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英汉互译教程

英汉互译教程
英汉互译教程

英汉互译教程

Unit3

Words have no meanings, context gives them. 词本无意,意随文生。

Words have no meanings, people give them.词本无意,意随人生。

3.1 Meaning: denotation and connotation

denotation: literal meaning

Connotation: implied meaning

所谓概念意义,也叫外延意义(denotative Meaning)或认知意义(cognitive Meaning),就是词汇的最基本意义,是语言符号所代表的事物的基本特征的抽象概括,常视为词语在字典中的定义或释义

所谓内涵意义(connotative meaning),是隐含于或附加在概念意义上的意义。社会、群体或个人都可以使一个词具有内涵意义,有时还是很不相同的内涵意义。这种差异既可以存在于两种语言、两种文化之间,也可以存在于一种语言和一种文化的亚文化之间。

Standard of translation

各种翻译技巧、变化等等,都是为了表达的需要(忠实、通顺)。而为了达到这些效果,就不得不借助于以下这些概念:

text type, collocation, context, style, etc.

It is not surprising, then that the world saw a return to a floating exchange rate system. Central banks were no longer required to support their own currencies.

在这种情况下,世界各国又恢复浮动汇率就不足为奇了。各国中央银行也就无须维持本币的汇价了。

Floating policy is of great importance for export trade; it is, in fact, a convenient method of insuring goods where a number of similar export transactions are intended, e.g. where the insured has to supply an overseas importer under an exclusive sale agreement or maintains sales representatives or subsidiary companies abroad.

统保单对出口贸易至关重要。它实际上是货物保险中的一种便利的办法,特别适合于分不同的时间出口的一批类似货物,如,当被保险方根据独家代理协议书向国外的进口方供货,或在国外委任了销售代表,设立分支机构时用之。

3.1 纵聚合与横聚合

语义场中,词汇的语义关系可分为纵聚合关系(paradigmatic relationship)与横组合关系(syntagmatic relationship)。

纵聚合关系指的是词语的纵向替代关系。

横组合关系指的是词语间的搭配关系。

做饭做礼拜

做梦做买卖

做客做学问

语义场中,词汇的语义关系可分为纵聚合关系(paradigmatic relationship)与横组合关系(syntagmatic relationship)。

纵聚合关系指的是词语的纵向替代关系。

横组合关系指的是词语间的搭配关系。

做饭 to do cooking 做礼拜 to go to church

做梦 to have a dream 做买卖 to do business

做客 to be a guest 做学问 to do research

英汉两种语言之间的语义关系有以下三种:语义相符、语义相异、语义空缺。

语义相符:词语的指称意义和蕴涵意义相符。多为专有名词、术语或普通名词。

But as unemployment begins to rise, as profits starts to fall, as interest rates soar, and as the cost of living is at record levels, there economic facts cannot merely be dubbed “inflation”.

而在经济领域中,如果失业开始上升,利润开始下降,利率激增,生活费用达到空前的水平,那么这些现象就不能仅仅以“通货膨胀”来加以解释了。(刘宓庆) 语义相异:指称意义和蕴涵意义有一个不同,或者两者均不相符。

难点:指称意义一致而蕴涵意义不同的词语。

武行者心中要吃,哪里听他分说,一声喝到:“放屁!放屁!” (《水浒传》)Now Wu the priest longed much in his heart to eat and so how could he be willing to listen to this explanation? He bellowed forth, “Pass your wind ---- Pass your wind!” (赛珍珠译)

词义空缺:指称意义活蕴涵意义在译入语中不存在。

功夫 Kong fu 麻将 majiang

太极 tai chi 胡同hutong

3.1.2 词义的横组合关系

横组合关系:词汇之间的搭配关系。英汉两种语言的横组合关系通常是不对应的。

Credit cards enables their holders to obtain goods and services on credit.

译文:信用卡能使持卡人以赊账的方式购买商品,享受服务。

3.2 指称意义与蕴涵意义

1. 糖葫芦:Tanghulu, a sugar-coated fruit on the stick which is a kind of

children’s favorite food in winter

2. Soon November will be approaching with its autumn storms and leaden clouds,

hanging above your head like soaking wet rags.

