1. a high red brick wall
2. particles moving around their atomic nucleus
3. a building project of high-rise apartment houses
4. small and medium-sized countries
5. quite an attractive triangle green stamp
6. After spending $1.5 bn so far this year on acquisitions such as https://www.sodocs.net/doc/2e8437384.html,, a fast-growing online community, and IGN Entertainment, a games and content
site, Mr. Murdoch disputed the recent claim by Sir Martin Sorrell, chief executive of WPP, that some traditional media owners were panic buying new media assets. 【译文】迄今为止，默多克先生已花费15亿美元进行收购，如收购快速成长的网络社区https://www.sodocs.net/doc/2e8437384.html,，以及游戏和内容网站IGN Entertainment。默多克先生反驳了WPP首席执行官马丁索雷尔爵士最近的说法：一些传统媒体的所有者在恐慌性收购新媒体资产。【解析】原句中My https://www.sodocs.net/doc/2e8437384.html,，IGN Entertainment，Martin Sorrell后面都跟有同位语，按照汉语习惯，翻译时应将同位语提前翻译，修饰名词。
7.It’s a bit fishy that he should have given away a mattress like that.
8. The digits on the screen of the electronic watch tell us time.
9. Oxygen is a gas which unites with many substances.
10. He was not at ease with, those who made diplomacy their profession, particularly ambassadors.
11. The trend estimates available for maternal mortality indicates the lack of
sufficient progress towards Target A of MDG 5, which seeks a 75 per cent reduction in the maternal mortality ratio between 1990 and 2015.
【解析】原句为主从复合句，the trend estimates是主句的主语，谓语是indicates，主句中含有两个介词短语，第一个for maternal mortality作定语，另一个towards Target A of MDG 5作宾语补足语，之后是which引导的非限定性定语从句，并将时间状语between 1990 and 2015放在了句末。按照中文的行文习惯，次要信息在前，重心在后的原则，汉译时语序需做适当调整，故可采用倒置法。
12. The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor.
13. China still lags behind the advanced countries in terms of economic development.
14. It is popular for the fine views from the summit of the mountain.
【解析】原句被切分成三部分，或三个相对完整的翻译单位。from the summit of the mountain这一介词短语，译成汉语无主句的一个分句；for the fine views这一介词短语，
15. You can fight a hundred battles without defeat if you know the enemy as well as yourself.
16. I’m sure that it is a better book as a result of his keeping my nose to the grindstone.
17. Also, we don’t want to rely on hue as the sole communication vector, since color-blindness is quite common.
18. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour
all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.
19. He had flown in just the day before from Georgia where he had spent his
vacation basking in the Caucasian sun after the completion of the construction job he had been engaged in in the South.
20. It remains to be seen whether her parliamentary colleagues will agree.
21. It was our view that the United States could be effective in both the tasks
outlined by the President—that is, of ending hostilities as well as of making a contribution to a permanent peace in the Middle East—if we conducted ourselves so that we could remain in permanent contact with all of these elements in the quotation.
【译文】the body politic
【译文】the bride elect
【译文】a battle royal
