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Book 3课后练习参考答案:
Unit 1
Part one
1)Gentle 2)Dedicated 3)Considerate 4)Adventurous 5)Calm 6)Aggressive
7)Critical 8)Energetic 9)Selfish 10)Ambition 11)Self-confident 12)Easygoing
13)Truthful 14)Outgoing 15)Frank 16)Sensitive 17)Bossy 18)Patient
19)Talkative 20)Persuasive 21)Sympathetic 22)Emotional
Jobs Personality
salesperson undependable、shrewd、tricky、boastful
teacher knowledge、talkative、patient、energetic、unselfish、tolerant
doctor calm、skillful、sympathetic、careful、unselfish
police office brave、calm、alert、careful
account cautious、careful、efficient、truthful
lawyer knowledge、persuasive、talkative、expressive、intelligent
tourist guide energetic、good-tempered、talkative
host or hostess of a show quick-minded、humorous、knowledge、expressive、emotional
reporter adventurous、brave、curious、efficient
secretary considerate、careful、efficient、easygoing
spokesperson diplomatic、intelligent、eloquent

III. Post-Reading
Reading Comprehension

1. Understanding the Organization of the Text
1) Introduction: (Para.1)
Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people.
2) Reasons why shyness can have a negative effect: (Para.2&3)
People’s self-concept has a profound effect on all areas of their lives.
People with high self-esteem usually act with confidence.
People with low self-esteem are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others.
3) Ways of overcoming shyness: (Para.4-15)
i) Recognize your personal strengths and weaknesses.
ii) Set reasonable goals.
iii) Don’t waste time and energy on destructive feelings such as guilt and shame.
iv) Don’t be afraid to speak up and give your point of view.
v) Do not make negative comments about yourself.
vi) Accept criticism thoughtfully.
vii) Profit from failures and disappointments by viewing them as learning experiences.
viii) Do not associate with people who make you feel inadequate.
ix) Set aside time to relax, enjoy hobbies, and reevaluate your goals regularly.
x) Practice being in social situations.
4) Conclusion: (Para.16)
The better we understand ourselves, the easier it becomes to live up to our full potential.

2. Understanding Specific Information
1) F 2) F 3) T 4) T 5) T 6) F 7) T 8) F 9) F 10) T

3. Group Discussion
1) I think the most effective ways of overcoming shyness are the first and seventh ways. Recognizing our personal strengths and weaknesses is useful because if we know ourselves better, we can feel more self-confident. We can be more objective, instead of being blind. The seventh way is to profit from failures and disappointments as learning experiences. If we allow ourselves to get discouraged and sad when we fail, then we will feel more uns

ure of ourselves. But if we think of a failure as a learning experience, we are adopting a positive attitude. By analyzing objectively why we failed and planning how to set about doing things differently we will be more likely to succeed next time.
2) Modesty is used to describe a reserved appraisal of one’s merits, abilities or success, e.g. she is very modest about her accomplishments. Shyness is used to describe the uncomfortable feeling one has in the company of others. It often implies a lack of self-confidence and a timid, reserved manner. Modesty is a good personality trait while shyness in many cases is undesirable.
3) Yes, it is appropriate and normal to be shy in some circumstances: in the presence of teachers, your boss, your parents’ friends or your prospective in-laws; when you are dating someone, especially the first time; when you are with strangers; when you are in a new environment; when you’re facing a large audience.


1. Self- is a prefix which means “of, to or by oneself or itself.”
Words with the prefix self- that appear in the text: self-conscious, self-concept, self-assurance, self-worth, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-destructive, self-awareness, self-acceptance, self-rejection, self-confident
1) self-conscious (worried and embarrassed about what you look like or what other people think of you)
2) self-confidence (belief in one’s own ability, power, judgment, etc.; confidence in oneself)
3) self-esteem (the feeling that you are someone who deserves to be liked, respected, or admired)
4) self-destructive (with thoughts or actions that are counter to one’s own best interests)
5) self-worth (the value you give to your life and achievements)
6) self-concept (one’s conception or general idea of one’s own basic character and nature)
7) self-awareness (realistic knowledge and judgment about oneself)
8) self-assurance/self-confidence (the belief that you are able to deal with people and problems easily)