十一月行将降临,带来秋的凄风苦雨和浅灰色阴云,像浸水的抹布一样压在你的头(陆谷孙译)

3.3 语境与翻译

语境分为:语言语境和文化语境。

语言语境:篇章内部语言单位之间的关联性。

文化语境:语篇外部非语言的因素。

1. “Hold on, Arthur, my boy,” he said, attempting to mask his anxiety with

facetious utterance. (Martin Eden by Jack London)

“等等,亚瑟,老兄,”他想说句俏皮话掩饰心中的紧张,… (孙法理译)

2. 下象棋我只会马走日,象走田。

I only know the most basic moves of the Chinese chess.

3. 对手很老练地拿起棋子儿,嘴里叫着:“当头炮。” 他跟着跳上马。对手马上

把他的卒吃了,他也立刻用马吃了对方的炮。我看这种简单的开局没有大意思,又

实在对象棋不感兴趣,就转了头。(注:不能照字面意义翻译)

His opponent picked up a piece with an experience d hand and said, “I’ll move my cannon into the center.” The chess player sent his knight into action, whereupon his opponent took one of his pawns. At once the chess player took his opponent’s cannon with his knight. I didn’t find this very conventional

opening at all interesting. Besides, chess did not mean very much to me anyhow.

I turned away.

3.4 文体与翻译

根据使用的场合,英语可分为:正式英语(formal English)与非正式英语(non-formal English)

Martin Joos (美国语言学家):庄严体(frozen style)、正式体(formal style)、商议体(consultative style)、随意体(casual style)和亲密体(intimate style)。

3.5 语域与翻译

语域是一种语言变体,话语范围(field)、话语方式(mode)和话语基调(tenor)不是语域的组成部分,而是决定语域的三个变量。

话语范围:言语交际过程发生的事情、进行的活动、论及的事情或者表达的经验等 话语方式:言语交际的方式或媒介。

话语基调:交际情境中讲话者与受话者之间的关系和讲话者的交际意图。

后来运动起来,忽然有一天大家传说棋呆子在串连时犯了事儿,被人押回学校了。

我对棋呆子能出去串连表示怀疑,因为以前大家对他的描述说明他不可能解决串连

时的吃喝问题。(注:蕴涵某个时代的特有词汇)

Later on, after the “cultural revolution” had started, the news h ad gone around one day that he had gone into serious trouble while away from home “exchanging revolutionary experience” and been sent back under escort to his school. I expressed my doubts about whether the Chess Maniac could possibly have gone off on an exchanging revolutionary experience. Everything

I had heard about him made obvious that he could not possibly have coped with

feeding himself when away.

Unit4 英汉翻译技巧

?常见的翻译技巧主要有五种,包括增译法、词类转换法、语态转换法、词序调整法和分译法。

?In the West, everybody is talking about going to the East and making an investment. Apparently a growing number of foreign firms have been pouring into China, and the Pudong area of Shanghai is among the best choices of their investment destination. Today it is not a matter of whether to go east, but when and how.

译文: 现在西方人人都在谈论去东方投资。显然越来越多的外国公司纷纷涌入中国,而上海的浦东地区是人们投资的首选目的地之一。现在的问题不在于是否要去东方投资,而在于何时去投资为好,如何去投资为好。

?Bounces are, by definition, temporary. Nearly a fortnight has passed since the end of the Republican convention and it is clear that it, and the Democratic get-together beforehand, have produced more than just a bounce.

The conventions, and especially John McCain’s choice of Sarah Palin, have changed the course of the presidential race. On Monday September 15th both

candidates sought to make tough statements on the demise of Lehman Brothers and the turmoil on Wall Street. And both attempted to score points off the other over the strength of those responses. (from Economist Sep16, 2008)?译文: 从词语内涵上看,“反弹”暗含“难以持续”的意味。共和党全国代表大会已于两周前宣告结束。很明显,这次民主党和共和党全国代表大会的先后召开,带来的可不仅仅只是共和党候选人麦凯恩选情的一时反弹。两次大会的召开,特别是麦凯恩挑选了莎拉·佩林作为自己的竞选搭档,已经极大地改变了总统选战的进程。

9月15日,两位候选人对雷曼兄弟公司的倒闭和华尔街的混乱发表了强硬的措辞。

他们都试图从对方对该事件的回应中挑出毛病,进而打击对手得分。(李宏顺译) ?Within just one full day in office, the new President issued a blistering array of orders reversing the policies of George W. Bush —on harsh interrogation techniques, on access to government information and on Guantánamo, which he announced he would close. (By Michael Scherer from Time, April 21, 2009)