翻译 代词的翻译： 1．直接对应成汉语代词，但前提是译文要通顺。（第一人称、第二人称、第三人称） 2．如果不通顺，则需要指代明确；这时，尽可能用指代到的名词来翻译。可以往前查找，遵循“就近和一致”原则来确定。（第三人称） 3．万不得已可以用“这”“这种情况”“这种说法”“这种观点”等来翻译。（it，this，that） 强调句型： 还原强调部分后直接翻译。 定语从句： 1．前置：把定语从句翻译到它所修饰的先行词前面，并习惯用“的”来连接。 （如果定词从句结构简单，信息负载量不大，翻译的时候前置） 2．后置：（结构复杂，信息负载量比较大，翻译的时候后置，这时可以独立成句，但常常需要重复先行词，或者用代词）后置最常用。 常考动词： add补充说道 maintain坚持认为 contend坚持说 accuse指责validate证明，证实 assert 断言 argue that争论说 人名地名翻译的处理方式： 1．遵照习惯 2．按照音译 3．万不得已抄英语 there be句型： 1．把英语中的状语翻译成汉语后作主语。简称状语变主语。 2．增加“人们”“大家”“我们”等汉语的范指主语。 3．直接用动词“有”“出现”“存在”等开始翻译。 翻译最佳策略：拆分 拆分原则： 1．拆出主句，分清从句 2．拆出主干，分清修饰 拆分点： 连词，引导词，介词，分词，to，标点符号。 ing现在分词短语作定语 短语作定语： 1．分词短语作定语 ing现在分词，ed过去分词 2．介词短语作定语 3．其它短语作定语（形容词短语坐定语和不定式短语作定语）
短语作定语常常翻译到中心词前 标点符号： 1．直接套用；2．一逗到底（多点逗号） 第三人称反身代词，一般指离自己最近的那个名词。 一个名词前面有一个定语在修饰，后面还有一个定语在修饰，这叫多重并列定语。多重并列定语从后往前翻译。 并列结构： 一般指并列的词组、并列宾语、并列谓语等等。 一般可以直接翻译，但常常需要重复并列部分。 比较结构： 1．more…than+num：多余、比……多；more…than+n/v：不仅仅、不止；more…than+adj/adv：非常、很；more…than+can/could：不能；no more…than…=not any more than不……，像……不。 2．as…as像……一样；not so as不像……一样；not so much…as与其……不如。 插入结构： 常常可以直接翻译，但有时候还需要放到整句话最前面去翻译。 倒装结构： 恢复正常顺序后直接翻译。 复习策略： 单词；结构和顺序。 结构和顺序：断句点在哪？断句点的上下文是何种关系？（什么修饰关系、修饰语的起止点、修饰语修饰什么）翻译中汉语的先后顺序如何？指着英语单词说汉语。默写这句英语句子。 被动结构： 可翻译为“使得”“得以”“加以”“受到”“获得”。 翻译的原则是：少用“被”字；首先可以主宾颠倒，其次还能省略“被”字，用“受到”“得到”“加以”“得以”“为……所”“由……来”“是……的”等直接翻译。 状语和状语从句： 状语从句一般可以直接翻译，但常常要把时间、条件、让步和原因状语从句翻译到主句之前，状语的最佳位置是在主语后动词前，时间在前，地点在后。 形式主语的翻译： 常常当固定词组一样，翻译到整句话最前面。 如何做练习：每天20分钟，一句话。
94年-14年历年考研英语翻译必背词汇（英汉对照） 46) articulate 清晰的表达， 47) by all accounts根据、根据报道；by one’s own account根据某人自己所说，let alone更别提， 48) intensity紧张，abruptly突然地，sudden突然，soft柔和的，passage段落，rarely很少、几乎不，composer作曲家，compose作曲、编写, 49) associate联系， 50) suffer遭受, inevitable不可避免, render转换、使变成； 13年 46) strike打、震撼，for all尽管，style风格，urge需求、督促、鼓励，decoration装饰， 47)sacred神圣的，crude原始、粗糙，as opposed to与相反，shelter避难所， 48) in effect实际上，urban城市，discernible容易看出的，discern看出、识别， 49)blame批评， 50)implicit隐含的，explicit明确的，reference谈到、提及、参考，synthetic人造的； 12年 46) impulse冲动，unification统一、一致， generative生产的、生成的，generate产生， 47) constrain力劝、强迫、限制，constraint限制， 48) filter过滤, cognitive认知的， 49) empirical实证的、根据经验得到的, bias偏见， 50) track跟踪； 11年 46) erroneous错误的，error错误， 47) sustain支持、维持，illusion幻觉，conscious有意识的， 48) justification合理，借口，justify证明是公正的，rationalization合理，exploitation剥削、开发, bottom底， 49) circumstance环境， 50) upside积极的、正面的，contain包含，be up to取决于，array展示、陈列、一系列； 10年 46) rescue拯救，to the effect that大意是说，failed to不能，
考研英语翻译模拟试题及答案(一) Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) 一、经济学史 Economics, as we know it, is the social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select. (46) Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed, history records changes in human objectives, and sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts. Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. (47) The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally. Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility. For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations.
