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综合教程V_课后练习答案134579

综合教程5练习答案134579

KEY TO EXERCISES of Unit 1

Text comprehension

I. Decide which of the following best states the author's purpose.

A

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the fo!lowing statements are true or false.

1. T. Refer to Paragraph 1.

2. F. Refer to Paragraph l. What the author stated in the paragraph is that her sister graduated from high school.

3. F. Refer to Paragraph 3. They took a railroad train during the day.

4. F. Refer to Paragraph

5. The conditions of the dining car might not be like what the author's mother had told them. She said so for fear that her kids could have been hurt by the fact that Black people were not allowed into railroad dining cars.

5. F. Refer to Paragraph

6. She simply did not go with the other girls in the class because, as the nuns had told her, they would be staying in a hotel which would not rent rooms to blacks.

6. T. Refer to Paragraph 12.

7. T. Refer to Paragraph 17.

8. F. Refer to Paragraph 18. Her father only promised she could type it out on the office typewriter, but whether she managed to send the letter to the president was not mentioned.

III. Answer the following questions.

1. Refer to Paragraph 1. Washington D.C. is known to all for its special position, as capital of the nation. The author, like many children who had never been to Washington D.C. before, could have only learned about it through story telling, as if it were a place existing in fables.

2. Refer to Paragraphs 3 and 4. A mobile feast implies a large quantity and variety of food in a box including two roasted chickens, packed slices of brown bread and butter, green pepper and carrot sticks, a spice bun and rock-cakes, iced cakes and tea, sweet pickles; dill pickles, and peaches, which were prepared by their mother for them to eat on their way to Washington, D.C.

3. Refer to Paragraphs 3, 4, and 5. She must be kind, prudent, responsible, considerate and caring for her family.

4. Refer to Paragraph 7. They lodged in one large room with two double beds, in a back-street hotel that belonged to a friend of her father's who was in real estate.

5. Refer to Paragraphs 8 and 9. She had long before realized the national day celebration in her country was nothing but mockery for the Black people. As a black girl, she was in that silent agony that characterized all of her childhood summers. Apparently she hated the Fourth of July, but in essence, what agonized her was the racial discrimination and segregation.

6. Refer to Paragraph 16. The waitress dropped her eyes looking very embarrassed.

7. Refer to Paragraphs 17 and 18. Discrimination against the blacks had been a long-established, deep-rooted and widespread practice in the country. Being black

simply meant mistreatment.

Therefore, the unfair treatment they received at Breyer's was not surprising at all; as blacks they should have expected this and had no reason to feel shocked and indignant.

8. Refer to Paragraph 19. We can perceive the author's antagonism from such descriptions as the white waitress, the white counter, the white ice cream, and the white pavement, the white stone monuments, and the white heat in Washington D.C., all of which made her sick to her stomach for the whole rest of that trip. In a word, it was the racial discrimination suggested by the dazzling color, white, that drove the author mad.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1. Mother meant to deliberately overlook whatever she did not like and could not change.

2. From June to the end of July school closed for the summer vacation.

3. Literarily, the writer was unable to open wide her eyes due to the dazzling summer sunlight as well as her eyes defect. Figuratively, the freedom, equality and democracy all American citizens were allegedly entitled to were simply distorted images in the author's eye.

4. Mother was bright and father brown, and the three of us girls represented gradations from bright to brown.

5. Inside the Breyer's, the soda fountain was so dim and the air so cool that the pain of my eyes was wonderfully lessened.

6. My forceful question got no response from my family; they remained silent as if they had done something wrong and shameful walking into Breyer's.

7. My anger was not going to be noticed or sympathized with by my family members who were similarly angry, though.

Writing strategies

1. Besides Paragraph 2, Paragraphs 6, 8 and 9 contain or involve flashbacks.

2. Here's one more example of symbolism: "The waitress was white, and the counter was white; and the ice cream I never ate in Washington D.C., that summer I left childhood was white, and the white heat and the white pavement and the white stone monuments of my first Washington summer made me sick to my stomach for the whole rest of that trip and it wasn't much of a graduation present after all." The repeated description of whiteness further reveals the phony democracy of the United States and the false freedom of colored people, which drove our writer mad and indignant.

Language work

I. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words.

1. at the beginning of

2. The whole family were already either actually busy making preparations or enjoying the ambience.

3. a large enjoyable meal on the train

4. as if we had never been mistreated for being Black

5. had partially caused

6. was not going to be noticed or sympathized with by people feeling a similar anger II. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair in their appropriate forms and note the difference of meaning between them.

bruise scar

Explanation: Both verbs pertain to external physical injury and other sorts of damage. Bruise indicates an injury of the surface flesh, caused by a blow that does not necessarily break the skin and that results in a marked skin; the word can also suggest the tendency to turn black-and-blue from small impacts. Scar refers to the forming of a mark over a healed wound or suggests the doing of damage that will leave a lasting mark.

1. bruise

2. bruised

3. scarred

4. scar

dampen soak

Explanations: Dampen is to make or become somewhat wet, emphasizing the moist condition that results. In a figurative sense, the word means to depress. Soak means to wet thoroughly, implying immersion. To soak something is to place it in liquid and leave it long enough for the liquid to act upon it.

1. soaking

2. Dampen

3. soaked

4. dampen

acknowledge admit

Explanation: Both words agree in meaning to accept openly, though with some reluctance, the truth or existence of a fact, condition, etc. Admit is a bold acknowledgment of implication in something one has formerly tended to deny or to equivocate about. Acknowledge is to accept responsibility for something one makes known, and we acknowledge something embarrassing or awkward, and usually not voluntarily; more often, the acknowledgment is extracted from one

more or less unwillingly.

