P19 Friends of Friends （BADBC）
P21 Organizing Yourself（AACBC）
P56 Valentine’s Day （BBACA）
P92 American Style Friendship （ACCDB）
P94 When Friendship Hurts（ABACB）
P132 Cell Phone Users Tie up Traffic（CABDC）
P170 The First Four Minutes（ABCBD）
Friends of Friends 朋友的朋友
Back in 1967, social psychologist Stanley Milgram had an idea.时间追溯到1967年，社会心理学家斯坦利﹒米尔格伦有了这样一个想法。Everybody knows at least a few other people, 每个人至少都认识几个人。he reasoned, and those people know another people. 于是，他推论道，其他人也认识另外一些人。Therefore, just going through the people you know, you should be able to contact any person on earth.因此，通过你所认识的人，你就能够联系上地球上的任何人。
Milgram conducted experiments by sending letters to random acquaintances, asking them to pass the letter on through their friends to an unknown person. 斯坦利﹒米尔格伦做过一个实验，通过写信随机给他所认识的人，要求他们通过他们自己的朋友而把信件传递出去给陌生人。His experiments, confirmed later with e-mail tests, showed that we're all connected by no more than "six degrees of separation".他的这个实验后来经电子邮件检测并被证实：仅仅通过“六度分离理论”所有的人都是相联系的。That is, you can reach any person in the world through a chain of six people. 也就是说，经过六层人际关系纽带你可以联系任何人。
It might be comforting to know that your friend's friend's friend's friend's friend knows Bill Gates or Jennifer Lopez通过你朋友的朋友的朋友的朋友, 你可以认识比尔﹒盖茨或詹尼佛﹒洛佩慈这样的名人。but it's not really that useful. 但事实上并不那样有用。Tracing the chain is time-consuming and inconvenient.梳理这条纽带既费时，又麻烦。
But that's changing now, thanks to the development of online databases.但是由于有了网上在线数据库，现在情况变了。While many people use their PCs to keep track of their contacts
and address books，new services like Friendster and Spoke combine these address books together. 许多人用自己的家用电脑保存了自己的联系人和通信录象交友对话与通讯录相结合的新的服务。This way you're not only in touch with your own-friends, but with their friends and their friends' friends.这样你不但能够和你的朋友联系，你还可以与朋友的朋友的朋友联系。Looking for someone who works in marketing at Sony Music in Tokyo？你想找东京索尼音乐部门搞销售的某个人吗？Going to Paris for the weekend and looking for someone to have dinner with? 到巴黎度周末并找某个人共进晚餐吗？Just check the Friendster files — there's sure to be a friend of a friend of a friend in there.就在交友文档中寻找，你肯定会找到你朋友的朋友的朋友。
So what's the catch? 找什么呢？If you want to use Friendster or similar services, 如果你想使用“交友”或类似的服务，you need to build a profile including your real name, where you work, your job, where you went to school and who your friends are. 你得先建立一个简单的文档，其中包括你的真实姓名，工作单位，你曾就读过的学校，你的朋友是谁。This lack of anonymity might seem likely to scare users off, 这种非匿名文件可能会把一些使用者吓跑。but apparently people are hungry for contact with real people: 但是很明显，许多人都渴望与真名真姓的人联系。in less than nine months, Friendster has already signed up over four million users.在短短不到九个月的时间里，“交友”上就会有四百多万用户签名加入。
1）The experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram are intended to_______________.
A)show the lawof "six degrees of separation"B) test his reasoning
C) reach any person in the world D) ask his friends to pass the letter on
2) The first sentence in the fifth paragraph can be replaced by“_____________”
A) So what's the problem? B) So what gets your attention?
C) So what's the discovery? D) So what can you take?
3) The passage mainly discusses_____________.
A) the theory of "six degrees of separation"
B) he results caused by Stanley Milgram's experiments
C) the way to trace a chain of six people
D) online services like Friendster
4) According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) E-mail tests by Stanley Milgram revealed that we are able to reach any person.
B) Through a chain of six people, you can know Bill Gates.