?译文: 就任美国总统才刚满一天,新总统奥巴马就闪电般签署了一连串行政命令来纠正前总统布什的政策,这些命令包括取消残酷的侦讯手段,调整政府的情报政策,并宣布将限期关闭关塔那摩监狱。

?I had imagined it to be merely a gesture of affection, but it seems it is to smell the lamb and make sure that it is her own. (From Laming Time by Ann Blackmore)

?译文: 我原以为这不过是一种亲热的姿态,但是现在看来,这是为了闻一闻羊羔的味道,来判断是不是自己生的崽。

? 4.2.2 词类转移法

?英语中多使用名词,包括抽象名词和带有动作意味的名词,而汉语中则多用动词。

所以在翻译时,英语中的名词常常可以转译成汉语中的动词结构。而形容词转化为副词,系表结构转化为汉语动词,形容词转化为动词,介词转为动词,名词转为形容词,等等

?The victory of justice over arbitrary acts, of reason over decadence and blindness, of democracy over imperialism, of good over evil, our victory of

25 October will represent one of the glorious pages of our history.

?译文: 正义战胜了专断行为,理智战胜了堕落和盲目,民主战胜了帝国主义,善战胜了恶,我们在10月25日取得的胜利将作为光辉篇章之一载入史册,我们将把它传给子孙后代。

?I am so graceful to my father for his continuous encouragement during my childhood.

?译文:我非常感激父亲,因为在我小的时候他总是不断地鼓励我。

?So we have two leading Democrats who are as vulnerable as they are formidable.

And while much has been made of the fact that Obama and Clinton face the challenge of being potential presidential firsts—African American and woman—I suspect neither Senator worries overmuch about those innate hurdles.

Both have a more immediate and intimidating problem: each will spend the next year running against the most formidable living Democratic politician, Bill Clinton.

?译文: 可以说,民主党的这两位领先人物既有容易遭人攻击的弱点,同时又具有很

强的优势。尽管他们面临着成为第一位黑人总统抑或成为第一位女总统的挑战这一事实备受关注,但我觉得两位参议员对这种内在的障碍并不过分担心。

? 4.2.3 语态转换法

?英汉两种语言中被动语态的使用大不相同,英文惯用被动语态,而汉语中较少使用。

?所谓语态转换法,是指在翻译中将原文的被动语态转换为译文的主动语态(多见于英译汉),或者将原文的主动语态转换为译文的被动语态(多见于汉译英)。

?注意;以下皆有两种翻译,只是将较好的选取

Most of the questions have been settled satisfactorily, only a few of second importance remains to be discussed

?大部分的问题已经圆满解决,只剩下个别几个次要的问题还有待讨论。

?Scores of books have been written about Roosevelt, exploring every nook and cranny of his experience, so Smith breaks no "news" and offers no previously undisclosed revelations concerning the man from Hyde Park.

?译文2: 迄今为止,有关罗斯福的书已经多达几十本,将罗斯福人生经历中的每一个细微之处探究得清清楚楚,因此史密斯这本书并未披露什么“新闻”,也没能发掘有关罗斯福的任何不为人知的轶事。

?语态转换法还可以应用于一些英文固定结构和句型,这些常见的英文被动句型常常译成汉语的主动态,如:

?It is said that… 译成“ 据说……”

?It is reported that… 译成“据报道……”

?It must be admitted that… 译成“必须承认……”

?It is believed that... 译成“有人相信…….”

?It is universally acknowledged that/ it is well known that… 译成“众所周知”,或者“……是举世公认的真理”

?I was told that….译成“有人告诉我……”或“听说……”

? 4.2.4 词序或句序调整法

?所谓词序或句序调整法,是指在翻译实践中,常常要将英语中的某些词语,短语,分句在原文中的位置进行改动,或放在句首,或放于句末,或放于句中;有时需要将原文中多个部分的位置打乱,重新组合,如把短语,分句颠倒词序,使译文更加符合汉语的语法和行文习惯,表达更加地道流畅,避免因生搬硬造而导致的译文腔,使译文更具可读性。

?Real estate might be expected to appreciate steadily in value during the 21st century, given that both the global population and global prosperity are rising.

?译文: 鉴于全球人口和全球财富都在增长的趋势,预计房地产可能会在二十一世纪实现稳定升值。

?We ought to consider not only that our life is daily wasting away and a smaller part of it is left①, but another thing also must be taken into account②, that if a man should live longer③, it is quite uncertain ④whether the understanding will still continue sufficient for the comprehension of thins⑤, and retain the power of contemplation which strives to acquire the knowledge of the divine and the human⑥.