1. admit

2. acknowledged

3. acknowledge

4. admitted

agony anguish

Explanation: Both words can refer to intense suffering of the body or mind. Agony represents suffering, the endurance of which calls forth every human resource. Its severity is of such extent that the word is often used to denote the struggle and pain that may precede death.

Anguish points to the extremity of grief which so terrifies the spirit as to be insupportable.

1. agony

2. anguish

3. anguish

4. agony

III. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box, using its appropriate form.

1. The local council has decreed that the hospitals that are not able to reach the service standards should close.

2. When Hamlet murmured "To be, or not to be", he was faced with an agonizing dilemma.

3. The young mother smiled approvingly at her son who asked to play outdoors.

4. The Prime Minister is now firmly ensconced in Downing Street with a large majority.

5. We need a manager with plenty of flair to run the business in China.

6. It is noticed that quick-minded people suffer no vulnerability to criticism.

7. It was a relief to be outside in the fresh air again after staying weeks-long underground.

8. The government's avowed commitment to reduce tax has been largely appreciated.

IV. Make a sentence of your own for each of the given words with meanings other than those used in the text. Y ou may change the part of speech of these words.

1.Liani presented me with the challenge, and I took it up.

2. To open a supermarket demands a large amount of capital.

3. Well, it's your turn to shuffle the pack and deal the cards.

4. It would be a wise move to check the market first.

5. The results of the test ran counter to expectations.

6. Is there a drop of tea left in the pot?

V. Fill in each blank with a definite, indefinite, or zero article.

1.The

2./

3. a

4. A

5./

6./

7./

8./

9./ 10. an 11. a 12. / 13. the 14. a 15. the 16. a 17. a 18. / 19. the VI. Put a word in each blank that is appropriate for the context.

1. black

2. behave

3. mind

4. meant

5. mercy

6. though

7. before

8. worse

9. what 10. experienced Translation

I. Translate each of the following sentences into English, using the words or expressions given in the brackets.

1. I haven't seen it myself, but it is supposed to be a really good movie.

2. The hostess cut the cheese into bite-size pieces.

3. No one can function properly if they are deprived of adequate sleep.

4. He carefully copied my pretense that nothing unusual had occurred.

5. It was scorching outside; all the tourists escaped into the fan-cooled hut.

6. I've come to see his fabled footwork that people talk so much about.

7. I'm not a teacher proper, since I haven't been trained, but I've had a lot of teaching experience.

8. Students tend to anticipate what questions they will be asked on the examination. II. Translate the following into Chinese.

如果美国对此时此刻的迫切性视而不见,低估黑人的决心,那么这对美国的命运将是休戚相关的。自由平等、令人心旷神怡的秋天遥遥无期,黑人正当愤怒的闷热夏季就不会消失。1963年并不是终结,而是开端。只要黑人得不到公民权益,美国就不可能有安宁和稳定。反抗的旋风会继续撼动这个国家的根基,直到正义光明的日子的来临。

KEY TO EXERCISES of Unit 3

I. Decide which of the following best states the author's purpose.

B

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the foUowing statements are true or false.

1. T. Refer to Paragraph 1.

2. T. Refer to Paragraph

3.

3. F. Refer to the passage. Only one prisoner was to be hanged.

4. F. Refer to Paragraph 10. The prisoner began crying out to his god. It was a high, reiterated cry of "Ram! Ram! Ram! Ram!" not urgent and fearful like a prayer or a cry for help, but steady, and rhythmical, almost like the tolling of a bell.

5. T. Refer to Paragraph 11.

6. T. Refer to Paragraph 13.

7. F. Refer to Paragraph 16. The executed prisoner must have been a man of no courage since he pissed on the floor when he heard his appeal had been rejected.

III. Answer the foUowing questions.

1. Refer to Paragraphs 2 and 7. The warders appeared quite tense gripping him by arm and shoulder to make sure he was right there, whereas he stood quite unresisting with his arms

limply in the ropes, and later walked quite steadily towards the gallows.

2. Refer to Paragraph 4. He was the leader of jailers, a fat Dravidian in a white drill suit and gold glasses, conducting the hanging.

3. It insinuates that the prisoner to be hanged seemed composed, unruffled, and imperturbable.

4. Refer to Paragraphs 7 and 8. It is implied that the prisoner was alive like anyone else, with his brain reasoning quite effectively.

5. Refer to Paragraphs 10 and 11. He did so, perhaps in order to embolden himself facing death.

6. Refer to Paragraph 14. He blew out deep breath, and the moody look had gone suddenly out of his face, and he felt completely relieved from the tension.

7. Refer to Paragraph 15. Everything seemed to have returned to normal. The warders unfixed their bayonets, and two of them got ready to ladle out rice, and the convicts were getting their breakfast in a homely, jolly atmosphere, in which singing, or sniggering, or chattering was waiting at any moment to start.

8. Refer to Paragraph 18. He was extremely satisfied with the job done that day because the hanged prisoner had died instantaneously without any disagreeable trouble left.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1. We were waiting outside the cells, where prisoners under the death sentence were jailed.

2. We, government officials and inspectors, walked behind the warders and the prisoner.

3. I found the inexplicable injustice that was being done in putting to an end a prisoner's life, which was still in its prime.