C) Online databases enable people to keep track of their address books.
D) The lack of anonymity drives people to contact real people.
5）The passage most probably is__________.
A) an official document B) a research report
C) a news report D) an advertisement
Organize Yourself 安排自己的时间
Many new students find it hard to do all the studying that has to be done; 许多新生觉得他们很难于对付他们必须学的所有的课程。they find themselves putting off required reading,他们对于必须的阅读课程束手无策。jumping from one subject to another and rarely being quite certain what they are trying to do during a particular study session.常常一会儿从一个题目跳到另一个题目，一会儿读这里一会儿又读那里。在某个学习阶段到底读什么很少有个准。The best way to overcome these difficulties and to start studying efficiently is to plan your time and organize your work.要克服这个难点，达到有效学习最好的办法是：计划好你的时间，安排好你要学的课程。
When to study（什么时候学习）
Let us assume that you have 15 hours per week of classes (lectures and tutorials)假设你每周你的上课时间15个课时。（讲座，辅导在内）and that you decide to allow yourself a 40-hour working week (a reasonable figure, leaving you 70 waking hours for other activities). 你每周40小时学习（每周除了睡觉外你还有70小时从事其他的活动，所以这个数字是合理的）。You now have to decide how to allocate and occupy the remaining 25 hours of private study time.现
在你搞定如何分配和利用你剩下的25小时的自学的时间。Naturally the decisions you make will vary from week to week according to what essays have to be written and what reading has to be done. 自然的，根据要写某篇论文、要读某些东西，这个安排，每周会有不同。Many people find it helpful to draw up each week a seven-day timetable showing the occasions on which they will be working independently and the particular subjects that they will be studying on each occasion.列出一个每周的时间表并表示出本周内要独立做的事情，每周将学的某些学科的每个时间段，许多人感到这是非常有用的。By checking such a plan at times during the week, you can see what work you have done and what you still have to do; the whole enterprise then becomes manageable. 在一周里随时对照时间表，你会发现你已经做了什么，你仍然得做什么；这样整个进程就可以掌控了。
Where to study 在什么地方学习
There are a number of places where you can study — college library, public library, lodgings, home, vacant classrooms, on a bus or train — and each has several obvious advantages and disadvantages.有许多可供学习的地方—学校的图书馆，公共图书馆，宿舍，家里，空教室，公共汽车，火车上，---- 当然，每个地方都有明显的优势和劣势。The college library is least busy in the evenings, on Wednesday afternoons, and all day Friday and Sunday.学校图书馆在晚上，星期三下午，星期五和星期天全天最安静
When you are deciding where to study, keep the following suggestions in mind: 你在选定学习地点时，请记住下面的建议：
* Always try to study in the same places. After a while the familiar surroundings will help you to switch into the right frame of mind as soon as you sit down.尽量坚持在同一个地方学习，因为很快你所熟悉环境有利于你一坐下就能进入良好的心态。
* Find somewhere with as few distractions as possible. 要找一个尽量不会使你分心的地方。
* Make sure that your study place has good light and is warm (but not too warm）and well-ventilated.务必要有一光线好，暖和（但不要太暖和）且通风的地方。
(341 words) 1）We know from the first paragraph that_________________.
A) it is often really difficult for new students to study efficiently.
B) new students are willing to plan their time and organize their work.
C) new students are sure how to arrange their time.
D) new students are allowed to put off one required subject.
2) New students might have___________ .
A) 15 hours per week of classes. B) 25 hours of working time.
C) 70 hours for entertainment.D) 40 hours per week of classes.
2）Why does the author say "the whole enterprise becomes more manageable”？
A) Because new students have enough time to arrange their activities.
B) Because fewer courses are required for new students.
C) Because new students know what they need to do if they draw up a seven-day timetable
D) Because new students have done all the assignments required by the school.
4) Which time is least suitable for students studying in the college library?
A) Tuesday evenings.B) Monday mornings.
C) Sunday evenings.D) Wednesday afternoons.
5) Concerning where to study, which of the following is NOT mentioned?