?译文1: 我们不应该只是怀想,生命是一天天地在消逝,来日所余无多①;我们也要想一想②,假使寿命可以延长③,我们的心灵将来是否仍可同样的适宜于了解事

实以及对于与人的事物之沉思冥想⑤⑥,恐怕是个疑问吧?④ (梁实秋译,《沉思录》)

? 4.2.5 复合句的分译法

?。所谓的分译法就是指对复杂的长句进行化整为零,在必要的地方(如关系代词、关系副词、并列连词等)按照意群将句子切分开来。

?They empties arsenals of foul epithets with which the vocabulary of the fourth century was so richly stocked to disgrace the fame of a honest man who lived

a life of ascetic simplicity and devoted all his energies to the happiness

of his people who has been entrusted to his care.

?译文2: 他们穷尽一切公元四世纪所能想到的肮脏污秽的形容词来诋毁一个诚实人的名声,这个老实人过着苦行僧般简单质朴的生活,并殚精竭虑为自己管辖的民众谋福祉

?As you linger on the mountain pass to admire the rugged reflection of Beinn

a Lochain in the waters of Loch Restil, spare a thought for the weary sheep

drovers who used to pause here for a breath after a long steep climb from Loch Fyne.

?译文2: 当你流连于此山口,赞赏雷斯蒂尔湖中贝安山嶙峋的倒影时,请想想从前那些疲惫的赶羊人吧。他们从法恩湾出发,沿陡峭山路,经长途跋涉,然后在此歇息。(曹明伦译)

? A promiscuous actress is murdered at an otherwise pleasant resort hotel, thereby interrupting Hercult Poirot’s vocation, much in the same way the real actress’ pleasant sojourn in sunny Majorca was occasionally interrupted by the fact that they were to make a movie. (by Michael Tennenbaum from Christie Movie II, from The Bedside, Bathtub and Armchair Companion to Agatha Christie)

?译文: 一个风骚的女演员正在愉快地度假,不料一天,她在一个旅游胜地的旅馆被人谋杀。这桩案子打断了赫克尔·波洛的度假。这好比现实生活中的一个女演员,当她正在阳光灿烂的马略卡岛度假时,突然有电影要拍,于是愉快的假期也只能暂时

Unit 5

?汉语句子强调主题,以意统形,句法特征是“意合”,强调逻辑与意义的关联,句界的划分往往比较模糊。而英语句子主谓两分,讲求主谓关系一致,句法特征是“形合”,强调形式和功能,强调句子内部和句子之间的衔接,句子划分有严格的要求。

了解汉英语言的这些基本差异,在汉译英时注重汉语“话题句”和英语“主谓句”

的转换,可以避免误译、错译

?总的来说,汉语句子英译的基本顺序是:1)结合汉英句子的差异,正确分析句子之间和句子内部的关系;2)根据意群断句,合理安排译文句子的结构,做到句子的信息主次分明,轻重有别;3)运用衔接手段(cohesive device)将隐含在原文中的逻辑关系凸显出来,完成由汉语隐形、意合到英语显性、形合的转换。

?一、主语的确定

?汉语的主语,一般可以直接译为英语句子的主语。但是有时,因为语义或者逻辑关系的差异,某些汉语的主语不宜作英语句子的主语,常见的处理办法是在汉语句子中寻找其他成分作英语句子的主语,或者干脆重新增补主语。

?我国的社会主义建设事业,需要尽可能多的知识分子为它服务。

?译文:China needs the services of as many intellectuals as possible for the task of building socialism.

?乡里消息传到城里来,城里的绅士立刻大哗。

?译文2:When the news from the countryside reached the cities, it caused immediate uproar among the gentry.

?无锡是南方江苏省的一个小城,位于南京和上海之间。

?译文3:Located mid-way between Nanjing and Shanghai, Wuxi is a medium sized city in Jiangsu Province, East China

?太湖奇峰环抱,烟水迷朦,自然天成的湖光山色,美不胜收。

?译文2:The mist-covered surface of the water and surrounding peaks make Taihu

a splendid natural landscape

?二、谓语的确定

?汉译英时,是先确定主语还是谓语,并没有固定的先后顺序。可以根据实际情况先确定主语,后确定谓语;也可以先确定谓语,再确定主语。

?中国将融入世界经济的大潮。

?译文1:Chinese economy will merge into the tide of the world economy. ?译文2:economy of China will converge with that of the world.