历年考研英语翻译常考词汇汇总 A Abstract n.摘要，概要，抽象adj.抽象的，深奥的，理论的 Accelerate vt.&vi.（使）加快，（使）增速，n.接受速成教育的学生 Achievement n.成就；成绩；功绩，达到；完成 Acquire vt.得到，养成，vt获得；招致，学得（知识等），求得，养成（习惯等），捕获，Action n.作用，动[操]作，行动，机械装置[作用]，（小说等中的）情节 Activity n.活动，活动的事物，活动性，机能，功能 Actually adv.现实的，实际的；目前的；明确的，有效的 Additional adj.增加的，额外的，另外的 Advance vt.&vi.（使）前进，（使）发展；促进，vt.提出 Advantage n.利益，便利，有利方面，有利条件；优点；优势， （网球等）打成平手（deuce）而延长比赛后一方先得的一分（攻方所得称advantage in，守方所得则称advantage out） Agree vi.一致；相合同意，赞成约定，允诺，答应，相宜，调和，符合，和睦相处 Almost adv.几乎，差不多，差一点；将近 Amount n.量，数量，数额，总额，总数vi.合计，共计 Approach vt.&vi.接近，走近，靠近；vt.接洽，交涉；着手处理；n.靠近，接近，临近 Appropriate adj.适当的，恰当的；vt.挪用；占用；盗用 Argue vt.&vi.争吵，辩论；vt.坚决主张，提出理由证明，说服，劝说 Arise vi.&link v.呈现；出现；发生；vi.起身，起来，起立 Aspect n.方面，方位，朝向 Assert vt.声称，断言，维护，坚持 Assume vt.假设，臆断，猜想，假装，担，担任，就职
1990 年英译汉试题 People have wondered for a long time how their personalities，and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not，or why one is cooperative and another is competitive. Social scientists are，of course，extremely interested in these types of questions. (61)They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet，but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect，the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as‖nature vs. nurture‖. (62)Those who support the ―nature‖side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (63)That our environment has little， if anything，to do with our abilities，characteristics and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme，this theory maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts. Those who support the ―nurture‖ theory，that is，they advocate education，are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist，B.F. Skinner，sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. The behaviorists maintain that，like machines，humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior. Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic，intelligence， offered by the two theories. Supporters of the ―nature‖theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. Needless to say，they don‘t believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand，behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. (64)Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development. The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. In the United States， blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some ―nature‖ proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. (65)Behaviorists，in contrast， say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy. Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior. 1991 年英译汉试题 The fact is that the energy crisis，which has suddenly been officially announced，has been with us for a long time now，and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows freely or not，it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. (71)The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time，and in any case，the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use. (72)New sources of energy must be found，and this will take time，but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the times past. For an indefinite period from here on，mankind is going to advance cautiously，and consider itself lucky that it can advance at all. To make the situation worse，there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world‘s population is in sight. Although the birthrate has dropped in some nations，including the United States，the population of the world seems sure to pass six billion and perhaps even seven billion as the twenty-first century opens. (73)The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this，which means that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food. Taking all this into account，what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year2001? To begin with，the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years—even here in the United States.By2001，the population of the United States will be at least two hundred fifty million and possibly two hundred seventy million，and the nation will find it difficult to expand food production to fill the additional mouths. (74)This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields. It seems almost certain that by2001the United States will no longer be a great food exporting nation and that，if necessity forces exports，it will be at the price of belt tightening at home. In fact，as food items will end to decline in quality and decrease in variety，there is very likely to be increasing use of flavouring additives. (75)Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population
1990年 1. be determined by 由…所决定 2. have something to do with 与…有关 3. be central to sth. 是…的核心 4. in contrast/by contrast与此相反 5. be due to 由于（常做表语） 6. be deprived of 被剥夺 7. respond to 对…作出反应 8. as the basis of 依据/根据 9. be born with 天生具有 10. In contrast 相比之下 1991年 11. shut off 关上，停止，切断 12. in any case=at any rate 不管怎样，无论如何； in no case 决不 13. or so 大概，大约 14. at the rate of 以…的速率 15. take time 花费时间 16. be likely to 可能；倾向于
17. result in 导致 18. not nearly 远不能；远非 19. head into走向；陷入（危机） 20. in the matter of 关于；就…而言 21. make…possible 使…成为可能 22. combine…with 把……和…结合起来；加上 23. in the fashion of 以…方式 24. such…as 像…一样 1992年 25. refer to…提到；谈到 26. agreement on 一致意见 27. be comparable to 和…相当；犹如 28. in terms of 根据；按照；在…方面 29. on the whole 总体来说；大体上看 30. draw a conclusion 得出结论 31. have the attitude towards 对…的态度 32. only if 只要 33. the same…as 与…一样 34. by lack of=for lack of 因为缺乏
2017考研英语一翻译真题解析 跨考教育英语教研室—王坤2017年考研英语一的翻译题型部分，整体来说难度不大，与2016年难度基本持平，考察的是英语语言发展情况，文章选自英国文化教育协会的一本书，叫《英语下一步》。英语一的考题是此书的序言部分。下面就是跨考英语教研室的英语老师对2017年考研英语一翻译真题的最新解析和参考译文。 (46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future. 参考译文：但是，尽管使用英语者的人数在不断增加/说英语的人越来越多，却仍然有迹象表明，英语语言的全球主导地位在不久的将来/可预见的未来也许会慢慢衰退。 句子解析：本句很简单，主句是there be 结构，主句前是让步状语，signs 后面是that引导的同位语从句，对signs进行进一步的补充说明。同位语从句中是主谓结构，the global predominance of the language 是主语，may fade 是谓语，within结构是时间状语。expands的词义不应该选择常用的“扩展”意思，而应该结合前面和它搭配的number，而选择“增加”的意思。 (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.