A) A place that is warm.B) A place students are familiar with.
C) A place with background music. D) A well-lighted place.
February 14th is a complicated but interesting holiday. 二月十四日是个复杂而又有趣的日子。First of all, Valentine's Day is not a holiday from work . 首先，情人节是一个不放假的节日。No one gets a day off. 在这天谁也不休假。On Valentine's Day people usually send romantic cards to someone they love or want to be loved by.在情人节，人们通常都要向他们所爱的某个人，或向要从其得到爱的某个人送上非常浪漫的贺卡。The cards are called "valentines".这贺
卡被称为“情人节贺卡”They are very colorful, often decorated with hearts, flowers or birds, and have humorous or loving words printed inside. 情人节贺卡非常漂亮，四边常常都饰有心形、花，以及小鸟图案，里面印有幽默、温馨示爱的话语。The basic message is always "Be My Valentine", "Be My Sweet Heart" or "Lover".这些话语基本上是“做我的情人”“我的甜心”“爱人”等。A valentine may be anonymous (匿名的) and is sometimes signed, "Guess who".送卡人可能是匿名的。有时署名是“猜猜我是谁”The person receiving it has to guess who sent it.收到贺卡的人就会去猜“这是谁送的呀？”This can lead to interesting speculation (揣测). 这样就会引起很多有趣的猜测。And that's half the fun of valentines.情人节有一半的趣味就在于此。
The loving message might be carried by a heart-shaped box of chocolate candies, 情人节贺卡也许会装在有巧克力糖的心形盒子里。or by a bunch of flowers tied with red ribbon.或者放在一束花里，这花得用红色的缎带捆着。But in whatever form, the message is the same "Will you be my valentine?" 而无论用哪种方式。它们所表达的信息只有一个“愿做我的情人吗？”
One of the symbols of St. Valentine's Day is the Roman god of Love; called Cupid.情人节的象征之一是罗马爱神—丘比特。Cupid is often pictured on the card, as a winged infant not wearing any clothes, ready to shoot his arrow into a heart.丘比特常常被画在情人节贺卡上。在贺卡上他被画成一个裸体的小婴儿，长有一对翅膀。He would shoot an arrow of love into a person's heart to make the person fall in love immediately, 时时把爱情之箭射向一个人的心上使他、她即刻坠入爱河maybe with the first person to come along. 若是俩人来，兴许射中的是第一个。Sometimes one arrow would go through two hearts, holding them together.有时一箭射穿两颗心，这样就成全这俩为一对。On February 14th not only do we have pictures of the non-Christian Cupid, the Roman god of Love but we also have pictures of the Christian St. Valentine. 在二月十四日这天，我们不仅要有非基督的丘比特罗马爱神的画，我们还要有圣·瓦仑丁的画。
It is from the Christians that we get the stories about Valentine's Day that most people have come to believe. 我们是从基督教传说中得到了许多有关情人节的故事。并且现在大多数人都相信这些故事。One story is about a Christian man whose name sounded something like "Valentine".其中一个故事是关于一位基督神父，他的名字的发音有点象“Valentine”瓦仑丁. He lived around 250 A.D. 他生活在公元250年。At that time the Roman Emperor Claudius refused to allow any Roman soldiers to get married for any reason whatsoever.那时罗马国王克
劳迪乌斯无论怎样都不准该国的士兵结婚。Christian couples came to Valentine to be married so Valentine would marry them in a Christian way. 基督情侣们就到瓦仑丁那里举行婚礼。所以他就按照基督教的仪式为人们举办婚礼。He was discovered and put in prison by the Emperor. 后来他的行为被发现了，因而被投进了监狱。One tradition says that he wrote notes to his friends by marking on leaves and then throwing them out the window of his prison. 一种传统的说法是：他将文字写在树叶上从牢房的窗户扔出去传给他的朋友。The leaves were shaped like a heart.而树叶的形状就象一颗心。
1)Judging from the context, what happens on February 14th? ___________ .
A) People get a day off.
B) People usually send romantic cards.
C) People make new friends by sending cards.
