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新视野大学英语第三版第一册课后翻译答案.doc

新视野大学第三版book1英语课后翻译答案

Unit1

苏格拉底是古希腊哲学家,被誉为现代西方哲学的奠基人。他是一个谜一般的人物,人们主要通过后来的一些古典作家的叙述,尤其是他最著名的学生柏拉图的作品去了解他。苏格拉底以他对伦理学的贡献而闻名。他的教学法亦称为苏格拉底法,即通过提问和回答来激发批判性思维以及阐述观点。该方法在各种讨论中仍被普遍使用。他还在认识论和逻辑领域作出了重大而深远的贡献。他的思想和方法所带来的影响一直是后来的西方哲学的坚实基础。苏格拉底是古代哲学史上最丰富多彩的人物。他在他那个时代已威名远扬。虽然他未曾建立什么哲学体系,未曾设立什么学派,也未曾创立什么宗派,但他的名字很快就变得家喻户晓了。

Confucius was a great thinker and educator in Chinese history. He was the founder of Confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient “sage”. His words and life story were recorded in The Analects. An enduring classic of ancient Chinese culture, The Analectshas had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after Confucius. Without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years’traditional Chinese culture. Much of Confucius’thought, especially his thought on education, has had a profound influence on Chinese society. In the 21st century, Confucian thought not only retains the attention of the Chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community.

Unit2

圣诞节是一个被广泛庆祝的文化节日,全世界有许许多多的人在12月25日庆祝这一节日。它是为了纪念耶稣基督的诞辰。该节日最早可追溯到公元336年。渐渐地,这一节日演变为一个既是宗教又是非宗教的节日,越来越多的非基督徒也庆祝圣诞节。如今,圣诞节在全球被作为一个重大的节日和公共假日来庆祝。不同国家的圣诞节风俗也各不相同。现代流行的圣诞接风俗包括交换圣诞贺卡和圣诞礼物、唱圣诞歌曲、参加教堂活动、摆放各种圣诞装饰品和圣诞树、举行家庭聚会以及准备一顿特别的大餐。对小孩子们来说,这个节日充满了幻想和惊喜。据传说,圣诞老人会在圣诞夜从烟囱进入每户人家,给乖巧听话的孩子带来礼物。由于圣诞节送礼物以及许多其他方面推动了基督徒和非基督徒的经济活动,圣诞节也因此成为商家的一个重大活动和主要销售季。

According to the Chinese lunar calendar, August 15 of every year is a traditional Chinese festival-the Mid-Autumn Festival. This day is the middle of autumn, so it is called Mid-Autumn. One of the important Mid-Autumn Festival activities is to enjoy the moon. On that night, people gather together to celebrate the Mid-Autumn Festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. The festival is also a time for family reunion. People living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival, all expressing people’s love and hope for a happy life. Since 2008, the Mid-Autumn Festival has become an official national holiday in China.

Unit3

伦敦地铁是英国的一个快速交通运输系统,服务于大伦敦的大部分地区。地铁系统因其地铁隧道的典型形状也被称为地下管道。伦敦地铁始建于19世纪中期,是世界上最早的地下铁路系统。它的第一段地铁于1863年开始运营。自此,伦敦地铁不断延伸,发展成为一个包括12条线路、275个车站、铁轨总长超过250英里的地铁杰作,其中有45%在地下运行。就路线长度而言,它是世界上第四大地铁系统,也是车站数量最多的地铁系统之一。作为一个走遍伦敦的经济便捷的途径,伦敦地铁一向是每天数百万通勤者以及在节假日游历伦敦的游客的首选。伦敦地铁已成为伦敦的一个国际标志。2013年伦敦举办了各种各样的活动,庆祝地铁运营150周年,纪念这一里程碑。

China’s space industry was launched in 1956. Over the past decades, China’s space industry has created one miracle after another. In 1970 China launched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking China the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth satellites. In 1992 China began to carry out the manned spaceflight program. In 2003 China launched shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. The successful launch made china the third country to launch manned spaceships. In 2007 Chang’e-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to space. In 2013 Shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched successfully, laying the foundation for building the Chinese Space Station.

Unit4

作为通过中国游历亚洲的首批欧洲人之一,马可·波罗可能是中国人最熟知的外国商人和航海家。从1271年到1295年,他和他的家人游历广泛,遍及欧洲和亚洲。期间,他在中国留居了17年。他的著作《马可·波罗游记》描述了他游历亚洲的旅程,让欧洲人首次全面领略了包括中国、印度和日本在内的远东地区的情况。从他的文字叙述中,西方人第一次了解到瓷器、煤炭、火药、印刷术、纸币以及丝绸。在15世纪末和16世纪欧洲发现与征服的大航海时代,马可·波罗所记录的大量新的地理信息得到了广泛使用。在他去世后的这几个世纪里,马可·波罗获得了他在有生之年未曾获得的赞誉。马可·波罗的故事鼓舞了其他无数的探险者去踏上征程,发现世界。

Zheng He was the most famous maritime explorer in Chinese history. In 1405 AD, the ruler of the Ming Dynasty sent Zheng He on a voyage to the Western Seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade by sea. In the following 28 years, Zheng He led his fleet, made seven voyages to the Western Seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and visited more than 30 countries and regions. The fleet traveled far into South Asia and West Asia, and made all the way to the continent of Africa. Zheng He’s voyages to the Western Seas were a great feat in the world’s navigation history. It showed Zheng He’s outstanding navigation and organization talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the Ming Dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the Ming Dynasty and the overseas countries.