4. The prisoner, who belonged to us now, would be promptly put to death.

5. People had a strong desire to sing, to run and to snigger (after the hanging was over).

6. Y ou can hardly believe that it took as many as six warders to remove him from the cage bars.

Writing strategies

1. Y es, I do. The story is so full of dynamic verbs that more than 90% of the sentences contain one or two, or even more action verbs. Obvious examples are found in Paragraphs 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15.

2. Flashbacks are found in Paragraphs 16, 18, and 20.

3. The employment of the first person narration renders the events described or the plots narrated

more vivid, objective and believable, and makes it possible and convenient for the narrator to express or demonstrate his own thoughts or psychological activities in the process of narration.

4. Both the beginning and the conclusion of the narrative story touch on or briefly describe the hard life and tragic fate of the condemned prisoners.

Language work

I. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words.

1. who were scheduled to be hanged

2. who was a small, thin, and weak man

3. holding him firmly and continuously in a careful manner

4. carrying rifles that tilted over their shoulders

5. his muscles appeared to be functioning normally

6. we will lose a man who can also think and reason like us, and who is also a unique individual like each of us

II. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair in their appropriate forms and note the difference of meaning between them.

vibrate oscillate

Explanation: Both words refer to back-and-forth motion. V ibrate suggests a rapid continuing pulsation, while oscillate, a more formal word, often used in scientific contexts, applies to any regular shifting back and forth, as of a pendulum, or to any uncertain change of position.

1. oscillate

2. vibrate

3. oscillated

4. vibrating

motion movement

Explanations: Both words can refer to the activity or process of continually changing position or from one place to another and can in many cases be used interchangeably. Motion can be used to emphasize the transition from inactivity to activity, and can specially refer to mechanical activity or processes. Movement, used as both countable and uncountable, usually refers to the definite, regular forward or to-and-fro moving activities or processes; it can also be used to refer to a group of people who have the same beliefs, ideas or aims.

1. motion

2. motion

3. movement

4. movement

inspect examine

Explanation: Both words mean to look something over or inquire into it, usually for a definite purpose.

Examine refers generally to a cursory look or a thorough study of all details, while inspect usually implies that the object of one's attention is being critically compared to a standard of excellence, quality, or the like, with a view towards noting discrepancies or deficiencies in the former.

1. inspect

2. examine

3. inspect; inspected

4. examine; examine

dangle suspend

Explanation: Suspend emphasizes the state of being hanging from a high place, while dangle means hanging or swinging loosely and not necessarily from a high place.

1. suspended

2. dangled

3. suspend

4. dangled

III. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase from the box, using its appropriate form.

1. She thought she was too homely to get a date.

2. I could hear the note of appeal in her voice as she asked me to talk things over again.

3. In this decade of politics, many more women have become magistrates.

4. I hope that we can settle this issue amicably.

5. This is a far from solemn book -- it is a rich mix of pleasures and information, and is full of surprises.

6. We rushed out of the shop in hot pursuit, but the thief had vanished into thin air.

7. He twisted and turned, trying to free himself from the rope.

8. I tried to excuse myself for missing her party but made the attempts very clumsily.

IV. Make a sentence of your own for each of the given words with meanings other than those used in the text. Y ou may change the part of speech of these words.

1. Those cells divide and form many other different types of cells.

2. Last year 400,000 acres of land yielded a crop worth $1.75 billion in that country.

3. The police beat them up and locked them in a cell.

4. I think we have to stand by what we believe.

5. A wind-up clock ticked busily from the kitchen counter.

6. He calls me twenty times a day and needs me by his side.

V. Put the words in the parentheses into their appropriate tenses and aspects.

1. opened

2. saw

3. had been listening

4. wondered

5. had heard

6. asked

7. had been doing/was doing

8. said

9. had dropped 10. had been looking 11. didn't see 12. found 13. had dropped 14. opened 15. had been taking 16. were 17. turned

18. asked 19. pulled 20. ran 21. recovered 22. had disappeared 23. moved 24. found 25. had been standing 26. had been telling

Note: Both tenses and aspects are verb forms. In spite of the controversy among grammarians over these concepts, many agree that in the English language, there are two tenses, i.e. present and past, and three aspects, i.e. simple, perfect and progressive or continuous.

VI. Put a word in each blank that is appropriate for the context.

1. letters

2. choice

3. whether

4. death

5. killed

6. aware

7. such

8. Abroad

9. abolition 10. same

Translation

I. Translate each of the following sentences into English, using the words or expressions given

in the brackets.

1. My daughter started jumping up and down with rage when she heard she couldn't go.

2. The party was in full tide when the police burst in.

3. Helen reached out and took a glass from the cupboard.

4. Parents are more tolerant of children in public places than at home.

5. The discussion threw up a lot of interesting ideas.

6. It isn't polite to poke fun at your colleagues in public.

7. This room could do with a good cleaning for distinguished guests.

8. The fashion festival passed offpeacefully, despite all sorts of fears the local government had.

II. Translate the following into Chinese.

每天下午都有一队年迈的妇女在我屋前的马路上走过,每个人都背着一担柴火。因

为上了年纪再加之常年日晒,她们骨瘦如柴,而且全都长得很矮小。有一天,一个可怜的老年妇女蹒跚着从我身旁走过,她身高不满四英尺,背着一大堆柴火。我拦住她,在她手里塞了一枚五苏的硬币。对此,她发出一种犀利的声音以作回报,部分是出于感激,但主要是由于惊讶。我以为,在她的眼光里,我对她的关注似乎差不多是在触犯一条自然的法

则。她心甘情愿地接受一个老妈子的地位,也就是说当一个身背重负的家畜。经常可以看到一家人外出旅行,父亲和长大成人的儿子骑着毛驴走在前面,而一个老妇人步行跟在后面,肩上扛着行李。

KEY TO EXERCISES of Unit 4

T ext

I. Decide which of the fo!lowing best states the author's purpose.

D

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false.