2. Part A
1) B 2) I 3) L 4) A 5) H 6) D 7) E 8) N 9) J 10) M
11) C 12) F 13) G 14) K
Part B
1) profound 2) jealousy 3) numerous 4) overweight 5) overcome 6) eventually
7) slim 8) compliments 9) diminish 10) reassurance 11) detrimental 12) isolated
13) self-esteem 14) accented

3. 1) reflected 2) concerned/worried 3) profound effect 4) viewed/regarded 5) sensitive
6) respond/react 7) eliminated 8) overcome my fear 9) concentrate on 10) made no comment


1.You should spend a reasonable amount of time relaxing and exercising.
2. In general children are healthier and better educated than ever before.
3. When the right opportunity comes along, he’ll take it.
4. Every day he sets some time aside to be with his family and enjoy life.
5. I remember those dark streets and walking hand in hand with my father.
6. He finally failed to live up to his parents’ expectations.
7. In contrast, our use of oil has inc

reased enormously.
8. He succeeded in his efforts to overcome his fatal weakness.
Part Three
FURTHER Development
1. 1)BBABC 6)CBCAA 11)CB

Part Four Writing and Translation (P46)

2. Translation Practice
1) It is believed that pessimism often leads to hopelessness, sickness and failure.
2) Optimism, by contrast, can make you happy, healthy and successful.
3) When you fail in something, profit from the failure as a learning experience.
4) Think about your strengths and build up self-confidence in front of problems or difficulties.
5) Don’t let negative thoughts hold you back.
6) Everyone has experienced failures and disappointments, so don’t blame yourself too much

Unit 2
Part one
4.matching pictures
1)Aphrodite 2)Ares 3)Hephaestus 4)Artemis 5)Demeter 6)Dionysus 7)Poseidon
8)Athena 9)Apollo 10)Hermes 11)Hera 12)Zeus


Reading Comprehension

1. 1) Because they were invited to a feast in the sky.
2) He saw the birds were busy preparing.
3) He planned to go to the feast/sky with the birds.
4) They didn’t agree because Tortoise was mischievous/cunning and ungrateful.
5) With a sweet tongue, he convinced the birds that he was a changed man.
6) He made two wings with all the feathers he got from each bird.
7) All of you.
8) Nuts, meat and fish soup, pounded yam, yam soup, palm wine, etc.
9) For whom have you prepared this feast?
10) Because he knew the answer would be “For all of you”, which was his new name. So he could enjoy all the food first.
11) They were very angry.
12) They took back the feathers they had lent him.
13) He asked them to take a message to his wife.
14) Parrot, because he wanted to take advantage of the chance to get revenge.
15) He asked Parrot to tell his wife to bring out all the soft things in his house to cover the ground with them so that he would be able to land safely. But Parrot told his wife to bring out all the hard and sharp, not the soft, things instead.
16) His shell was broken into hundreds of pieces.

2. Ekwefi is telling a story about Tortoise. Long long ago, there was a famine, and the birds got an invitation from the sky to attend a feast there. Tortoise learned about it and with his sweet tongue he persuaded the birds to take him with them and so each bird lent him a feather. Tortoise cunningly thought of an idea that enabled him to have all the food by naming himself “All of you.” When they reached the sky, they received a warm welcome and soon the food was presented to them. Then he asked one of the people in the sky: “For whom have you prepared all this feast?” The man replied: “For all of you.” So he ate almost all the best food. The birds became very angry and took back their feathers before flying home. Without feathers, he had to jump onto the ground and his shell was broken into pieces.