Unit5

有关古代奥林匹克运动会的最早文字记载可追溯至公元前776年。古代奥运会每4年举办一次,在8月6日与9月19日之间的一个纪念宙斯的宗教节日期间举行。第一届现代奥运会于1896年在希腊雅典举办。奥运会的标志由五个大小相同的套环组成,代表着五大洲的联合和来自世界各地运动员的大聚会。奥运会真正腾飞、成为一项国际体育盛会是在1924年之后,即第8届奥运会在巴黎举办之后。这一年,来自44个国家约3000名运动员同场竞技,并且第一次在奥运会上增加了闭幕式这一仪式。同年,冬季奥运会首次亮相,比赛项目包括花样滑冰、冰球、雪橇和冬季两项运动。80年后,2004年夏季奥运会在相隔一个多世纪后再次在雅典举办,来自201个国家的近11000名运动员展开竞技,创下参赛国数目之最。

Tai Chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. It has a long history in China. With slow and gentle movements, Tai Chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. It can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. Therefore, it has become very popular among Chinese people. During its development, Tai Chi borrowed and absorbed desirable elements from traditional Chinese philosophy, medicine, and marital arts, and it has developed into a sport with unique features. As a unique sport in China, Tai Chi is also gaining increasing popularity among many foreign friends.

Unit6

间隔年指的是学生休假不去上学而去旅行或工作等的一段时间,但不一定是一年。间隔年通常选在高中毕业和进入大学之前的一段时间。在这段时间里,学生可以旅行、参加志愿者工作或是在国外边打工边度假。一种新潮流是参加语言学习、住家、文化交流、社区服务和自主学习于一体的国际教育活动。间隔年的做法于20世纪60年代兴起于英国。它在英国、澳大利亚、新西兰和加拿大已经变得非常流行。但是在美国,间隔年的做法仍然只是个别现象。不过近年来,间隔年对美国人来说变得稍微普遍起来。2013年有大约四万美国学生参加了间隔年活动,比2006年增加了近20%。普林斯顿大学、哈佛大学、麻省理工学院等大学都有明文规定允许学生延迟入学。

Since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, China’s education has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achievements. The Chinese government gives top priority to the development of education, persists in revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. Meanwhile, it actively promotes equality in education to guarantee everyone access to education. China’s achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: One is the popularization of the nine-year compulsory education; the other is the realization of mass higher education. The development of education has made significant contributions to China’s economic development and social process. In recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and economic development, the Chinese government had sped up the training of qualified personnel urgently needed in various fields.

Unit7

在所有美国人的信念中,最基本、最强烈的信念可能就是崇尚个人自由。要理解美国人,最重要的也许就是了解他们对“个人主义”的热爱。生活中他们很早就开始受到教育,把自己看成独立的个体,对人生中自己的处境以及自己的前途命运负责。美国人认为自己的思想和行为高度个性化。他们不愿被视为任何同质群体的代表。如果确实加入了群体,他们也认为自己有特别之处,与同一个群体中的其他成员有着些许的差别。与美国人对个人主义赋予的价值紧密相关的是他们对个人隐私的重视。美国人认为,人“需要有自己的时间”或者“有时间独处”,用来思考事情,或者恢复他们所消耗的心理能量。美国人很难理解那些总想与人结伴、不爱独处的外国人。

Integrity and harmony are traditional Chinese virtues. “Harmony”is demonstrated in various aspects. In regard to interpersonal relations, traditional Chinese thoughts hold that “Harmony is most precious”and “A family that lives in harmony will prosper”. A harmonious social environment can be created based on these principles. As for relations between human beings and nature, people should learn to understand, respect and protect nature. Harmony is essential to interpersonal relations, relations between human beings and society, as well as between human beings and nature. Nowadays, harmonious development is still the way of running the country and managing talented personnel. With the development of China’s society, economy and culture, the idea of “harmony”goes even deeper into people’s hearts. China is on its way toward the goal of building a harmonious socialist society.

Unit8

作为世界上唯一一个真正具有普遍性的世界组织,联合国已经成为处理超越国界、而且任何一个国家都无法独立解决的问题的首要论坛。联合国最初的宗旨是维护和平、保护人权、建立国际公平主义的框架以及促进经济和社会进步。近年来,联合国又面临着新的挑战,诸如气候变化、国际恐怖主义和艾滋病等。现在,解决争端及维护和平仍然是联合国最主要的任务。除此之外,联合国及其专门机构还致力于各种旨在改进世界人民生活的活动,从赈灾到教育和妇女进步,再到原子能的和平使用。联合国及其专门机构推动世界成为一个更加友好、更加宜居的地方,为全世界人民带来了福祉。

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, China has persisted in the independent foreign policy of peace, and made tremendous progress in foreign affairs. By 2011, China had established diplomatic relations with 172 countries. Over recent years, with the enhancement of its comprehensive national strength, China has been playing an increasingly important role in international affairs, and China’s international status has been further enhanced. In regional affairs, China actively promotes all kinds of regional cooperation. It has made important contributions in maintaining regional peace and promoting regional development. China’s diplomacy will hold high the banner of “peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit”. On the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and through all-round and friendly cooperation with various countries, China will make unremitting efforts to build a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.

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