1. F. Refer to Paragraph 1. I was anxious because it was the first time that I gave lessons to students

2. T. Refer to Paragraph 1.

3. T. Refer to Paragraph 3.

4. F. Refer to Paragraphs 5 to 8. It is a false statement. Liani never came to his office for she

had committed suicide near downtown Los Angeles.

5. T. Refer to Paragraph 10.

6. F. Refer to Paragraph 13. Almost all the books on love I found in the library dealt with sex

or romantic love. There was virtually nothing on love in general.

7. F. Refer to Paragraphs 14 and 15. The most important reason for the popularity of the course was that the students and teacher liked to share their reading, ideas, and experiences on love in class to assure themselves that love could be learned at any moment of their lives.

8. F. Refer to Paragraph 23. Liani had passed away before they worked on hot lines.

9. T. Refer to Paragraph 22.

10. T. Refer to Paragraph 38.

III. Answer the following questions.

1. Refer to Paragraphs 2 and 3. Liani's animated, attentive expression and warm smile made the author regain confidence.

2. Refer to Paragraphs 2 and

3. He felt so because she was radiating to the whole class her comforting feeling, which facilitated his lecture.

3. Refer to Paragraph

4. She wrote her papers with creativity, sensitivity and a delicate sense of humor, and acted with such fine qualities as caring, tenderness, and awareness.

4. Refer to Paragraph 6. The statement "We are all so much together and yet we are all dying of loneliness" was quoted because it aptly describes the situation the students were in: They sat

in the same class but showed no concern for each other, i.e. they were all lonely individuals. 5. Refer to Paragraphs 11 through 14. The author thought he ought to teach students how to live in joy, how to feel loved, and how to have a sense of personal worth and dignity. So he decided to initiate a course on love. The course was named Love Class, in which the author served as a facilitator, and the students and teacher taught one another and learned together sharing their reading, their ideas, and their experiences.

6. Refer to Paragraph 16. Love Class was so warmly welcomed that the students brought their mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, friends, husbands, wives, and even grandparents to the class, which started at 7 p.m. and often continued until well past midnight.

7. Refer to Paragraphs 17 through 24. In order to learn to love and to feel loved, they were performing such practices as physical touching -- hugging and handshaking, giving love greetings to parents, helping disabled children, visiting the aged in nursing homes, volunteering to work on

suicide hot lines, and so on.

8. Refer to Paragraphs 24 through 30. Joel, one of the students in Love Class, would go to visit a dying old woman in the nursing home every week. The day of his visit was called Joel's Day by the ward-mates, when she and others in the ward were well dressed up to show their courage of life and desire for love.

9. Refer to Paragraph 22. At first he felt especially uncomfortable with the assignment of thanking his parents, and had difficulty expressing his love. It took a great deal of courage and determination for him to walk into the living room, raise his dad from the chair and hug him warmly, saying "I love you, Dad."

10. Refer to Paragraphs 31 through 37. By citing the example, the author attempts to illustrate

the point that sharing joy with people is one of the things love is.

11. Refer to Paragraph 39. Without Liani, the author would have probably remained an indifferent man with little concern about the vulnerable human beings behind the masks. But now that Liani presented him with the challenge, she had given him the impetus to learn about and teach love, a must for everyone.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1. Her vivid expression and tender smile encouraged me to continue my lecture.

2. Although we seem to be living and studying so closely, we are virtually behaving like strangers.

3. If we have no models of love to follow, we will be growing up lacking in love and not knowing how to love others.

4. If you are afraid of being misunderstood, explain your feelings in words to the person you're embracing.

5. Tears rolled down his father's cheeks as he spoke in a quiet voice.

6. As I am trying to ask others to offer love and feel loved, I am actually experiencing the same.

7. The continual efforts I have made to seek love have made my life richer and more meaningful. Writing strategies

(1) 1) "...What's the value of teaching Liani to read, write, do arithmetic, if we taught her nothing of what she truly needed to know: how to live in joy, how to have a sense of personal worth and dignity?" (Paragraph 11)

2) "She hadn't had her hair fixed in ages: why have your hair done if

nobody really sees you?" (Paragraph 30)

3) "Isn't that beautiful?" (Paragraph 37)

4) "Who can tell?" (Paragraph 39)

(2) 1) Personification: "Her animated expression and warm smile were an invitation for me to go

on." "... my confidence and enthusiasm returned."

2) Metonymy: "... she jumped to her death." Here, her death, which is the result of her jumping

to the sea, is employed instead of the sea. "Few hands went up." "... hoping to find the Lianis before it was too late."

3) Metaphor: "If we find no models of love, then we grow up love-starved and unloving." "His

father's eyes welled up with tears ..." "While attempting to open doors to love for others, I found that the doors were opening for me."

4) Transferred epithet: "From the nervous laughter, I could tell that many shared the young

woman's feeling." Here, the word nervous is used as a transferred epithet.

5) Sentence fragments: "This woman knew so much about love, pain, suffering. Even about

approaching death, with which she had to make some kind of peace."

(3) ... I noticed in the fifth row a poised, attentive young woman in a summer dress. Her skin was tanned, her brown eyes were clear and alert, her hair was golden. Her animated expression and warm smile were an invitation for me to go on. When I'd say something, she would nod, or say, "Oh, Y es !" and write it down. She emanated the comforting feeling that she cared about what

I was trying so haltingly to say.