3. Acting out the Story

d A: How exciting! All of us are invited to the feast in the sky.
Bird B: I just can’t wait. What do you think I should wear?
Tortoise: Hello. Good morning. What are you excited about?
Bird A: Didn’t you know that we are going to the sky?
Bird B: And we are going to have a big dinner. What fun!
Tortoise: How nice it is. What lucky guys. May I go with you? I’m sure we’ll have a lot of fun.
Bird A: Yes, we’ll have great fun, but not you. We know you too well. You are full of cunning and you are ungrateful.
Bird B: If we allow you to come with us, you will soon begin your mischief.
Bird A: We know you of old.
Tortoise: You don’t know me now. I’m a changed man. I am not the mischievous man you once knew. In fact, I am thoughtful and well-meaning. I have learned that a man who makes trouble for others is also making trouble for himself. Rest assured, I promise you I will not cause you any trouble.
Bird A: (Talking to Bird B) Maybe he is a changed man now. Let’s talk to our bird friends and see if we will take him with us.
(After a brief discussion with all the other birds)
Bird B: Ok. Tortoise, now we all agreed to take you to the sky. Each of us will lend you a feather so that you can have two wings to fly.
(During the flight to the party)
Bird A: Tortoise is a great orator!
Bird B: Let’s make him the spokesperson for the party.
Tortoise: Did you know that we need a new name when we are invited to a great feast like this? It is an age-old custom and our hosts in the sky will expect us to honor it.
Bird A: We haven’t heard of this before. But as you are such a learned man, if you say this, we will choose a new name for ourselves. I will call myself Good-Looking.
Bird B: I am Smart-Ass.
Tortoise: And my new name is All of You.
(On their arrival at the sky)
Sky people: Welcome to the sky, our dear bird friends. We are so pleased to see you again. Please make yourselves at home.
Tortoise: My dear respected friends, thank you so much for inviting us to the sky. Nothing can make us happier than this. It is our greatest honor to be here and have a good time with you.
Sky people: Thank you for your nice words. Now please help yourselves to the nuts.
Bird A: Tortoise is really eloquent, isn’t he? I’m glad we decided to bring him with us.
Bird B: Yes. And these are delicious nuts.
Sky people: Now the dinner is ready. Please enjoy the soup, meat, fish and pounded yam. Here is palm wine, too.
Tortoise: Just a moment. Let me ask you first. For whom have you prepared this feast?
Sky people: For whom? Why? For all of you, of course.
Tortoise (To the birds): You remember that my name is All of You. The custom here is to serve the spokesman first and the others later. They will serve you when I finish.
Sky people (To themselves): Looks like it is their custom to leave all the food to their king first.
Tortoise: Mm. Yummy. Mm. I’m full now. You can start to eat.
Bird A: We should never bring him here. I am t

oo angry to eat. I’m going home.
Bird B: Wait. I am leaving, too. Take the feather with us.
Tortoise: What are you doing? Leave me the feather. Oh, how am I going home without a single feather? You can’t do this to me?
Birds: Bye.
Tortoise: Could someone take a message for my wife? Tell her to bring out everything soft and cover the ground. …

4. Taking Sides
1) -- I don’t admire Tortoise’s cleverness. He was unwise to cheat all the birds. After his mischief, how could he have face to live together with them any longer? He would have no friends at all. He was clever, but at the same time he was also stupid. When all the birds became so angry, how could he have trusted Parrot? He should have jumped into the sea to avoid being hurt.
-- I admire Tortoise’s cleverness. He was a guy who knew where to look for a nice dinner during a time of famine. He knew very well how to get trust from others. He was also quick-minded. His only mistake was that he should not be so greedy as not to leave any nice food for the birds.
--I sympathize with the birds. They took Tortoise with them to the sky out of kindness, but after flying such a long distance, they had to fly back home on an empty stomach. They were formally invited, but the food was enjoyed by Tortoise, who hadn’t been formally invited. I think the birds were very unlucky.
-- I think the birds are stupid. They knew very well that Tortoise couldn’t be trusted as he was always mischievous. But they persuaded themselves that he was a changed man. At the party they should have let the sky people know Tortoise was not their king and they had the right to have some of the nice food, as they were the guests.
2) I learned from the story that a) we should be honest, and shouldn’t cheat others. If we cheat others, we will be punished in the end; b) we shouldn’t be carried away by sweet words, like the birds; c) a leopard can’t change its spots, nor can Tortoise. He was cunning, he could never change his personality and behave himself.


