WHAT IS STRESS
The term stress has been defined in several different ways. sometimes the term is applied to stimuli or events in our environment that make physical and emotional demands on us, and sometimes it is applied to our emotional and physical reactions to such stimuli. in this discussion, we will refer to the environmental stimuli or events as stressors and to the emotional and physical reactions as stress.
Many sorts of events be stressors, including disasters, such as hurricanes or tornadoes; major life events, such as divorce or the loss of a job; and daily hassles, such as having to wait in line at the supermarket when you need to be somewhere else in 10 minutes. What all this events have in common is that they interfere with or threat our accustomed way of life. when we encounter such stressors, we must pull together our mental and physical resources in order to deal with the challenge. How well we succeed in doing so will determine how serious a toll the stress will take on our mental and physical well-being.
许多事件都是压力源，包括灾难，如飓风或龙卷风; 重大生活事件，如离婚或失业; 每天都有麻烦，比如当你要在10分钟内到别的地方去却不得不在超市排队等。所有这些事件都有共同之处，就是它们干涉或威胁我们习惯的生活方式。当我们遇到这样的压力时，我们必须整合我们的精神和物质资源来应对挑战。我们如何成功地做到这一点将决定压力对我们身心健康将产生多大的影响。
Reacting to stressors
The Canadian physiologist Hans Seyle has been the most influential writer on stress. Seyle proposed that both humans and other animals react to any stressor in three stages, collectively known as the general adaptation syndrome. the first stage, when the person or animal becomes aware of the stressor is the alarm reaction. In this stage the organism becomes highly alert and aroused, energized by a burst of epinephrine. After the alarm reaction comes the stage of resistance , as the organism tries to adapt to the stressful stimulus or to escape from it. If these efforts are successful, the state of the organism returns to normal. If the organism cannot adapt to the continuing stress, however, it enters a stage of exhaustion or collapse.
Seyle developed his model of the general adaptation syndrome as a result of research with rats and other animals. In rats, certain stressors, such as painful tail-pulling consistently led to the same sorts of stress reactions in humans, however, it is harder to predict what will be stressful to a particular person at a particular time. subjective
person's the on depends stressful be will stimulus particular a Whether
appraisal of that stimulus. How threatening is it How well have I handled this sort of thing in the past how well will I be able to handle it this time for one person, being called on to give a talk in front of a class is a highly stressful stimulus that will immediately produce such elements as a pounding heart and a dry mouth.
for another person, being called on to give a talk is not threatening at all, but facing a deadline to complete a term paper is extremely stressful. in humans, moreover, the specific stress reaction is likely to vary widely; some stressful situations give rise predominantly to emotions of fear, some give rise to anger, and some give rise to helplessness and depression.
COPING WITH STRESS 应对压力
It is Friday evening and two young lawyers get phone calls at home. The trial data for an important case has been moved up. Both of the lawyers will now have to prepare a report for the case by Monday morning. It is a threatening situation for both. Each must do extensive research and write a complex document of some 40 pages, all in a single weekend. furthermore, each knows that her work will be evaluated by the firm's partners, and how well she does may greatly in fluence her future in the firm.
One of the lawyers finds the situation extremely stressful; she feels tremendous anxiety, experiences headaches and stomach upset, and has difficulty working. she somehow manages to produce a report, but she is not at all happy with it. the other lawyer, although she too feels the pressure of the situation, sees it not so much as a threat but as a challenge-an opportunity to show how good she is. she moves into the firm's offices for the weekend and sleeping only three hours a night, completes a brilliant report with a clear mind and a surge of energy. as this example helps illustrate, stress is caused not so much by events themselves as by the ways in which people perceive and react to events.
她以某种方式设法做出报告，但她对此并不满意。另一位律师虽然也感受到了这种情况的压力，但并不认为这是一种威胁，而是一种挑战 - 一个显示她有多好的机会。她周末进入公司办公室，每晚只睡三个小时，精神清醒，精力充沛，完成了一篇精彩的报告。正如这而是由人们对事件的感知和反应的压力不是由事件本身引起的，个有力的例子说明的那样，
Degree of control控制程度
An important influence on people's ability to cope with stressful situations is the degree of control that they feel they can exercise over the situation. both animals and humans have been found to cope better with painful or threatening stimuli when they feel they can exercise some degree of control rather than being passive and helpless victims. such a sense of control can help minimize the negative consequences of stress, both psychological and physical. in one well-known experiment, Jay Weiss administered electric shocks to pairs of rats. In each pair, one of the two animals was given a degree of control over the situation; it could reach through a hole in the cage and press a panel that would turn off the shock both for itself and for its partner. Thus, the two rats received exactly the same number of shocks, but one was passive and helpless, and the other was in control. after a continuous 21-hour session, the animals were sacrificed and their stomachs examined for ulcers. those rats that could exert control had much less ulceration than their helpless partners.
The ability to control painful stimuli often benefits humans, too. For example, the loud music coming into your ears from your iPod is probably not stressful; in fact, it's quite enjoyable. but the same music coming from your neighbor's house can be terribly and stressful. merely knowing that one can control a noise makes it less bothersome. That's one reason why your loud music does not bother you-you know you can turn it off.