D) People visit their relatives.
2) According to the text, what is half the fun of Valentine's Day? ___________ .
A) Receiving the Valentine's card.
B) Guessing who sends the Valentine's card to you.
C) Having a wonderful dinner.
D) Spending time with your lover.
3）What do the loving messages have in common? ___________ .
A) Love. B) Friendship.
C) Congratulations.D) Greetings.
4）What does Cupid look like? ___________ .
A) Cupid is a handsome man with brown eyes
B) Cupid is a female angel.
C) Cupid is an infant with a pair of wings, not wearing anything.
D) Cupid is the symbols of St. Valentine's Day, the Roman god of Love.
5）What do we know from the fourth paragraph? ___________ .
A) The story about the origin of Valentine's Day.
B) The way couples celebrate Valentine's Day.
C) The reason why people use a heart-shaped box of chocolate candies.
D) The way people show their love to others
American Style Friendship (美国式的友谊)
Steve and Yaser first met in their chemistry class at an American university. 史迪文和依莎尔最初是在美国一所大学的化学课上认识的。Yaser was an international student from Jordan. 依莎尔是来自约旦的一名留学生。He was excited to get to know an American. 首次结识一位美国人，他激动不已。He wanted to learn more about American culture. 他想了解更多的美国文化。Yaser hoped that he and Steve would become good friends.依莎尔很希望成为史迪文的好朋友。
At first，Steve seemed very friendly.开始史迪文显得很友好。He always greeted Yaser warmly before class. 上课前他总是热情地与依莎尔打招呼。Sometimes he offered to study with Yaser.有时他主动与依莎尔一块儿学习。He even invited Yaser to eat lunch with him.他甚至还邀请依莎尔一块儿吃午饭。But after the semester was over, Steve seemed more distant.但是在本学期结束时，史迪文与依莎尔就保持一定的距离了。The two former classmates didn't see each other very much at school. 这两个原来的同班同学在学校里再也没有见过面了。One day Yaser decided to call Steve．一天，依莎尔决定打电话给史迪文。Steve didn't seem very interested in talking to him．在电话里史迪文好象没多大兴趣与他交谈。Yaser was hurt by Steve's change of attitude．史迪文这种态度上的变化使依莎尔受到了伤害。“Steve said we were friends,”Yaser complained，" and I thought friends were friends forever.”“史迪文说过我们是朋友。”依莎尔抱怨道“我原以为朋友就是永远的朋友。”
Yaser is a little confused. 依莎尔有点困惑不解。He is an outsider to American culture.对于美国文化他毕竟是门外汉。He doesn't understand the way Americans view friendship．他不懂美国人看待友谊的思维方式。Americans use the word friend in a very general way. 美国人对“朋友”这个词用得很随便。They may call both casual acquaintances and close companions
“friends”。他们既可以对于随意新结识的人也可以把亲密的伙伴称为“朋友”。Americans have school friends, work friends，sports friends and neighborhood friends. 美国人有学校的朋友，工作上的朋友，运动场上的朋友，邻里的朋友。These friendships are based on common interests. 这些朋友间的友谊都是建立在共同的兴趣爱好基础上的。When the shared activity ends, the friendship may fade.他们共同进行的活动结束了，这种友谊也就随之消失了。Now Steve and Yaser are no longer classmates. Their friendship has changed.现在依莎尔和史迪文不再是同班同学了，因此他们的友谊就变了。
In some cultures friendship means a strong life-long bond between two people.在一些文化里，友谊就意味着两个人之间终生的纽带。In these cultures friendships develop slowly, since they are built to last.在这些文化中，友谊建立和发展都很缓慢。因此，这样的友谊很持久。American society is one of rapid change. 美国社会是个变化迅速的社会。Studies show that one out of five American families moves every year. 研究表明，每年每五个家庭中就有一个家庭搬迁。American friendships develop quickly, and they may change just as quickly.美国式的友谊发展得快，同样地，它们的变化也快。
People from the United States may at first seem friendly. 开始美国人看起来很友好。Americans often chat easily with strangers. 通常情况下，美国人很容易与陌生人交谈。They exchange information about their families, hobbies and work. 与他们交谈有关家庭，爱好和工作。They may smile warmly and say, 他们会很热情地微笑和谈话"Have a nice day." 希望你今过得得愉快。or "See you later." 或者“回见。”Schoolmates may say, "Let's get together sometime. 同班同学会说“让我们时不时地聚会一下” But American friendliness is not always an offer of true friendship. 但美国式的友谊并不会意味着真正的友谊。
After an experience like Yaser's, outsiders may consider Americans to be fickle.人们感受了象依莎尔那样的经历后，不了解美国文化的人会认为美国人变化无常。Learning how Americans view friendship can help non-Americans avoid misunderstandings. 了解美国人对待友谊的观点，也有助于避免对美国人的误解。It can also help them make friends the American way.同样也会帮助我们以美国人的方式来结交朋友。
1)We know from the passage that______________.