(4) The first part of the story makes it clear that it was Liani who had pulled the writer through. In the last part, the writer stresses that it was Liani who presented him with the challenge and gave him the impetus to change and made a wonder of his life. Thus, the beginning is naturally related to the conclusion, which leaves a deep impression on the readers.

Language work

I. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words.

1. fiddled with ... nervously and anxiously

2. saved me out of the difficult situation

3. examined the students' name list

4. without having received sufficient love and not intending to show our love towards others

5. a long time (before or after)

6. communicate and make understood

I I. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair in their appropriate forms and note the difference of meaning between them.

awkward clumsy

Explanation: Both words refer to actions lacking in skill or grace or to the faulty results of such actions. While the defects suggested by clumsy result from lack of muscular co-ordination, skill, talent, or training, awkward suggests similar but less serious defects that stem from misproportion or more especially from an unnerved state of mind.

1. clumsier

2. awkward

3. awkward

4. awkward

risk venture

Explanations: When the purpose is to show courteous disagreement or resolve, venture is often used, but risk contains an added suggestion of damage, loss, or injury not to be lightly ignored.

1. venture

2. risked

3. ventured

4. ventured

poignant pathetic

Explanation: Both words refer to the compassion, concern, or sympathy that can or should be aroused by viewing the situation of another living thing. Pathetic pertains to compassionate concern or sorrow that is or should be inspired by those less fortunate than oneself. It stresses circumstances in which a sufferer is reduced to abject helplessness. Poignant emphasizes the actual arousing of a bitter-sweet responsiveness that mingles pity and longing or other contradictory emotions. It now also points to an ambivalence inherent in subtle or gentle shades of compassion, wistfulness, or nostalgia.

1. poignant

2. pathetic

3. poignant

4. pathetic

encounter meet

Explanation: Meet has a wide range of application: it may mean simply to come upon; it may

indicate a previous appointment; it may mean to go to or be at the place of a traveler's arrival; it may refer to a formal introduction or to the making of a new acquaintance; or it may indicate an assembling, as for a conference. Encounter usually strongly implies a casual or unexpected meeting or to meet in conflict or face in battle.

1. encountered

2. meet

3. met

4. encountered

III. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box, using its appropriate form.

1. In pursuit of a healthier diet, Americans are eating more fish than they used to.

2. Thank you so much for your help. I hope I'll return the compliment one day.

3. On the carton, the milk is described as "virtually fat-free".

4. He looked embarrassed for a moment, and then quickly regained his poise.

5. Rumors of devaluation panicked many investors into selling their shares.

6. Tourists are more vulnerable to attack, because they do not know which areas of the city to avoid.

7. The basic premise of their philosophy is that everyone should be free to do as they please, so long as they do not harm others.

8. The hospital spokesperson said a temporary ten-bed facility would open soon.

IV. Make a sentence of your own for each of the given words with meanings other than those used in the text. Y ou may change the part of speech of these words.

1. He is a father, director, and athlete all rolled into one.

2. From the look on their faces, she gathered they were annoyed with her.

3. In the course of a lifetime research, she made some very valuable discoveries.

4. Despite the bitter memories, the election campaign has been remarkably peaceful, even

good-humored.

5. I was very pleased when the teacher singled my work out.

6. I've just read an interesting book which has a new approach to Shakespeare.

V. T ransform the following sentences by reducing the finite clauses (in italics) into non-finite clauses. Make other changes where necessary.

1. She stood up to be seen better.

2. Hearing him talk, you would think he was a celebrity.

3. He felt ashamed of having done so little.

4. We shall never make it without hurrying.

5. Here's something for you to do while waiting.

6. We ask every citizen to watch closely for any development in this matter.

7. While waiting at the dentist's, 1 read the whole story.

8. I feel it will be a rare occasion, occurring only once in many years.

9. Was Cortes the first European to have ever seen the Pacific Ocean ?

10. We went via Worseter so as to avoid the traffic jam.

11. I don't remember you speaking on that subject.

12. We think it strange for him to say a thing like that.

13. The first man toffy non-stop across the Atlantic was John Alcock.

14. He opened his mouth wide as ifto speak.

15. Exhausted, the children fell asleep at once.

16. I can't understand him behaving so foolishly.

17. My brother got up early in order to have enough time to pack.

18. His work was so good as to make him internationally famous.

19. United, we will be able to stand; divided, we will fall.

20. I can't imagine anything happening to you.

Note: V erb phrases in English are classified into two types according to their functions in a sentence: finite and non-finite verb phrases. A finite verb phrase is used as a predicate in a sentence, while a non-finite one is almost anything but a predicate, such as a subject, an object, a complement, etc. Non-finite verb phrases fall into three categories: infinitive phrases,

V-ing-participle phrases and V-ed-participle phrases. A clause that contains a finite verb phrase is called a finite clause, while that which contains a non-finite verb phrase is a non-finite clause. These two types of clauses can, very often, be transformed into each other.

VI. Put a word in each blank that is appropriate for the context.

1. lack

2. If

3. help

4. that

5. comparison

6. But

7. other

8. feet

9. blood 10. serve

Translation

I. T ranslate each of the following sentences into English, using the words or expressions given in the brackets.

1. After a late-night phone call of blackmail from an unknown man, she couldn't mange to pull herself through.

2. We should keep in mind that dining at a greasy spoon is unhealthy.

3. He believes that it's unreasonable for some people to enjoy wealth and privilege by virtue of power.

4. He spoke haltingly about how the scenes of horror in that sci-fi movie struck him.

5. That many youngsters have their hair colored stylishly does not mean that they are

belief-starved.