控制疼痛刺激的能力也经常使人类受益。例如，从你的iPod进入你的耳朵大声的音乐可能没有压力，事实上，这是相当愉快的。但是来自你邻居家的同样的音乐可能会让你非常紧张。只知道一个人能控制噪音会减少麻烦。这就是为什么你的嘈杂音乐不会打扰你 - 你知道你可以把它关掉。
Even when you cannot control them, unpleasant events tend to be less stressful if they are predictable - if you at least know when they will occur. This was demonstrated by Weiss in another study with rats. One group of rats heard a buzzer about 10 seconds before they would receive a shock; although the animals could not escape the shock at least they had a chance to prepare themselves for the expected pain. A second group of rats received no such warnings; The shocks came unpredictably. Weiss found that the rats that were forewarned of the shocks developed fewer ulcers than the rats that were not forewarned. This finding has parallels in human life.
it when traumatic less usually is example, for one, loved a of death the
anticipated than when it is unexpected. On a less tragic level, many students find surprise quizzes to be more upsetting than scheduled quizzes that they can prepare for.
即使你无法控制他们，如果不愉快的事件是可预测的，那么往往会减轻压力 - 如果你至少知道他们什么时候会发生。 Weiss在另外一项关于老鼠的研究中证实了这一点。一组老鼠在接到电击前约10秒钟听到蜂鸣声，虽然动物至少不能逃避震荡，但他们有机会为预期的痛苦做好准备。第二组老鼠没有收到这样的警告; 冲击变得难以预料。 Weiss发现，预先警告的老鼠发生的溃
Are some people generally better than others at coping with stress Research suggests that the answer is yes - that there is a certain kind of person who has a relatively stress-resistant personality. The leading researcher in this field has been Suzanne Kobasa. found that people who cope well with stress tend to have three characteristics: They are committed to what they are doing, they feel in control (rather than powerless), and they welcome moderate amounts of change and challenge. In studies of people facing stressful situations, Kobasa and her associates found that those with stress-resistant personalities- that is, those who are high in commitment, control, and challenge-experience fewer physical illnesses than those whose personalities are less hardly.
有些人一般比其他人更好地应付压力吗研究表明答案是肯定的 - 有某种人具有相应对抗压力
的性格。这个领域的领先研究者是Suzanne Kobasa。 Kobasa博士发现，处理压力的人倾向于有三个特点：他们致力于他们正在做的事情，他们感到可控的（而不是无能为力），他们欢迎适度的变化和挑战。在面对压力情况的人们的研究中，Kobasa和她的同事发现那些有抗性的个性- 即那些高度承诺，控制和挑战的人 - 比那些性格不那么强壮的人经历更少的身体疾病。
Until quite recently, it was generally believed that to maintain good health people should strive to avoid stressors in their lives. Such a strategy can be quite limiting, however. The desire to avoid stress may also lead people to avoid potentially beneficial changes in their lives, such as job changes or promotions. Moreover, the attempt to avoid stress is often unrealistic. How, for example, can a person avoid such shocks as a parents death in fact, if people do not confront a certain amount of stress in their lives, they will end up being bored and unstimulated, which also can be physically harmful. In the last analysis, each person needs to come to terms with stress in his or her own way, sometimes trying to avoid it, but sometimes accepting it or even seeking it out as a challenge to be mastered.
STRESS AND ILLNESS压力和疾病
In many stressful situations, the body's response can improve our performance –
we become more alert, and better able to take effective action. But when stress is encountered continually, the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful than helpful to us. As will be seen later in this unit, the production of stress-related hormones seems to make people more susceptible to heart disease. And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting effectiveness of the body's immune system, thereby increasing susceptibility to illnesses, ranging from colds to cancer. Other diseases that can result at least in part from stress include arthritis, asthma, migraine headaches, and ulcers. Workers who experience the greatest amount of job pressure have been found to be especially likely to suffer from a large number of illnesses. Moreover, many studies have shown that people who have experienced major changes
in their lives are at an unusually high risk for a variety of illnesses.
在许多紧张的情况下，身体的反应可以改善我们的表现 - 我们变得更加警觉，并且能够更好地采取有效行动。但是当压力持续不断，身体的反应更有可能是有害的，而不是对我们有帮助。正如本单元稍后将会看到的那样，压力相关激素的产生似乎使人们更易患心脏病。而压力反应会降低人体免疫系统的抗病能力，从而增加感染疾病的可能性，从感冒到癌症。其他可导致压力的疾病包括关节炎，哮喘，偏头痛和溃疡。发现工作压力最大的工作人员特别容易患上大量的疾病。此外，许多研究表明，那些经历过重大变化的人，患上各种疾病的风险非常高。
As an example of stress-induced illness, take the case of stomach ulcers, small lesions in the stomach wall that afflict one out of every twenty people at some point in their lives. Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in occupations that make heavy psychological demands from assembly line workers to air-traffic controllers. In such cases, stress tends to be the culprit. Stress leads to increased secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid normally helps to break down foods during digestion, but in excess amounts it can eat away at the stomach lining, producing ulcers.
Stress and cancer 压力与癌症
One of the least understood diseases, and partly for that reason one of the most feared, is cancer, which is the second leading cause of death in America. Medical scientists and researchers are still trying to understand the biological mechanisms of cell behavior that underlie the onset and development of cancer. However, studies seem to suggest that there may be links between emotions and cancer.