1. 1) A. invitation B. invited C. inviting
2) A. prepare B. prepared C. preparation D. preparatory/preparation
3) A. discoveries B. discoverers C. discovered
4) A. approval B. approve C. approved D. approving E. disapprove
5) A. eloquent B. eloquence C. eloquently
6) A. faithful B. unfaithful/faithless C. faith D. faithfully
7) A. occasional B. occasionally C. occasion
8) A. delivery B. delivering C. delivered
9) A. troublesome/trouble B. troubled C. troubled D. troubling
10) A. assurance B. assured C. assure

2. 1) ran/got into trouble 2) no trouble 3) asking for trouble
4) have…trouble 5) trouble with 6) in serious/deep/big trouble
7) get/getting…into trouble 8) took the trouble
1) with a pattern of roses
2) prepared a wonderful/good meal for us
3) promised faithfully
4) deliver this letter
5) a selection of milk and

plain chocolate
6) keep out of mischief/behave themselves
7) the sound of distant thunder
8) received approval from the government
9) in spite of the fact that he drank too much
10) agree whether the drug is safe or not
Part Three
FURTHER Development
1. 1)CCABA 6)BABBA 11)BA
5.1)the true reason why there was no such animal in Guizhou
2)they were useless in this place
3)When he suddenly saw the donkey, he thought it was a monster
4)He hid himself in the tree while looking at donkey
5)What kind of animal is this and why does it look different from other animal that I've ever seen
6)But one day the donkey stretched its thin neck and cried
7)the tiger found that the donkey didn't have any other skills besides crying
8)But he dared not rush to it and eat it just as he did to other animals
9)This did make the donkey angry,so it raised its hind leg and kicked the tiger
10)This time he rushed to it without hesitation and bit is throat
Part Four Writing and Translation
2. Translation Practice(P96)
万物之初,天地还是一体,充满混沌。宇宙如同一个大黑蛋,盘古就在黑蛋里。一万八千年以后,盘古长睡醒来,他感到窒息,于是他拿起一把斧子,用尽全身力量砸开黑蛋。轻的、透明的部分冉冉上升,变成了天;而冷的、浑浊的物体依然在下面,变成了大地。盘古站在中间,顶天立地。天地开始 以每天一长的速度分开,盘古的身子也随着长高。一万八千年后,天更高,地更厚,盘古像一根九百万里高的柱子伫立其间,田地永远也无法再合在一起。

Unit 3

IV. Post- Reading
Reading Comprehension
1. What the Text Discusses
1) financial 2) career 3) later 4) guilty 5) hurt 6) resentful
7) productive 8) independence 9) responsibility 10) trusted
11) frightening 12) resentment 13) abandoned 14) factors 15) quality
2. Understanding Specific Information
1) T 2) F 3) T 4) F 5) T 6) F 7) F 8) F 9) F 10) F

3. Comparing Experiences
Sample 1
In our group, two of us were latchkey children, two were taken care of by their grandparents, and one was taken care of by his mother because his mother did not work. The two who were once latchkey children had felt very much the same as the children mentioned in the passage. They felt lonely and watched TV a lot. But compared with the other students in our group, they are more independent. So in a way, it is good to leave children alone for some time every day.
Sample 2
In our group, only one person was once a latchkey child. Both her parents were working far away from home and she had to be on her own for most of the time on weekdays. The rest of us were taken care of either by our grandparents or by our parents. Every day when we came home after school, there was always somebody there waiting for us and taking care of us. We could also

go out and play with other children after we finished our homework. But sometimes we did wish we were alone so that we could spend the time as we wished.


1. 1) c 2) h 3) g 4) a 5) e 6) k 7) i 8) d 9) l 10) b 11) j 12) f
2. 1) constantly 2) impact 3) burden 4) Candidly 5) fulfillment 6) salaried 7) resentment 8) assistance
9) perfect 10) suppress
3. 1) successfully 2) resentment 3) security 4) necessity 5) advisable
6) access/accessibility 7) athletic 8) maturity 9) emotional 10) effectively

4. Sentence-Making Game
Suggestions for teachers:
Step 1: Write on the blackboard about 20 words or phrases that appear in the text. An even number is desirable since the students will be divided into 2 groups.
A possible list:
rise decade expense financial affect on the other hand priority
engage range forbid isolate stimulate express claim widespread
given work out take into consideration in case of secure arise
cope with demand provide
Step 2: Divide the students into two groups.
Step 3: The students make sentences using the words on the blackboard. Each sentence can include more than one word and must be meaningful and grammatically correct. One point is awarded for each correctly used word. The teacher crosses out the word which has been correctly used. If the word is crossed out, it cannot be used again.
Step 4: Students are encouraged to work quickly and raise their hands as soon as they come up with a sentence. The teacher works as a judge; the group that gets higher points wins.

Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the expressions in brackets.
1) Because of an emergency, the doctor will not be available for several hours.
2) How will taxes affect people with low incomes?
3) My mother always told me that in the long run I would be glad I didn’t give up practicing the piano.
4) The books range in price from $10 to $20.
5) It seems to me that you don’t have much choice.
6) Given their inexperience, they have done quite a good job.
7) For such a big house the price is fairly cheap/low, but you’ve got to take into consideration the money you will spend on repairs.
8) Can we begin by discussing questions/problems arising from the last meeting?

Part Three
FURTHER Development
Across 1)shoplifter 4)thief 6)stole 7)too 8)fifty 11)witness
Down 1)sentence 2)out 3)robbery 5)into 6)son 8)fine 9)fist 10)owe
1)creates 2)individuals 3)makes 4)combination 5)however 6)fall 7)responsible
8)which 9)difference 10)that 11)tempted 12)used 13)lowest 14)died
15)reducing 16)quick 17)reason 18)principle 19)minor 20)message
Part Four Writing

and Translation
2. Translation Practice (P142)
1) 孩子最好远离毒品
2) 在逃的武装抢劫犯落入法网

Unit 4
Part one
1. 1)film director 2)surgeon 3)flight attendant 4)pilot 5)cook/chef 6)conductor
7)lawyer 8)receptionist 9)policeman 10)butcher 11)doctor/physician
12)auto-repairman 13)scientist/research worker 14)nurse
3.Section A
1)job 2)career 3)profession 4)trade
Section B
1)pay 2)fee 3)salary/wages 4)income
Section C
1)job-seeker 2)employer 3)fire 4)interview

III. Post-Reading
Reading Comprehension

1. 1) Introduction (Para. 1):
Career planning does not necessarily follow routine or logical steps.
2) Students’ weaknesses in career planning (Para. 2):
i. Most students choose from a very narrow group of occupations.
ii. 40 to 60 percent of the students choose professional occupations, but only
15 to 18 percent of the work force is engaged in professional work.
iii. Young men lack interest in fields that offer many job opportunities.
iv. A third of the students are unable to express any choice of occupation.
3) Serious flaws in the ways of decision making (Para. 3-5)
i. Complacency – ignoring challenging information.
ii. Defensive avoidance – resorting to wishful thinking or daydreaming.
iii. Hypervigilance – searching frantically for career possibilities and seizing
on hastily invented solutions.
4) Keys to career planning (Para. 6-11)
i. Study yourself.
ii. Write your career goals down.
iii. Review your plans and your progress periodically with another person.
iv. If you choose a career that does not fit you, you can start over.
5) Changes in careers (Para. 12-13)
i. Few changes involve downward movement; most involve getting ahead.
ii. Job changes and career shifts occur at all ages.
6) Conclusion (Para. 14-15)
Although there is no sure way to make career plans work out, there are things that you can do now to shape your career possibilities.

2. 1) T 2) T 3) F 4) T 5) F 6) T 7) T 8) T 9) T 10) F 11) T 12) F

3. Job Application and Recruitment
An alternative activity for the teacher to organize for the class:
The teacher may organize an interview in the followin

g way:
1) Choose an interview panel of three or four students. Choose three students for the panel to interview for the job of a store detective. Hold the interviews. When they are over, the panel should discuss the qualifications of the applicants and choose the one they think is best.
2) Ask the class to talk about the interviews. Ask questions such as:
A. Do you agree with the panel’s decision?
B. How could the applicants have done better?
C. Were the interviews fair?

