忠诚党的教育事业。 练习10 将下列汉语省略句译成英语省略句: 1.妈妈买了一架电视机。 2.象是要下雨的样子。 3.多年来一直喝这种苦药,我真是喝够了。 4.他有自己的打算,但不愿向别人谈论。 5.这件事你不懂,就别再操心了。 练习11 翻译下列各句,注意“得”字句补语的译法:1.她伤心得大哭起来。 2.床收拾得很整齐。 3.他兴奋得说不出话来。 4.他累得走不动了。 5.她的头发长得几乎拖地了。 练习12 翻译下列各句,注意“把”字词组的译法:1.今天是什么风把你吹来了? 2.他们把我们看做自己家里人。 3.不要把你的衣服弄脏了。 4.母亲把孩子叫回来复习功课。 5.那意味着把工作交给他了。