These links involve the functioning of the body's immune system, a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstream and defend the body against invasion by foreign agents, including bacteria and viruses, and against cells that become cancerous. Psychological factors can influence immune functioning and the field of research on these influences is called psychoimmunology. It is believed
that small cancers form frequently in everyone, but our immune system usually rejects them. However, prolonged stress may lead to elevated levels of corticosteroids and to lower levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain. These and other changes apparently make it harder for the immune system to reject cancer cells. When the organism copes with the stress in an active way, these changes in the immune system seem to be minimized when the organism reacts with helplessness and depression, the changes are maximized.
These links between stress, helplessness, immune function, and cancer have been demonstrated experimentally in studies with animals. In one study, conducted by Sklar and Anisman, three groups of mice were injected with the same number of cancer cells. One group was exposed to an electric shock that they could learn to escape by jumping over a barrier to safety. A second group was exposed to the same duration of shock, but had no means of actively coping with the stress. The third group was never shocked. The cancer grew the fastest and led to the earliest death in the animals that had no means of coping with their stress. In contrast, the animals that growth from those that had not been shocked at all.
The link between stress, helplessness, and cancer has been demonstrated in humans as well. In one dramatic study in1981, Richard Shekelle and his co-workers studied over 2, 000 men who had taken a psychological test that diagnoses depression and other emotional states. Seventeen years later, the researcher found that those men who had been highly depressed at the time of the testing had twice the chance of dying of cancer as men who had not been depressed since depressed people tend to drink more alcohol or smoke more cigarettes, which in turn increases their risk of cancer, Shekelle took this into account when he analyzed his data; the association between depression and cancer still held, regardless of drinking or smoking rates. in another study, widowed husbands were found to have a decline in the function of wives
their of months two system-within immune the of -part cells blood white their deaths.
症之间的关系仍然存在。在另一项研究中，丧偶的丈夫在其妻子死亡的两个月内被发现其白血细胞的功能下降 - 免疫系统的一部分。
There is also some evidence that people's emotions are involved in cancer once it has begun. in a study of women who underwent mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer, Greer found that women who reacted to their diagnosis with either a fighting spirit or strong denials were more likely to be free of disease eight years later than were women who reacted with stoic acceptance or with feelings of helplessness.
Recommendations for treatment治疗建议
Findings on the links between emotional reactions to stress and the progression of cancer have given rise to some recommendations for the treatment of cancer patients. In particular, programs that can help give cancer patients a greater feeling of control over their destinies and that can help them adopt a “fighting spirit” might just increase their odds of survival. Although there is no solid evidence as yet that such programs can in fact extend people's lives, developing such programs remains an exciting frontier in health psychology.
Heart disease 心脏病
Heart disease is western society's number-one killer. it is the leading cause of death for both men and women, and accounts for more than one in four of all deaths in America. Heart disease used to be considered a male disease, and among the middle-aged this is still true. However, since 1984, more women than men actually die from heart disease in the United States each year. it is just that the onset
of heart disease starts later in women than in men. some good news, though for both genders is that deaths from heart disease in the united states have been falling since the beginning of the twenty-fist century. Worldwide, however, the picture is not so good. Heart disease rates are climbing rapidly all around the globe as more and more cultures adopt a Western Lifestyle-smoking more, exercise less, and eating a diet higher in fats.
Unit 1 Growing Up Ⅱ. Translation 1.那是个正规宴会，我照妈妈对我讲的那样穿着礼服去了。（formal） As it was a formal dinner party, I wore formal dress, as Mother told me to. 2.他的女朋友劝他趁抽烟的坏习惯尚未根深蒂固之前把它改掉。（take hold） His girlfriend advised him to get out of/get rid of his bad habit of smoking before it took hold. 3.他们预料到下几个月电的需求量很大，决定增加生产。（anticipate） Anticipating that the demand for electricity will be high during the next few months, they have decided to increase its production. 4.据说比尔因一再违反公司的安全规章而被解雇。（violate） It is said that Bill has been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. / Bill is said to have been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. 5.据报道地方政府已采取适当措施避免严重缺水（water shortage）的可能性。 （avoid, severe） It is reported that the government has taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. /The local government is reported to have taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. 苏珊（Susan）因车祸失去了双腿。有一段时间，她真不知如何面对自己再也不能行走的事实。 一天，苏珊在浏览杂志时，被一个真实故事吸引住了。那个故事生动地描写了一个残疾（disabled）姑娘是如何成为一位作家的。苏珊读后深受鼓舞，开始相信她最终会成为一个有用的人生活下去。 Inspire vivid scan face up with finally Susan lost her legs because of / in a car accident. For a time, she didn’t know how to face up to the fact that she would never (be able to) walk again. One day, while scanning (through) some magazines, a true story caught her eye /she was attracted by a true story. It gave a vivid description of how a disabled girl became a writer. Greatly inspired, Susan began to feel that she, too, would finally be bale to lead a useful life. Unit 2 Friendship II. Translation 1)半个小时过去了，但末班车还没来。我们只好走路回家。（go by） Half an hour had gone by, but the last bus hadn’t come yet. We had to walk home.