A) Yaser and Steve used to be classmates
B) Steve doesn't like Yaser because Yaser did something wrong
C) Yaser wants to have a short-term friendship with Steve
D) Yaser thinks Steve and he should keep a distance
2)According to the text, why did Yaser feel hurt?
A) Because he didn't pass the exam.
B) Because he quarreled with Steve.
C) Because of Steve's change of attitude. D) Because he missed his family.
3)How do Americans define their friendships? ___________ .
A) Their friendships last forever.
B) Their friendships are valuable.
C) Their friendships are based on common interests.
D) Their friendships are as important as their career.
4)What can we infer from Paragraph 5? ___________ .
A) You can't easily make-friends with an American.
B) Americans are not willing to talk about their information.
C) People from other countries always feel like outsiders themselves.
D) Don't treat American friendliness as a true friendship.
5)Learning how Americans view friendship __________ .
A) can help foreigners to know how to count on Americans
B) can help non-Americans avoid misunderstandings
C) can help make friends
D) can show American friendliness
When Friendship Hurts
How to Deal with Friends Who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You
当友谊受到伤害：如何对待朋友的背叛，遗弃或伤害There are positive, wonderful friendships that are mutually beneficial to both friends and that can last a lifetime. 世界上有积极而又美妙的友谊，这种友谊对相互都有益处。But there are other friendships that are negative, destructive (破坏性的,) or unhealthy.世界上也有另外的，消极的友谊，这种友谊是不健康的，甚至是破坏性的。In WHEN FRIENDSHIP HURTS: How to Deal with Friends who Betray, Abandon, or Wound You, Jan Yager, Ph.D. gives readers the tools to detect and cope with friendships that are harmful, 在《当友谊受到伤害：如何对待朋友的背叛，遗弃或伤害》一书中，Jan Yager 博士给读者提供了检验和应对有危害友谊的办法。provides insight (见识) into why certain friendships have ended or should end, and suggests ways for choosing friends who will enrich your life. 她让读者认识到为什么有些友谊会终结，或应该终结。并提供了如何结识能使你的生活更丰富的方法。
Dr. Yager is a sociologist and an internationally known expert on friendship. Yager 博士是一位社会学家，也是世界上研究人际关系---- 友谊的知名学者。In WHENFRIENDSHIP HURTS she divides the term friend into three categories. 在该书中，她把友谊分为三种类型：A Casual Friend is "a giant step above acquaintance". 随和的朋友比起初识的关系来是一巨大的进步。A Close Friend is someone that you are comfortable talking to about your deepest, intimate, thoughts or secrets. 而亲密的朋友则是以个你可以向他（她）倾述你心灵深处的感情，你的思想和秘密的人。A Best Friend will have all the criteria (标准) of a close friend, with the additional distinction of being the premiere (突出的) friend. 而最好的朋友则应具有亲密朋友的一切条件，并且在这些方面更为出色。Trust, Honesty, Confidentiality (保守秘密), and Commonality are all important friendship qualities.信任，忠实，保守秘密以及永不变心，这几点是友谊关系中最重要的品质。
However, WHEN FRIENDSHIP HURTS identifies the 21 Types of Potentially Negative Friends, 然而在该书中，作者列举了21种有潜在的消极影响的朋友。such as The Promise Breaker (constantly disappoints you or breaks promises),比如那种不信守承诺的朋友（这类“朋友时时使你失望或不守承诺）The Cheat (lies or steals your romantic partner), 欺骗你的朋友（这类朋友对你说谎，或骗走你心爱的人）The Discloser (betrays your confidence).不亲近的朋友，（这类朋友会背叛你对他的信任）WHEN FRIENDSHIP HURTS also addresses false or "pseudo （假的) friends" which fall into two basic categories:该书还列举了表面对你很好的假朋友。这类朋友主要有两类”fair weather and foul weather friends. 见机行事、