?点评:“merge into”有“消没在……之中”的意思,不符合原意。“converge wit h”则表示“与……融合在一起”。

?历史不能割断。今天的中国是前天和昨天的中国发展而来的。

?译文2:History is a continuous whole. China today is a development of China yesterday and the day before yesterday.

?痛苦的我常常痛苦地想,如果能重活一回,我再也不与世俗去抗争,因为与世俗抗争是要付出代价的。

?译文:In excruciating agony, I often ponder this: if I could live my life once again, I would never try to achieve the elimination of prejudices of any kind for the simple reason that there is a price to pay.

?三、语序的调整

?汉、英两种语言在语序上有相同之处,例如主语、谓语和表语等。主要区别在于定语和状语位置的不同,以及叙述的逻辑有所不同。

?他到过的国外的地方,我在半个世纪以前就到过了,如伦敦、巴黎、罗马、佛罗伦萨等欧洲城市。

?译文:Overseas, he has been to places such as London, Paris, Rome and Florence in Europe, which I had visited half a century ago.

?英国是第一个承认中华人民共和国的西方大国。

?译文:The United Kingdom was the first Western power to recognize the People’s Republic of China.

?外资企业在中国购买物资,在同等条件下,享受与中国企业同等的待遇。

?译文:Purchasing materials in China, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise shall enjoy equal treatment accorded to Chinese enterprises under the same condition.

?从前没有电视,他总是在晚饭后和家人聊天。

?译文:He always had a chat with his family after dinner when there was no

TV set.

? 5.3 汉语篇章的英译

?汉语的句法特征是意合,不在意语篇的形式衔接;而英语句子强调形态变化和语篇的衔接,句法特征是形合。所以,汉语篇章在译成英语时,要根据语义合理断句,并适当增补衔接词。

?中国沿海共有160多处海湾和几百公里深水岸线,许多岸段适合建设港口,发展海洋运输业。沿海地区共有1500多处旅游娱乐景观资源,适合发展海洋旅游业。中国海域还有丰富的海水资源和海洋可再生能源。

?译文:More than 160 bays are spread alon g China’s coasts, plus the deep-water stretches of coast with a total length of several hundred kilometers. Many spots along the coastline are suitable for constructing harbors and developing marine transportation. There are more than 1,500 tourist, scenic and recreation spots favorable for developing marine tourism. In addition, China’s offshore areas abound in seawater resources and regenerable marine energy resources.

? 5.4 汉语英译的逻辑问题

?逻辑也是在汉译英时需要特别注意的问题。主要表现在:语义重复、语序混乱、指代不一、主次不分等。

?持续下了几天雨,郊区的道路境况极坏。

?译文:The roads in the suburbs are very bad owing to the continual rainy days.

?古来一切有成就的人,都很严肃地对待自己的生命,当他活着一天,总要尽量多工作、多学习,不肯虚度年华,不让时间白白地浪费掉。

?译文2:Throughout the ages, all people of accomplishment take their lives seriously. As long as they are alive, they would rather devote themselves to more work and study than let a single minute slip by in vain.

上海的字面意义是“位于海之上”。它位于长江流入大海之前足后一条支流的黄浦江畔。

? b. Shanghai, which means “above the sea”, is on the Huangpu River, the lowest tributary at the mouth of the Yangzi.

?我们的事业从胜利走向胜利。

? b. Our cause has won victory one after another.

?宗教不得干预政治。

? b. It is impermissible to interfere with politics in the name of religion. Unit 6

6.1 法律翻译

?作为应用性文体翻译的一种,法律翻译(legal translation)是指不同语言的法律文

本(legal texts)之间的转换活动,是一种法律转换(legal transfer)和语言转换(language transfer)同时进行的双重工作(double operation)(Sarcevic, 1997:12)