学外语 学习外语是我一生中最艰苦也是最有意义的经历之一。虽然时常遭遇挫折，但却非常有价值。 我学外语的经历始于初中的第一堂英语课。老师很慈祥耐心，时常表扬学生。由于这种积极的教学方法，我踊跃回答各种问题，从不怕答错。两年中，我的成绩一直名列前茅。 到了高中后，我渴望继续学习英语。然而，高中时的经历与以前大不相同。以前，老师对所有的学生都很耐心，而新老师则总是惩罚答错的学生。每当有谁回答错了，她就会用长教鞭指着我们，上下挥舞大喊：“错！错！错！”没有多久，我便不再渴望回答问题了。我不仅失去了回答问题的乐趣，而且根本就不想再用英语说半个字。 好在这种情况没持续多久。到了大学，我了解到所有学生必须上英语课。与高中老师不同，大学英语老师非常耐心和蔼，而且从来不带教鞭！不过情况却远不尽如人意。由于班大，每堂课能轮到我回答的问题寥寥无几。上了几周课后，我还发现许多同学的英语说得比我要好得多。我开始产生一种畏惧感。虽然原因与高中时不同，但我却又一次不敢开口了。看来我的英语水平要永远停步不前了。 直到几年后我有机会参加远程英语课程，情况才有所改善。这种课程的媒介是一台电脑、一条电话线和一个调制解调器。我很快配齐了必要的设备并跟一个朋友学会了电脑操作技术，于是我每周用5到7天在网上的虚拟课堂里学习英语。 网上学习并不比普通的课堂学习容易。它需要花许多的时间，需要学习者专心自律，以跟上课程进度。我尽力达到课程的最低要求，并按时完成作业。 我随时随地都在学习。不管去哪里，我都随身携带一本袖珍字典和笔记本，笔记本上记着我遇到的生词。我学习中出过许多错，有时是令人尴尬的错误。有时我会因挫折而哭泣，有时甚至想放弃。但我从未因别的同学英语说得比我快而感到畏惧，因为在电脑屏幕上作出回答之前，我可以根据自己的需要花时间去琢磨自己的想法。突然有一天我发现自己什么都懂了，更重要的是，我说起英语来灵活自如。尽管我还是常常出错，还有很多东西要学，但我已尝到了刻苦学习的甜头。 学习外语对我来说是非常艰辛的经历，但它又无比珍贵。它不仅使我懂得了艰苦努力的意义，而且让我了解了不同的文化，让我以一种全新的思维去看待事物。学习一门外语最令人兴奋的收获是我能与更多的人交流。与人交谈是我最喜欢的一项活动，新的语言使我能与陌生人交往，参与他们的谈话，并建立新的难以忘怀的友谊。由于我已能说英语，别人讲英语时我不再茫然不解了。我能够参与其中，并结交朋友。我能与人交流，并能够弥合我所说的语言和所处的文化与他们的语言和文化之间的鸿沟。
12456单元 Love and logic: The story of fallacy 爱情与逻辑：谬误的故事 I had my first date with Polly after I made the trade with my roommate Rob. That year every guy on campus had a leather jacket, and Rob couldn't stand the idea of being the only football player who didn't, so he made a pact that he'd give me his girl in exchange for my jacket. He wasn't the brightest guy. Polly wasn't too shrewd, either. 在我和室友罗伯的交易成功之后，我和波莉有了第一次约会。那一年校园里每个人都有件皮夹克，而罗伯是校足球队员中唯一一个没有皮夹克的，他一想到这个就受不了，于是他和我达成了一项协议，用他的女友换取我的夹克。他可不那么聪明，而他的女友波莉也不太精明。 But she was pretty, well-off, didn't dye her hair strange colors or wear too much makeup. She had the right background to be the girlfriend of a dogged, brilliant lawyer. If I could show the elite law firms I applied to that I had a radiant, well-spoken counterpart by my side, I just might edge past the competition. 但她漂亮而且富有，也没有把头发染成奇怪的颜色或是化很浓的妆。她拥有合适的家庭背景，足以胜任一名坚忍而睿智的律师的女友。如果我能够让我所申请的顶尖律师事务所看到我身边伴随着一位光彩照人、谈吐优雅的另一半，我就很有可能在竞聘中以微弱优势获胜。 "Radiant" she was already. I could dispense her enough pearls of wisdom to make her "well-spoken". “光彩照人”，她已经是了。而我也能施予她足够多的“智慧之珠”，让她变得“谈吐优雅”。 After a banner day out, I drove until we were situated under a big old oak tree on a hill off the expressway. What I had in mind was a little eccentric. I thought the venue with a perfect view of the luminous city would lighten the mood. We stayed in the car, and I turned down the stereo and took my foot off the brake pedal. "What are we going to talk about?" she asked. 在一起外出度过了美好的一天之后，我驱车来到了高速公路旁一座小山上一棵古老的大橡树下。我的想法有些怪异。而这个地方能够俯瞰灯火灿烂的城区，我觉得它会使人的心情变轻松。我们呆在车子里，我调低了音响并把脚从刹车上挪开。“我们要谈些什么？”她问道。 "Logic." “逻辑学。” "Cool," she said over her gum. “好酷啊，”她一边嚼着口香糖一边说。 "The doctrine of logic,” I said, "is a staple of clear thinking. Failures in logic distort the truth, and some of them are well known. First let's look at the fallacy Dicto Simpliciter." “逻辑学的原理，”我说道，“即清晰思考的主要原则。逻辑上出现的问题会歪曲事实，其中有些还很普遍。我们先来看看一种叫做…绝对判断?的逻辑谬误。”
Section One Reading and Writing Narrative Stories Unit 1 Love Stories Text A Appointment with Love Language Points 1.Six minutes to six, said the great round clock over the information booth in Grand Central Station. (Para. 1) Meaning: The great round clock over the information booth in Grand Central Station indicated that it was six minutes to six. said: to give particular information or instructions Example: The notice said “keep out”. 2.