见风使舵的朋友和见坏事来了就躲的朋友。The fair weather friend is the most common type
of destructive or harmful friend ---- one who is there for you when all is well, but who vanishes
when times get tough. 见风行事的朋友是最常见的但也是对人伤害最大，最有危害的。当
朋友一切顺利时他和你在一起，当你有不顺时，他就溜了。Even more insidious (阴险的) is
the less well-known but potentially more damaging foul-weather friend. 而更阴险的，又不为
人们所知的，但潜在的破坏性则更大，那就是见了坏事就躲开朋友。A foul-weather friend
may directly or indirectly try and you’re your relationships or career go bad and try to set you
up for personal or professional embarrassment. 这种朋友会直接或间接的给你带来危害，使
WHEN FRIENDSHIP HURTS demonstrates how, why, and when to let go of bad friends and develop the positive friendships that enrich our lives on every level.该书还指点人们如何，为什
1）According to Paragraph 1, which of the following statements is TRUE? ___________ .
A) There are two types of friendships: one is beneficial, the other is destructive.
B) Dr. Yager teaches readers how to discover and deal with bad friendships.
C) Dr. Yager explains to readers the reasons why some friendships cannot last.
D) Dr. Yager provides suggestions for readers on how to pick friends.
2)The main idea of Paragraph 2 is that___________ .
A) Dr.Yager is a well-known sociologist on friendship
B) according to Dr.Yager, there are three kinds of friends
C) a Casual Friend is "a giant step above acquaintance"
D) a Close Friend is closer than A Best Friend
3)According to Paragraph 3, which of the following statements is NOT true? ___________ .
A) A) The 21 Types of Potentially Negative Friends fall into two basic categories: fair weather and
foul weather friends.
B) False Friends are also called "pseudo friends".
C) Fair-weather friends are less damaging than foul-weather friends.
D) The whole paragraph is about some negative or potentially negative friends.
4)The meaning of the underlined word "vanishes" in Paragraph 3 is closest to __________ .
A) exists B) comes
C) disappears D) shows oneself
5)The style of this passage is ____________.
A) narration B) exposition
C) argumentation D) none of the above
Cell Phone Users Tie Up Traffic
If you're late for work, a driver using a cell phone may be to blame. 如果你上班迟到了，开车的人打手机，可能会被指责。
U.S. researchers said on Jan.2 that people who use cell phones while behind the wheel impede (妨碍) the flow of traffic, clog （阻碍) highways and extend commute times.一月二日美国研究人员指出，跟随在别的汽车后开着车时用手机，会妨碍汽车顺利行进、堵塞公路，延长人们上下班时间。
Previous (先前的) studies have equated the risk of driving while talking on a cell phone with （与…同等）driving while drunk. 上述的研究将驾车时用手机交谈看成与醉酒驾车一样的危险。Some 50 countries have banned the use of hand-held phones while driving.大约有五十个国家现已禁止驾车时使用手提电话。
The latest study shows the impact of cell phone use on traffic patterns. 最新的研究指出了使用手机对交通秩序的影响"It has to do with the reaction to changes in speed," said Martin.专家马丁说，“这与反应速度有关。”
"When a driver who is not distracted (分心) is in a traffic stream and the vehicle in front slows down, the driver will brake in response.如果一个驾驶员在堵车时分心，When a vehicle