一、法律文本的语言特征

?法律语言三个最本质的特征-——准确性、权威性和约束力。

?法律文本的主要功能决定了其“冰冻体”(frozen style)的文体特征。

?行文非常正式、复杂、保守、广泛使用古体词和法律术语、有极其复杂的长句和固

定的语篇结构,构成了法律文体的基本语言特征。

1.法律文本的词汇特征

1)具有独特法律含义的普通词

?词汇普通意义法律意义

?action 行动诉讼

?answer 回答答辩

?appeal 呼吁上诉

?apprehend 领悟抵押

?avoid 避开废止

?bill 账单法案

?challenge 挑战回避

?charge 要(价),收费控告,委托

?client 顾客当事人,委托人

?committee 委员会监护人

?condemn谴责判刑,定罪

?declaration 声明,宣言申诉书

?defense 防御辩护

?discovery 发现证据开示

?exhibit 展开物证

? hear 听,听见听审,听证

?limitation 限制时效

?party 晚会当事人

?petitioner 申请人申诉人

?proceed 进行起诉

?recognize 认识备案

?report 报告揭发

?respondent 回答者应诉人

?service 服务送达

?suit 一套服装诉讼案件

?undo 解开勾引,诱奸

?vacation 假期休庭期间

?validity 有效性合法性

?well 好,井律师席

?wrong 错误违法

2)来自古英语和中世纪英语的稀有词

?aforesaid前述的 forthwith随即

?hereafter之后 hereby据此

?herein本文件中 hereinafter下文

?hereinbefore上文 hereof本文件的

?hereto于此 heretofore(迄今为止)

?hereunder在下文 here-with随附

?pursuant to按照 thence从那里,因此

?thenceforth从那时起,此后 thereabout大约

?thereafter之后 thereat在那里

?thereby因此 therein在其中

?thereon在其上 thereto到那里

?theretofore直到那时 thereunto在那里

?thereunder在其下,据此 thereupon就该事

?therewith与此 whereas鉴于

?whereat在那里,对那个 whereby藉以,凭那个

?whereof关于某事 whereon在那上面

?3)拉丁词和短语

?法律英语中的拉丁词和短语使语言严肃冰冷。由于法律越来越成为当代人们生活的

一部分,一些法律上常用的标准拉丁词已经在人们的日常生活中得到认可.

?alias别名

?alibi不在犯罪现场

?quorum法定人数

?in flagrante delicto当场,在作案时

?writ of fieri facias财物扣押令

?ex parte单方面的

?guardian ad litem法定监护人

?4)法语外来词

?由于英国曾经很长一段时间受法国人统治,英文法律词汇中源自法语的词汇数量相

当庞大,而且这些词汇已经成为英文中基本的法律词汇。

?action诉讼 appeal上诉 bill法案

?guardian监护人 defendant被告 plaintiff原告

? suit诉讼案件 verdict (陪审团的)裁决

?还有一部分古旧法文词尚未进入普通英文的词汇表,其使用范围只局限在法律专业

人员之间的书面交流中。这些专用的法语法律用词有:

?alien让与(相当于to transfer)

? chose in action权利动产

?demurrer抗辩

?oyez肃静

?quash撤诉

?5)法律专业术语

?法律专业术语具有明确的、特定的法律上的含义

?英汉法律互译中普遍存在的一个问题,即术语不对称——原文中的多义术语可能对

应着传递不同法律概念的多个译文术语。在不同法律体系之间,这种对应会变得更加复杂,特别是当两种法律概念差异明显或无对应概念时。

?6)法律行话

?法律术语可以是对内的,如律师对律师或法官对律师,也可以是对外的,如律师对

客户或普通民众。行话则不然,它是完全对内的,即同行的语言,虽然有时并非故意要将行外人士排斥在外。

?常用的法律行话用语:

?abet 教唆

?accessory 帮凶

?accomplice共犯

?adhesion contract 附意合同

?adverse possession 相反占有权

?clean hands 清白的

?condition precedent先决条件

?general counsel 首席法律顾问

?grandfather clause (新颁发法律中)不追溯条款

?hung jury 意见分歧的陪审团

?inferior court 初级法院,下级法院

?insider trading 秘密交易

?interstate commerce(美)州际商会

?issue of fact事实上的争论点

?issue of law法律上的争论点

?latent defect 隐蔽的缺陷

?legal fiction 法律拟制,法律上的假定

?liquidated damages已判定的赔偿金

?7)正式词语

?法律文本中的正式词汇,不仅指书面语用语,更包括即便是在普通书面语体中也不

常用的正式程度较高的词汇或短语。例如普通书面语体中常见的according to (按照),with regard to、regarding或concerning(有关)等,在法律文体中,更常用的表达是正式程度更高的词汇in accordance with、pursuant to,及in respect of等。这类词汇还包括许多委婉语(词)。例如,死去的人the dead,在法律英语中会用the deceased或the decedent。

?8) 模糊词语

?汉英两种法律语言各自有不少模糊词汇。比如汉语中常用到“大约、若干、严重、

从重、从轻、恶劣、合理的、数额巨大的”,等等。英语中常用到about, further, general, reasonable, necessary, properly, perfect, within, possible, approximately等.