…his eyes narrowed to note the exact time. (Para.1) Meaning: He narrowed his eyes, in order to take a closer look at the exact time. note: to notice or pay careful attention to something Example: Please note that the office will be closed on Sunday. 3.…sustained him unfailingly (Para.1) Meaning: (The woman?s written words) always supported him. 4.He placed himself as close as he could to the information booth, just beyond the ring of people besieging the clerks. (Para.2) Meaning: He tried his best to get closer to the information booth, just at the edge of a circle of people surrounding the clerks. 5.His face grew sharp. (Para.5) Meaning: His face gradually showed a sign of nervousness and vigilance. 6.He had got hold of a New York City telephone book and found her address. (Para.7) Meaning: He had found a New York City telephone book and got her address on it. get hold of something: to find something that you want or need Example: It is almost impossible to get hold of tickets for the concert. 7.Next day he had been shipped out, but they had gone on writing. (Para.7) Meaning:Next day he had left the country by boat, but they had continued to write to each other. ship out: to leave a country by boat Example: He told Linda he was shipping out in two days. 8.I?d always be haunted by the feeling that you had been taking a chance o n just that, … (Para.9) Meaning: The thought that you had decided to write to me only because I was beautiful would continuously bother me.
一The rumor of the divorce was nothing but a means of hype for his new movie 离婚 他孤注一掷，用父母留给他的所有钱来开一家工厂。 He took a gamble on starting a factory with all the mone y his parents had left him. After winning the important game they hoisted their captain to their shoulders in shouting triumph.（赢得那场重要的比赛后） 4) 在全球化热潮中，我们要提防不同文化的冲突 In the rush to go for globalization, we should watch out for collision of cultures. 在这种情况下In the circumstances it was not surprising that there was trouble. 6) 这婴儿非常健康。The baby is the very picture of health. 7) 人们已经意识到儿童接触有关暴力和色情电视节目的危害。 People have realized the dangers of exposing children to vio lence and sex on TV. 8) 我们始终考虑到我们是在为谁制作这部影片。(have in mind) We always had in mind for whom we were making the film.三单元 2他在中学教书，但也兼职些翻译来取外快。 He teaches in a middle school, but he does some translation work o n the side to bring extra money 3自信是件好事，但自信与自员是有区别的 it's good to be confident (about yourself), but there is a differen ce between confidence and conceit 4．只有坚持到底的人才会成功。半运而度的人永远也无法实现梦想。 Only those who stick it out can achieve success Those who give up halfway will never realize their dreams 5一个真正的英雄有勇气，有高尚的目标，而且乐于奉献 A true hero possesses/has courage, a noble purpose and a willingness to make sacrifices 6任何人只要章起这本小说读了第一段，敦会发现很难把它放下。 Anyone who picked up this novel and reads the first paragraph will be hard pressed to put it down 7从某中意义上说，生活就像游冰。如果总是扶任池边，就也学不会。 In a sense, life is like swimming. if you keep holding on to the sides of the pool, you will never learn 3一个民族的前在很大程度上取决于其数育与培训的质量 The future of a nation depends in a large measure upon the quality of education and training 二 1只有那些有过类似经历的人，オ能够完全理解这一点。 Only those who have lived through a similar experience can fully ap preciate this. 3我更特别感谢每一个在这些年来以不同方式做出了贡献的人 i'd like to express my special thanks to everyone who has contribut ed over the years in one way or another