6. At the sight of the treasure lost for ages, tears welled up in his eyes.

7. It is noticed that examinations can drive some students out of their mind.

8. She snapped the door shut, leaving for home.

II. T ranslate the following into English.

Fanny's mother died of breast cancer at the age of forty-seven, when her daughter was

only fifteen, and Fanny's grandmother, because of lung cancer, had passed away in her fifties. That summer, Fanny found herself unable to bear the unsettling quiet of her house during the heavy afternoon. To fill the void, she often took to the shopping center, sat at the doughnut shop counter, trying to drown out the angry shouts of her cancer-stricken mother swirling in her head. She said she would not be a woman tied to her home, a woman waiting to die. Fortunately, Fanny's story seems to have a happy ending, because today both she, who is fifty-four, and her fifteen-year old son, Tom, are healthy.

KEY TO EXERCISES of Unit 5

Text comprehension

I. Decide which of the following best states the author's purpose.

C

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false.

1. T. Refer to Paragraph 1.

2. F. Refer to Paragraph

3. She was extremely busy before they were born.

3. T. Refer to Paragraph 5.

4. F. Refer to Paragraph

5. She left Warsaw for Paris at 22.

5. T. Refer to Paragraph 7.

6. F. Refer to Paragraph 8. They won a Nobel Prize in physics in 1903 for the discovery of radioactivity.

7. F. Refer to Paragraph 10. Eve Curie was scarcely a year old when her father died.

8. T. Refer to Paragraph 10.

9. F. Refer to Paragraph 11. A second Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Marie alone.

10. T. Refer to Paragraph 14.

III. Answer the following questions.

1. Refer to Paragraph

2. In the author's mind, Madame Curie was the strongest and most capable woman in the world.

2. Refer to Paragraph

3. In science, she revolutionized the study of atomic energy and radioactivity, and succeeded in isolating the elements radium and polonium, for which she became the first person in the world to have won two Nobel Prizes. In life she was a woman driven by passions, fighting battles much of her life with severe depression. In the end, she suffered from and eventually died of a disease which was caused by her own discovery.

3. Refer to Paragraph

4. Y oung as she was, Marie Curie did not appear to be affected by her mother's death at all and carried on with her schoolwork as if nothing had happened. But when she was left alone, she cried her eyes out for months releasing her bitter grief.

4. Refer to Paragraph

5. First, she was then 22 years old, too young to confront the world all by herself. Second, survival in a big city like Paris would be difficult for a poor, common, and inexperienced girl like her.

5. The scene in the film might have led to the misconception that the process of discovering radium was exciting, easy and romantic. What the author intends to do is emphasize, by contrasting the film scene with reality, the fact that the actual discovery of radium was much harder than it appeared.

6. Refer to Paragraph 9. Their tragedy was attributable to the fact that they worked around radioactivity nearly every day. Before winning the Nobel Prize, Pierre was severely ill from exposure to this fierce energy. He had increasing difficulty walking, until 1906, when he fell into the path of a wagon, and a wheel ran over his head. He died instantly. Although Madame Curie won a brilliant success in science, she suffered an appalling loss in life.

7. Refer to Paragraph 13. Her death was caused by pernicious anemia which probably resulted from her long, devastating exposure to radium and other radioactive elements.

8. The unraveling of the mysteries of nature presents a big challenge to natural scientists. The exploration of nature and the discovery of its mysteries call for painstaking and enduring effort on their part. Y et for many of them, this is a mission that has great magnetic power, and they are so much drawn to it that they are ready to

devote their whole life to it. And Madame Curie is undoubtedly one of them.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1. I was then a young girl without a clear idea of what to do in the future; but I was keener on literature than on natural science.

2. I think the reason why I enjoyed looking at the photo was not because Marie Curie herself was in the photo, nor because she represented a great woman, but because her image appealed to me.

3. Marie Curie's own daughters distinguished themselves in their respective field due to their own efforts and competence.

4. Finally she fell in love with Casimir Zorawski.

5. She, a poor, common nursemaid, was much lower in social status than her young master.

6. The reality was much harder, not as romantic as shown in the 1943 film Madame Curie.

7. They were highly respected in the European scientific community, entertained exuberantly and visited by acolytes to show their reverence to the Curies at home

in Paris.

8. The changes in Madame Curie brought about by the loss of her husband were much more profound than the simple change from a happy young wife to an inco nsolable widow. The shadow of loneliness and introversion hung over her for the rest of her life.

9. The Made Curie I discovered was not an image of a holy saint, but a woman existing in real life.

Writing strategies

1. More instances of metaphorical language found in the text:

In Paragraph 1: ... her arms wrapped around her daughters ...

In Paragraph 3: Also she was a woman driven by passions, fighting battles much of her life with what a doctor now would probably diagnose as severe depression.

In Paragraph 5: ... walked into history.

In Paragraph 7: The reality was a lot grittier ...

In Paragraph 9: For the Curies, though, their triumph contained the seeds of their tragedy.

In Paragraph 10:" ... A cape of solitude and secrecy fell upon her shoulders forever."

2. Elaboration of this point is mainly found in the second paragraph of the text:

Looking back, I think I admired that photo so much, not because of Marie Curie and what she stood for but because she seemed so exotic -- or maybe because of how her arms encircled her girls. My own mother lay in the hospital, recovering from a grave injury in a car crash. I wanted her to hold me, but she couldn't. So, instead, I idolized Made, who in my mind became the strongest and most capable woman in the world.