2019年考研英语一翻译 Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese.Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points) It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals,and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end,that I realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was.I came to recognise various signs of a bad paper:the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were1.17times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia.(46)There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which,when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press,generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms. 我是在开始撰写有关医学期刊的每周专栏评论文章，并因此而从头到尾阅读相关科学论文之后，才意识到医学文献常常是多么糟糕。我逐渐摸索出了识别拙劣论文的种种方法：这类文章宣称，一周吃一公斤花椰菜的人晚年患恶性贫血的概率要增加1.17倍。（46）这种无稽之谈充斥各类医学期刊，某些广播公司和非专业出版物一宣传，便制造出健康恐慌，掀起短暂的所谓健康饮食狂澜。 Why is so much bad science published?A recent paper,titled“The Natural Selection of Bad Science”,published on the Royal Society’s open science website,attempts to answer this intriguing and important question.It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science,but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it.What is important is not truth,but publication,which has become almost an end in itself.There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47)nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only10years ago.Never mind the quality,then,count the number. 为何如此多的劣质文章能得以发表呢？英国皇家学会的官方网站最近刊载了一篇题为《劣质科研论文的自然选择》的文章，试图回答这一让人百思不得其解的重要问题。文章称，问题不在于人们要写这种质量低下的文章，而是我们现今的职称晋升评价体系鼓励人们这样做。重要的不是文章是否探讨真理，而是文章能否发表，发表文章本身成了写文章的目的。一股文章高产之风业已形成：（47）现如今，要想申请一个研究岗位，就必须发表两倍于十年前申请同一岗位的文章。文章质量就不用操心了，数量才是重要的。 (48)Attempts have been made to curb this tendency,for example,by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.This is the famed citation index,that is to say,the number of
1、1994年 Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge. (71) Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. (72) "In short" , a leader of the new school contends, "the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions. " (73)Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. The modern school that hails technology algues that such masters as Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and inventors such as Edison attached great importance to, and derived great benefit from, craft information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments. The centerpiece of the argument of a technology-yes , genius-no advocate was an analysis of Galileo' s role at the start of the scientific revolution. The wisdom of the day was derived from Ptolemy, an astronomer of the second century, whose elaborate system of the sky put Earth at the center of all heavenly motions. (74)Galileo' s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the Earth. But the real hero of the story, according to the new school of scientists, was the long evolution in the improvement of machinery for making eyeglasses . Federal policy is necessarily involved in the technology vs. genius dispute. (75)Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa (反之) often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force. 精美译文 新学派的科学家认为，技术是扩大科学知识的范围中被忽视的力量。（71）他们说，科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识，不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等等更为普通的东西。（72）新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说:“简言之，我们所称谓的科学革命，主要是指一系列器具的改进、发明和使用，这些改进、发明和使用使科学发展的范围无所不及。 （73）工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉多年来在很大程度上被科学史学家和科学思想家们忽视了。为技术而欢呼的现代学派争辩说，像伽利略、牛顿、麦克斯威尔、爱因斯坦这样的科学大师和像爱迪生这样的发明家十分重视科学实验中能使用的各种不同的工艺信息和技术装置并从中受益匪浅。 鼓吹技术第一、天才第二的论据的核心是分析了科学革命初期伽利略的作用。那时的聪明才智取自第二世纪的天文学家托勒密;了精心创立的太空体系把地球置于所有天体运动的中心。（74）伽利略的最光辉的业绩在于他在1609年第一个把新发明的望远镜对准天空，
考研英语十年真题大作文（2002-2011） 一、题目 2002 Directions: Study the following picture carefully and write an essay entitled “Cultures---National and International” In the essay you should 1.describe the picture and interpret its meaning, and 2.give your comments on the phenomenon. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET II. 2003 Directions: Study the following pictures carefully and write an essay about 200 words based on the following 1.describe the set of drawings and interpret its meaning 2.point out its implications in our life. 2004 Directions: Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should 1. describe the drawing. 2. interpret its meaning, and 3. support your view with examples. You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
1996年英译汉试题 (1)Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. (2)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. (3)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future. (4)However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects. (5)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance. 1997年英译汉试题 (6)Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have. (7)Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements. (8)It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all. (9)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice. (10)When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at. 1998年英译汉试题 (11)But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.