新编大学英语（第二版）第一册阅读文参考译文 Unit One 以生命相赠 1 炸弹落在了这个小村庄里。在可怕的越南战争期间，谁也不知道这些炸弹要轰炸什么目标，而他们却落在了一所有传教士们办的小孤儿院内。 2 传教士和一两个孩子已经丧生，还有几个孩子受了伤，其中有一个小女孩，8岁左右，她的双腿被炸伤。 3 几小时后，医疗救援小组到了。救援小组由一名年轻的美国海军医生和一名同样年轻的海军护士组成。他们很快发现有个小女孩伤势严重。如果不立即采取行动，显然她就会因失血过多和休克而死亡。 4 他们明白必须给小女孩输血，但是他们的医药用品很有限，没有血浆，因此需要相配血型的血。快速的血型测定显示两名美国人的血型都不合适，而几个没有受伤的孤儿却有相配的血型。 5 这位医生会讲一点越南语，忽视会讲一点法语，但只有中学的法语水平。孩子们不会说英语，只会说一点法语。医生和护士用少得可怜的一点共同语言，结合大量的手势，努力向这些受惊吓的孩子们解释说，除非他们能输一些血给自己的小伙伴，否则她将必死无疑。接着问他们是否有人愿意献血来救小女孩。 6 对医生和护士的请求，孩子们（只是）瞪大眼睛，一声不吭。此时小病人生命垂危。然而，只有这些受惊吓的孩子中有人自愿献血，他们才能够得到血。过了好一会儿，一只小手慢慢地举了起来，然后垂了下去，一会儿又举了起来。 7 “噢，谢谢，”护士用法语说。“你叫什么名字？” 8 “兴，”小男孩回答道。 9 兴很快被抱到一张床上，手臂用酒精消毒后，针就扎了进去。在整个过程中，兴僵直地躺着，没有出声。 10 过了一会儿，他发出了一声长长的抽泣，但立即用那只可以活动的手捂住了自己的脸。 11 “兴，疼吗？”医生问。 12 兴默默地摇了摇头，但一会儿忍不住又抽泣起来，并又一次试图掩饰自己的哭声。医生又问是不是插在手臂上的针弄疼了他，兴又摇了摇头。
Unit1奔向更加光明的未来 1 下午好！作为校长，我非常自豪地欢迎你们来到这所大学。你们所取得的成就是你们自己多年努力的结果，也是你们的父母和老师们多年努力的结果。在这所大学里，我们承诺 将使你们学有所成。 2 在欢迎你们到来的这一刻，我想起自己高中毕业时的情景，还有妈妈为我和爸爸拍的合影。妈妈吩咐我们：“姿势自然点。” “等一等 , ”爸爸说，“把我递给他闹钟的情景拍下来。” 在大学期间，那个闹钟每天早晨叫醒我。至今它还放在我办公室的桌子上。 3 让我来告诉你们, 一些你们未必预料得到的事情。你们将会怀念以前的生活习惯，怀念父母曾经提醒你们要刻苦学习、取得佳绩。你们可能因为高中生活终于结束而喜极而泣，你 们的父母也可能因为终于不用再给你们洗衣服而喜极而泣！但是要记住：未来是建立在过 去扎实的基础上的。 4 对你们而言，接下来的四年将会是无与伦比的一段时光。在这里，你们拥有丰富的资源：有来自全国各地的有趣的学生，有学识渊博又充满爱心的老师，有综合性图书馆，有完备的运动设施，还有针对不同兴趣的学生社团——从文科社团到理科社团、到社区服务等等。你们将自由地探索、学习新科目。你们要学着习惯点灯熬油，学着结交充满魅力的人，学着 去追求新的爱好。我想鼓励你们充分利用这一特殊的经历，并用你们的干劲和热情去收获 这一机会所带来的丰硕成果。 5 有这么多课程可供选择，你可能会不知所措。你不可能选修所有的课程，但是要尽可能 体验更多的课程！大学里有很多事情可做可学，每件事情都会为你提供不同视角来审视世 界。如果我只能给你们一条选课建议的话，那就是：挑战自己！不要认为你早就了解自己对什么样的领域最感兴趣。选择一些你从未接触过的领域的课程。这样，你不仅会变得更加博学，而且更有可能发现一个你未曾想到的、能成就你未来的爱好。一个绝佳的例子就是时装设计师王薇薇，她最初学的是艺术史。随着时间的推移，王薇薇把艺术史研究和对时装的热爱结合起来，并将其转化为对设计的热情，从而使她成为全球闻名的设计师。 6 在大学里，一下子拥有这么多新鲜体验可能不会总是令人愉快的。在你的宿舍楼里，住在你 隔壁寝室的同学可能会反复播放同一首歌，令你头痛欲裂！你可能喜欢早起，而你的室友 却是个夜猫子！尽管如此，你和你的室友仍然可能成为最要好的朋友。如果有些新的经历让你感觉不那么舒心，不要担心。我保证快乐的经历会多于不快的经历。而且我保证几乎所有这些经历都会给你带来宝贵的经验教训，从而使你的生活更加丰富多彩。所以，带着热切的目光和欢乐的心情，勇敢向前去拥抱这些新的体验吧！ 7 我们相信，你们的自我发现之旅和对爱好的寻求带给你们的将不仅仅是个人的进步。我们相信，当你们成为我们的学者群体中的一员时，你们很快就会认识到，大学不仅提供大量自我充实的机会，同时也带来了责任。一位智者说过：“教育代代相传，它就是社会的灵魂。”你们是你们家庭辛勤劳动成果的传承者，也是无数前辈辛勤劳动成果的传承者。他们积累了知识，并把知识传递给你们，而这些知识正是你们取得成功所必需的。现在轮到你们了。你们会获取什么样的知识？你们会发现什么样的兴趣爱好？你们怎样做才能为你们的子孙后代创造一个强大昌盛的未来？ 8 我们很高兴能为你们人生旅途中这一重大阶段开启大门。我们很高兴你们将获得许多机会，也很高兴你们将作为社区、国家乃至世界的公民承担起应有的责任。欢迎你们！
(1)这个婴儿还不会爬(crawl)，更不要说走了。(let alone) The baby can’t even crawl yet, let alone walk! (2)威尔声称谋杀案发生时他正在与一群朋友吃饭,但是我认为他在说谎。(claim, in one’s opinion） Will claimed he was dining with a group of friends at the time of the murder, but in my opinion he told a lie. (3)一定程度上阅读速度与阅读技巧密切相关；有了阅读技巧，你就可以更好地应对课外阅读了。(to a certain extent, relate …to …, cope with） To a certain extent the speed of reading is closely related to reading skills; and with reading skills you can cope with outside class reading better. (4)根据规则他俩都可以参加比赛。(according to） According to the regulation/rule, they both can play the game/participate in the game. (5)有些人想当然地认为日语(Japanese)中的每一个词在汉语中都有对应的词语。(assume, equivalent) Some people assume that there is a Chinese equivalent for every Japanese word. (6)我们已将所有的相关信息告知了警方。(relevant) We have passed all relevant information on to the police. (7)关于那件事你问我再多的问题也没用，因为我是不会回答你的。(it’s no use) There is no use asking me any more questions about that matter because I won't answer. (8)事先没有仔细阅读合同(contract)就签了名是吉姆的错误。(on one’s part) It was a mistake on Jim's part to sign the contract without reading it carefully. (9)他们拒绝向我们提供所需要的全部信息。(provide …with) They refused to provide us with all the information we need. (10) 这起事故与三年前发生的一起事故极为相似。(similar to) This accident is very similar to the one that happened three years ago. (11)这部影片是根据莎士比亚的戏剧改编的。(base on) The film is based on a play by Shakespeare (12)如果你的英语和电脑技能都掌握得好，那么你在谋职时就一定比别人更有优势。(have an advantage over) If you have a good command of English and computer skills, you will surely have an advantage over others in finding a job.