Language work

I. Explain the italicized part in each sentence in your own words.

1. except the most important aspects of her life

2. having no concrete goals or purposes to attain

3. because of their own efforts and talents

4. cry to her heart's content

5. and thus became somebody to remember

6. started a complete characteristic change

II. Fill in each blank with one of the two words from each pair in their appropriate forms and note the difference of meaning between them. glistening luminous

Explanation: Luminous describes a source of light, indicating the brightness or clarity, but it can also specifically suggest a soft or barely perceivable radiance or one enclosed within or seen through something else. Glistening is almost exclusively restricted to reflected light, although sometimes it does suggest in addition to dimness an undulating reflection or a moist surface.

1. luminous

2. luminous

3. glistening

4. glistening

grove serious

Explanations: Both words emphasize something that is urgent or crucial and that promises to have an extremely undesirable outcome. Grave is the more restricted of the two, specifically suggesting something that may well have a fatal conclusion. Serious is more general and it suggests the crucial, ponderous, or solemn, but with less emphasis on urgency and even less on negative eventualities.

1. grave

2. serious

3. serious

4. grave

fantasy imagination

Explanation: Both words refer to the mind's power to call up images, to picture or conceive things that are not actually before the eye or within the experience. Fantasy is imagination divorced from reality. The creations of fantasy may be delightfully bizarre or may be weird and grotesque, as in the case of science-fiction stories depicting monstrous beings from Mars. Engaged in fantasy, the imagination projects unreal images or imaginary scenes on the screen of the mind, creating a dream world.

1. fantasy

2. imagination

3. fantasies

4. fantasies; imagination prominent outstanding

Explanation: Both words refer to something of unusual distinction or relevance by reason of its excellence or motivating force. Outstanding, besides its general meaning of being excellent, suggests a feature that is sharply distinct from its surroundings. Prominent carries less suggestions of excellence than outstanding, and it may point to status gained on other grounds entirely, or suggest merely familiarity to a wide audience.

1. outstanding

2. prominent

3. outstanding

4. Prominent

III. Fill in the blank in each sentence with a word or phrase taken from the box, using its appropriate form.

1. A useful definition of an air pollutant is a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to the atmosphere in such quantities as to affect humans, animals, vegetation, or materials adversely.

2. The most distant luminous objects seen by telescopes are probably ten thousand million light years away.

3. "Want some wine?" she asked. He smiled and took a swig from the bottle. He thanked her and retreated again into his silence.

4. The self-educated son of a Delaware farmer, Evans became obsessed by the possibilities of mechanized production and steam power.

5. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death, into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds.

6. The employment department has undergone several metamorphoses over the past few years.

7. Respect is never given freely; every shred of it has to be earned and you earn it by how well you treat others.

8. The professor argued that these books had a pernicious effect on young and susceptible minds.

IV. Make a sentence of your own for each of the given words with meanings other than those used in the text. Y ou may change the part of speech of these words.

1. He suddenly stopped talking, and his friends knew something was up.

2. The angry wife dropped the tray of bowls and plates with a crash.

3. Numerous experiments have shown that once the concept of self is changed, other things consistent with the new concept of self, are accomplished easily and without strain.

4. She looked down at her lap while one hand absently stroked the other.

5. Nothing is fixed and permanently stable. There must be movement forward, which is progress of a sort, or movement backward, which is decay and deterioration.

6. Worksheets require defining the problem in a clear and concise way and then listing all possible solutions to the problem.

V. Rewrite the following sentences in such a way as to avoid dangling non-finite clauses.

1. When I read in bed, my hands often get very cold.

2. He was cleaning his gun when it went off unexpectedly.

3. When carrying a gun, you should never point it at anyone.

4. We thought falling from such a height he would never survive.

5. Tied to a post, the boat was tossed up and down by the sea.

6. Barking furiously, the dog was led out of the room.

7. Being read a second time, the letter becomes clearer in meaning.

8. As she was wondering where to go, an advertisement caught her eye.

9. He was sitting at the foot of a cliff when a stone fell on him.

10. When planting these flowers you must take care not to damage the roots.

Note: An unattached non-finite clause, also referred to as a dangling participle phrase, is one in which its understood subject (i.e. the implied subject) is not identifiable with the subject of the matrix clause, e.g.

*Driving to Chicago that night, a sudden thought struck me.

Such structure is considered to be an error.

VI. Put a word in each blank that is appropriate for the context.

1. despite

2. resembled

3. because

4. ran

5. repeated

6. Those

7. which

8. solving

9. While 10. exhausted

Translation

I. Translate each of the following sentences into English, using the words or expressions given in the brackets.

1. Researchers suggest that people in their old age should engage in mental and physical activities individually as well as in groups.

2. The fact that he won the gold medal at the Olympic Games made him overnight the toast of his hometown.

3. Many states leaders came to pay homage to him for his lifetime achievements.

4. I suppose that the rapid change in life and globalization are apt to make people become less single-minded.

5. His failure in winning a second championship dampened his enthusiasm for athletic activities.

6. Expectations for economic recovery faded away when devaluation occurred again.

7. My father and I fought, with no cooling-off period between rounds. It was a cold war lasting from the onset of my adolescence until I went off to college.