?不仅具有概括性、灵活性的特点,而且具有丰富的法律内涵

?9) 配对词和三联词

?法律文书中的配对词(couplets/doublets/legal pairs)和三联词(triplets)指用

两个或三个意思相近或相同的赘词(tautology)构成一个短语以表达法律上本来只需要一个词就能表达的概念。

?null and void

?sell, transfer(转让)or dispose(处置)

2. 法律文本的句法特征

?语气上一般使用陈述句,疑问句几乎不用;语态上英语法律文本多使用被动态故多

为完整句,省略句几乎不用,而汉语法律文本多使用主动态,且多为无主句(规范性法律文本如法条尤为突出)

?1) 语态

?在语态方面,法律文本的客观性决定了法律英语中被动语态比比皆是

?汉语立法文本却多为无主句,故罕见被动语态。

第六十一条对于犯罪分子决定刑罚的时候,应当根据犯罪的事实、犯罪的性质、情节和对社会的危害程度,依照本法的有关规定判处。 --- 《中国人民共和国刑法》

?译文2:

?Section 61 A criminal shall be sentenced to a punishment in accordance with

the facts, nature and circumstances of the crime, the degree of harm done to society and the relevant provisions of this law. (腾超、孔飞燕,2008:

21)

?2) 慎用代词

?法律文件应当“慎用代词,只有被指代的词不被误解并且是中性词时,或者是存在

着一系列的名词如果不用代词则只能重复这些名词因而有明显的累赘毛病时,才可使用代词”。

?实际上,在英文法律文本中,较为典型的是以“same”,“said”,“such”等词指

代相关内容,因为这三个词能在很大程度上明确指代内容,减少模糊和歧义。

?3) 名词与动词

?名词在法律英语中出现的频率远高于任何其他词性,因为以名词作主语或宾语的中

心词时可附加较多的限定词。

?动词名词化是法律英语中随处可见的现象,因为名词化结构的非人格化效果可以产

生一种不容置否的权威性。

?相反,法律汉语里更多的是使用动词。

?4) 长句

?法律文本的社会功能要求其必须详尽而准确,不能引起任何歧义,这就必然导致其

句法结构的繁琐与复杂,长句也较多。

? A contract in writing which contains a clause indicating that the writing

completely embodies the terms on which the parties have agreed can not be contracted or supplemented by evidence of prior statements or agreements.

However, such statements or agreements may be used to interpret the writing.

?译文:书面合同中,有条款表明该书面合同完全体现了当事人已达成协议的条款的,

不得把以前的声明或协议加入合同,或以此声明或协议对合同加以补充。但此声明或协议可以用于解释该合同。

?Provided that the acceptance of rent or mesne profits by the Landlord after

the expiration of the term of the tenancy hereby created shall not be deemed to operate as a waiver of breach of any of the terms hereof nor as a new periodic tenancy by way of holding over or otherwise. A new Tenancy shall only be created by a fresh tenancy agreement in writing signed by the Landlord and the Tenant.

?译文:倘若在本合约规定的租借期满后业主接受租金或中间收益,不应该被认为是

起了放弃或违背合约的任何条件的作用,也不应该认为是起了作为继续租用或其它的新租期的作用。新租约只能是业主和租户签署的新书面租凭合约。(薛华业,1989:87)

?不服本判决的一方,可于接到判决之日起15日内向一级法院提起上诉。

?译文: Any party dissatisfied with the judgment may,within 15 days upon

receipt of the said judgment,file an appeal to the next upper people's court.

二、法律翻译的基本原则

?法律文件翻译的五大原则,即:1)使用庄重词语的原则;2)准确性的原则;3)精

炼性的原则;4)术语一致性的原则;5)使用专业术语的原则。

----邱贵溪(2000:14-16)

我们将法律翻译的一般原则归纳为:1)准确性与精确性原则;2)清晰性与简明性原则;3)一致性与同一性原则;4)专业化和规范化原则。

1、准确性与精确性原则

?外国合营者如果有意以落后的技术和设备进行欺骗,造成损失的,应赔偿损失。

?If the foreign joint venturer causes any loss or losses by deception through

the intentional use of backward technology and equipment,he shall pay compensation there-for.(Chen,1992:166)