大学英语课文翻译及习 题答案 标准化管理部编码-[99968T-6889628-J68568-1689N]
Unit 1 1. A very curious boy, Tom, is interested not only in whats but also in whys and hows. 汤姆是个非常好奇的男孩，他不仅对“是什么”感兴趣，而且也对“为什么”和“怎么会”感兴趣。 2. Happiness, according to Prof. Smith, is the ability to make the most of what you have. 据史密斯教授说，幸福就是你能充分利用你所有的一切。 3. You’d better keep the book where your 15-year-old son can’t get his hands on. 你最好把这本书放在你15岁的儿子找不到的地方。 4. The story was very funny and Bill kept laughing while reading it. 这故事非常滑稽，比尔一边读一边不停地笑。 5. High-achieving students do not necessarily put in more time at their studies than their lower-scoring classmates. 成绩优秀的学生未必比他们得分较低的同学在学习上花费更多的时间。 6. How did you manage to persuade these students to take the speed-reading course 你是怎样设法说服这些学生修读快速阅读课的 7. Working hard is important, but knowing how to make the most of one's abilities counts for much more. 用功是重要的，但知道如何充分利用自己的才能更重要得多。 8. She asked her students to think for themselves rather than telling them what to think. 她要求学生独立思考，而不是告诉他们该思考什么。 Unit 2 1. Referring to the differences between American English and British English, he said, “The United States and Britain are, after all, two different countries.” 在谈及美国英语和英国英语的差别时，他说：“美国和英国毕竟是两个不同的国家。” 2. Prof. Smith encourages his students to think for themselves. “I am just as happy,” he often says, “even if you challenge me or completely disagree with me.” 史密斯教授鼓励他的学生独立思考。他常说：“即使你们对我提出质疑或者完全不同意我的看法，我也同样高兴。” 3. We called on him to take part in our conversation about pop music, but as soon as he joined in, he introduced a new topic and referred to the NBA finals of the previous week. 我们请他参加我们关于流行音乐的谈话，但他一参加进来就引入一个新的话题，谈起了上周的NBA决赛。 4. The driver is responsible for this accident. His car knocked down a tree and a man on his bike. 司机应对这次事故负责。他的车撞倒了一棵树和一个骑车的人。
新视野Book3 汉译英翻译 Unit 1 Translate the following paragraph into English 如今，很多年轻人不再选择“稳定”的工作，他们更愿意自主创业，依靠自己的智慧和奋斗去实现自我价值。青年创业(young entrepreneurship)是未来国家经济活力的来源，创业者的成功不但会创造财富、增加就业机会、改善大家的生活，从长远来看，对于国家更是一件好事，创业者正式让中国经济升级换代的力量。尤其是在当前，国家鼓励大众创业、万众创新，在政策上给予中小企业支持，这更加激发了年轻人的创业热情。 Nowadays, many young people no longer choose“stable” jobs. Instead, they prefer to start their own businesses and realize their self-value through their own wisdom and efforts. Young entrepreneurship is the source of national economic vitality in the future. The success of entrepreneurs not only creates fortune, increases job opportunities, improves people’s life, but it is also good for the country in the long term. Entrepreneurs are a driving force in upgrading China’s economy. Especially for the time being, our country is encouraging people to start their own businesses and make innovations and giving policy support for medium and small businesses. This further arouses young people’s enthusiasm to start their own businesses. Unit 2 Translate the following paragraph into English 实现中华民族伟大复兴（rejuvenation)是近代以来中国人民最伟大的梦想，我称之为“中国梦”，其基本内涵是实现国家富强、民族振兴、人民幸福。中国梦，是让每一个积极进取的中国人形成世世代代的信念：只要经过不懈的奋斗便能获得更好的生活。人们必须通过自己的勤奋、勇气、创意和决心迈向繁荣，而不是依赖于社会和他人的援助。每个中国人都是中国梦的参与者和创造者。中国梦是民族的梦，也是每个中国人的梦。 