8. The pitiful story told by the girl deeply softened the old lady's heart.

Topics for discussion

omitted

II. Translate the following into Chinese.

瑞典发明家和实业家阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔是一个在各方面对比鲜明的人。他是一个破产者的儿子,但成了百万富翁。他是一个科学家,却又爱好文学。他是一个实业家,但坚持理想主义。他很有钱,然而生活简朴。和友人在一起他兴致勃勃,可私下里时常郁郁寡欢。他热爱人类,却未曾有妻子和儿女去关爱他。对祖国他一片赤子之心,却孑然一身,客死异乡。他发明了一种新炸药,以改进采矿和筑路等和平时期工业,但他却目睹炸药被用作战争武器杀伤同伴。在他有用的一生中,他常常感到自己无所作为。他的成就名扬天下,而他自己却始终默默无闻,殊不知他一生总是在回避抛头露面。但是他逝世以后,他的名字却给别人带来了名誉和荣耀。

KEY TO EXERCISES of Unit 7

T ext comprehension

I. Which of the following is not a major aspect of the American life discussed by the author.

A

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false.

F. Refer to Para.1. The rate of divorce is not compared with that of remarriage. What’s

more , young people have children, but fewer than before.

T. Refer to Para. 3.

F. Refer to Para.4. It implies that some, possibly many women are going up to the men.

T. Refer to Para.5.

T. Refer to Para. 7. The meaning is implied.

III. Answer the following questions.

Refer to Para.1. When comparing the America of today with that of 1950, we find the similarities are far greater than the differences.

Refer to Para.1. Americans still follow many of the old ways as to attend churches, to pay taxes for education, to support hospitals, museums, libraries, and to reaffirm the traditional family values.

Refer to Para.2. The author implies that after the country spent the 1960s and 1970s wildly, frenziedly, unrestrainedly, it now wishes very much to stop to recollect itself.

Refer to Para.4. They are entering and performing effectively. They are demanding justice for their claim of equality.

Refer to Para.5. Safety, discipline, and academic requirements.

Refer to Para. 6. The author implies that Americans live on a sound social welfare system as is shown in his neighbor’s case. Without it, she could not have raised three young children into three fine, tax-paying citizens.

Refer to Para.8. The prospects are good because they have a physically united nation, the world’s best agriculture, a splendid wealth of minerals, superb irrigation and transportation systems, a magnificent multi-culture with varied traditions and strengths, and above all, a unique and balanced system of government.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1.The 1980 election indicated that the country resolved to become more conservative in regard to political and social attitudes.

2.Social welfare assistance must be offered to the jobless.

3.I am shocked to find that the problem is getting more and more serious.

4.The United States has now been knocked out by this terrible social problem—failure to house its young people.

5.America must correct the problem that, a superpower as it is in the world, it is incapable of providing houses for its young people.

综合英语练习答案: UNIT 7

Text Comprehension

I.Which of the following is Not a major aspect of the American life discussed by the author. A

II. Judge, according to the text, whether the following statements are true or false:

1.F. Refer to Paragraph 1. The rate of divorce is not compared wit that of remarriage.

What's more, young people have children, but fewer than before.

2. T. Refer to Paragraph

3.

3. F. Refer to Paragraph

4. It implies that some, possibly many women are going up to the men

who run athletic programs and demanding a just share of the physical education budget.

4. T. Refer to Paragraph

5.

5. T. Refer to Paragraph 7. The meaning is implied.

III. Answer the following questions.

1. Refer to Paragraph 1. When comparing the America of today with that of 1950, we find the

similarities are far greater than the differences.

2. Refer to Paragraph 1. Americans still follow many of the old ways as to attend churches, to

pay taxes for education, to support hospitals, museums and libraries, and to reaffirm the

traditional family values.

3. Refer to Paragraph 2. The author implies that after the country spent the 1960s and 1970s

wildly, frenziedly, unrestrainedly, it now wishes very much to stop to recollect itself.

4. Refer to Paragraph 4. They are entering and performing effectively. They are demanding

justice for their claim of equality.

5. Refer to Paragrapt3 5. Safety, discipline, and academic requirements.

6. Refer to Paragraph 6. The author implies that Americans live on a sound social welfare

system as is shown in his neighbor's case. Without it, she could not have raised three young children into three fine, tax-paying citizens.

7. Refer to Paragraph 8. The prospects are good because they have a physically united nation,

the world's best agriculture, a splendid wealth of minerals, superb irrigation and transporta- tion systems, a magnificent multi-culture with varied traditions and strengths, and above all,

a unique and balanced system of government.

IV. Explain in your own words the following sentences taken from the text.

1. The 1980 election indicated that the country resolved to become more conservative in regard

to political and social attitudes.

2. Social welfare assistance must be offered to the jobless.

3. I am shocked to find that the problem is getting more and more serious.

4. The United States has now been knocked out by this terrible social problem -- failure to

house its young people.

5. America must correct the problem that, a superpower as it is in the world, it is incapable of

providing houses for its young people.

Writing strategies:

I. It is easy to see that each paragraph starts with a topic sentence.

Paragraph 4: "American women are changing the rules."

Paragraph 5: "America is worded about its schools."

Paragraph 6: "Some Americans must live on welfare."

Paragraph 7: "America cannot find housing for its young families."

Paragraph 8: "Our prospects are still good."

2. In Paragraph 2: "The 1980 election, especially for the Senate and House of Representatives, signaled a decided turn to the right insofar as political and social attitudes were concerned. It is as if our country spent the 1960s and 1970s jealously breaking out of old restraints and now wishes to put the brakes on, as cautious people often do after a binge."

In Paragraph 4: "Thirty years ago I could not have imagined a group of women employees suing a major corporation for millions of dollars of salary which, they alleged, had been denied them because they had been discriminated against. Nor could I imagine women in universities going up to the men who ran the athletic programs and demanding a just share of the physical education budget.

But they are doing this -- and with the support of many men who recognize the justice of their

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