2、清晰性与简明性原则

?More than 80 percent of the 32,000 commercial enterprises in Guangdong

involve Hong Kong businessmen,with ICAC intelligence indicating many bribe with impunity,through lavish gifts,entertainment and kick-backs.(“Law Could Cover Bribes in China”,1995)

?译文2:在32,000个广东商业机构中,八成以上有港商参与,据廉署情报显示,

许多港商以大量馈赠、殷勤款待和丰厚回扣行贿,却能逍遥法外。(李克兴,2007:57)

3、一致性与同一性原则

?法律翻译的同一性标准指的是用同一词汇表达同一法律概念或思想;而所谓一致性

标准指的是在整个法律文献中自始至终保持关键字用词的一致,并要求与有关管辖法律中对该关键字的释义(如果有的话)保持一致。

?4、专业化与规范化原则

?法律翻译专业化,就是要求翻译人员不但要具有较高的双语水准,而且要对各项法

律,尤其要对普通的法律概念、基本术语的表达规则有相当的了解

?principal

?译文:主犯? 正犯?

?四、法律文本中常用短语的翻译

?1.情态动词shall, may和must

?法律英语中情态动词的翻译一直是个难点。常用的情态动词主要有

“shall”,“may”和“must”等三词,其中shall用的最多。

?情态动词shall是法律英语最重要的一个词汇,当shall与第三人称一起使用时,

它表示命令、义务、职责、特权、和许诺等。通常的译法有“必须”、“应当”、“要”和“将”等。

?45)申请者应当自收到批准证书之日起1个月内,按照国家规定,向工商行政管理

机关办理登记手续。

?译文: An applicant shall, within one month after receipt of the approval

certificate, register with the administration authority for industry and commerce in accordance with the relevant regulations of the state.

?Where it is necessary to make such reductions due to changes in total

investment and production or the scale of operation or production , the reduction shall be subject to the approval of the examination and approval authorities.

?译文:因投资总额和生产经营规模等发生变化,确需减少的,须审批机构批准。

?2. Otherwise

?In this Ordinance,unless the context otherwise requires,“state” means

a territory or group of territories having its own law of nationality.(Laws

of Hong Kong,Cap.30,Wills Ordinance,Art.2)

?译文:在本条例中,除文意另有所指外,“国家”指拥有本身国籍法的领域或一组

领域。

?Unless the context otherwise requires这一句型在法例的释义都分最为常见。

在汉语的译文中几乎一律译成“除……另有……外”。

?3. subject to

?该短语在法律英文中一般都跟agreement,section,contract等法律文件名或文件

中特定条款名配合使用。

?“根据……规定”

?Subject to this section, an appeal shall be brought in such manner and shall

be subject to such conditions as are prescribed by rules made under subsection

(5). (ibid. Art. 12AB[4])

?译文:在符合本条的规定下,上诉须按根据(5)款订立的规则内订明的方式提出,

并须受该规则所订明的条件规限。

?4.without prejudice to

?与subject to…的句法结构相同,跟在without prejudice to这个短语之后的通

常是一个指代某项法律条款的名词。但对有关事物或条款的规限程度,没有前者那么强硬。

?。在汉语中,其意思相当于“在不损害……的原则下”、“在不影响……的情况下”、

“……不受影响”、“不妨碍……”以及“不规限……”等等。

?Without prejudice to section 24,the following shall be treated as properly

executed...(Laws of Hong Kong,Cap.30,“Wills Ordinance”,Art.25[-1]) ?译文:在不影响第24条规定的原则下,以下的遗嘱须视为正式签立……

?5.for the purpose(s) of“为了……目的”

?《中华人民共和国刑法》第二百二十四条:有下列情形之一,以非法占有为目的,

在签订、履行合同过程中,骗取对方当事人财物,数额较大的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金……

?译文:Whoever,for the purpose of illegal possession,uses one of the following

means during signing or executing a contract to obtain property and goods of the opposite party by fraud,and when the amount of money is relatively large,is to be sentenced to not more than three years of fixed-term imprisonment,criminal detention and may in addition or exclusively be sentenced to a fine...

?6. provided that

?Provided that是普通英文中很少使用的古旧词,但该句型在法律文书,尤其是在

合约条款中,使用很广泛。

?“倘若/如果”或“但”。

?The Licensee shall not be entitled to take any proceedings in any of the

aforesaid matters, provided,however, that the Licensor may,at its own discretion and Cos