Realizing the great national rejuvenation, which we define as the Chinese Dream, has been the greatest Chinese expectation since modern times. It basically means achieving prosperity for the country, renewal of the nation and happiness for the people, thus ensuring that every enterprising Chinese carries, generation after generation, the firm conviction that a better life is accomplished through persistent effort. People should achieve their prosperity through diligence, courage, creativity and determination instead of aid from society or other people. Each individual is a participant and a designer in the cause of realizing the Chinese Dream, for it is a dream not only for the entire nation but also for every Chinese. Unit 3 Translate the following paragraph into English 水墨画（ink and wash painting）是中国独具特色的传统艺术形式之一，是中国国画的代表。它大约始于唐代，兴盛于宋代和元代，距今已有一千多年的历史，其间经历了不断的发展、提高和完善。水墨画的创作工具和材料是具有浓厚中国特色的毛笔、宣纸和墨，其作品特点也与此紧密相关。例如，水和墨相互调和，使作品具有干湿浓淡的层次。水墨和宣纸的交融渗透也使画作善于表现丰富的意向，从而达到独特的审美效果。水墨画在中国绘画史上具有很高的地位，甚至被认为是衡量东方绘画艺术水平的标准。 Ink and wash painting, one of the unique traditional art forms of China, is representative of Chinese painting. It began around the time of the Tang Dynasty, and then prospered in the Song and Yuan dynasties. With a history of over one thousand years, it has experienced constant development, improvement and perfection. The tools and materials used to create ink and wash painting, i.e. brushes, rice paper, and ink, are characteristic of Chinese culture and closely related to the features of the paintings. For example, the mixing of water and ink creates different shades of dryness, wetness, thickness and thinness. The integration and infiltration of water, ink, and rice paper enables such paintings to convey rich images, and hence to achieve unique aesthetic effects.
第二单元学习前准备的词汇 1.gender ['d?end?]n.性，性别 2.sexuality [,s?k?u'?l?ti] n.性别；性征 3.gender roles性别角色 4.tend to do sth.倾向于做…… 5.cuddle['k?dl] vi. 拥抱；偎依；舒服地贴著身睡, vt.拥抱；亲热地搂住；抚爱地拥 抱, n. 搂抱，拥抱 6.bounce [ba?ns] n. 跳；弹力；活力, vt.弹跳；使弹起vi. 弹跳；弹起，反跳；弹回 7.concerned [k?n's?nd] adj.关心的 be concerned about 8.appearance [?'p??r(?)ns] n. 外貌，外观；出现，露面 9.socialize ['so??la?z] vt.使社会化；使社会主义化；使适应社会生活vi. 交际；参与 社交 n. socialization 10.imitate ['?m?tet] v. 模仿，仿造，仿效【形近词intimate [??nt?m?t] adj.亲密的】 11.makeup [me?k?p] n. 化妆品；组成；补充；补考【记：短语动词make up组成；化妆； 编造】 12.horrify ['h?r?'fai] vt.使恐惧，使极度厌恶【记：horror ['h?r?] n. 惊骇；极端 厌恶；令人恐怖的事物】 13.feminine ['f?m?n?n] adj. 女性的；妇女（似）的；阴性的；娇柔的【记：female ['fi?me?l] n. 女人】 14.macho ['mɑt?o] ['m?t???] adj. 大男子气概的n. 强壮男子；大丈夫 15.forbid [f?'b?d] vt. 禁止；不允许 16.protectiveness n. protect+ive+ness （动词变形容词，再变名词）n. 保护；防护 17.explore [?k'spl?r] vt./vi.探索；探测；探险【记：internet explorer（IE）】 18.gender-neutral adj.性别中立的，不分性别的【记：neutral ['nju?tr(?)l] n.中立者； adj. 中立的，中性的】 19.professional [pr?'f???nl] adj. 专业的；职业的n. 专业人员；职业运动员【记： profession [pr?'fe?(?)n] n.职业，专业；声明，宣布】 20.in particular尤其，特别 21.bring up 抚养 22.nonsexist adj. 非性(别)歧视的【反义词：sexist ['seks?st] n. 性别歧视者adj.性 别歧视者的】 23.domestic[d?'m?st?k] adj. 国内的；家庭的；驯养的n. 国货；佣人 https://www.sodocs.net/doc/2a16614966.html,ment ['kɑm?nt] n. 评论；意见；批评vi. 发表评论vt.为…作评语[~on sth.] 25.wicked ['w?k?d]adj. 邪恶的；恶劣的【记：witch巫婆】 26.heroine ['h?ro?n]n. 女主角；女英雄【记：后缀-ine：“女性”，又如：concubine ['k??kj?ba?n] n.情妇】 27.present ['pr?znt] n.礼物【pri'zent] vt.提出；介绍；呈现；赠送 28.character ['k?r?kt?]n. 性格，品质；特性；角色 29.feature ['fit??]n. 特色，特征；容貌；特写或专题节目vt.以…为特色；由…主演 30.adventure [?d'v?nt??] n.冒险；冒险精神；投机活动vt.冒险；大胆说出vi. 冒险 31.at every turn 在每一个转折点 32.outnumber ['a?t'n?mb?] vt.数目超过；比…多【记：前缀out-“超过，过度”，如： outdo v 胜过,战胜 outsize adj.过大的outwit v.以机智取outbid v.出价多于】33.by a ratio of按……比例