Sample answers
-- I agree with the panel’s decision. First, the applicant is very confident in answering the questions and he knows what he is supposed to do. Second, he is quick-minded and very strong. Third, he is interested in the job and is ready to dedicate himself to the job. Finally, he has previous experience in working as a store detective.
-- I don’t agree with the panel’s decision. I think the panel puts too much emphasis on the appearance of the applicants. I think Applicant B is much more suited for the job. He has a warmer personality. He can be a good store detective as well as a good staff member, because I don’t think the sole responsibility for a detective is to check on the shoppers. He should also help the customers when possible.
-- Generally speaking, I think the panel has made a wise decision and chosen the right one for the job. Yet I think the applicant could have done better by not being so conceited and bragging about his own ability. After all, people cannot trust too much what a person says about himself without further investigation. What’s more, team spirit is very important. If he is not easy-going and feels too good about himself, it will be difficult for others to cooperate with him. Also I doubt whether he will be listening to the boss.


1. 1) acceptable 2) efficiency 3) implications 4) instability 5) rationalize
6) evaluation 7) foreseeable 8) invention 9) hastily 10) probability
11) professional 12) challenging 13) defensive 14) personality

2. 1) in case 2) Every so often 3) resort to 4) talk over 5) start over
6) in reality 7) at stake 8) seized on 9) leading to 10) take stock of

3. 1) programs 2) way 3) technical 4) both 5) provided 6) who
7) such 8) needed 9) opportunities 10) when 11) to 12) Completion 13) holding 14) early 15) hire 16) promote 17) up 18) educating


1. He underwent a major heart surgery several years ago.
2. We estimated that it would take a week to finish the work.
3. I used to enjoy photography, but I now have no time to pursue any hobbies.
4. You may love someone but not necessarily have to marry him.
5. Terrorists resort to violence to achieve their political aims.
6. He says he’ll stay in the office this afternoon in case you want to see him.
7. Scientists have identified the gene that causes ab

normal growth.
8. These examples demonstrate how badly some students write their résumés.

FURTHER Development

Part Four Writing and Translation
2. Translation Practice (P195)
A = Applicant I = Interviewer
I: Do you have a boyfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is he here, in this city?
A: No, he is in another city.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you?
A: Why not?
I: You would not be keeping your mind on your work. What’s more, we do not want to see our telephone bill increase enormously because of you.
I: Do you have a girlfriend?
A: No. Have you ever dated a girl?
I: Yes, but she didn’t want to date me?
A: Do you want to date girls after you have a job?
I: I will set my mind on work first. I will not consider my marriage now.
A: Sorry, we will not employ you.
I: Why not?
A: You are lacking in the ability of dealing with interpersonal relationships. Also, you lack self-confidence.
I: Do you have a girlfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is she pretty?
A: Not quite.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you.
A: Can it be that a plain girlfriend will affect your company’s image?
I: It’s not that. But our company engages in works of art. Your aesthetic judgment does not satisfy our company’s need.
I: Do you have a girlfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is she pretty?
A: Very.
I: Is she your first love?
A: Yes.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because you lack the initiative in pursuing the better unceasingly.
I: Do you have a girlfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is she your first love?
A: No, I have a couple of girlfriends before.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because you would soon job-hop.
I: Do you have a boyfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is he very rich?
A: No.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because your job is to work with money. I am afraid you cannot resist the temptation.
I: Do you have a boyfriend?
A: Yes.
I: Is he very rich?
A: Yes, he has his own company.
I: Sorry, we will not employ you, because even your boyfriend’s company doesn’t employ you.
A: but that’s because his company doesn’t have a position suitable for me.
I: What’s your major then?
A: Secretary.
I: Sorry, we still cannot employ you. Pretty girls affect our manager’s work.
A: But I am not pretty.
I: That’s even worse. If you are not pretty, our manager will not be interested in you.

Unit 5

Part two
Reading Comprehension
1. 2)Her feeling before her teacher arrived.
4)How she discovered words.
B)learning the meaning of words and her reaction
D)Her feelings and her new outlook on life
5)ii)Job changes and career shifts occur
2.1)A.One life refers to the life she led in the past, the other refers to the life she led after the teacher came.
B.It refers to the very day when her teacher came to her
C.Before the teacher came, she lived in darkness.Since the

teacher came, she began the brand —new life.
2)Because the day marked a new beginning in her life. That is a special day to her. On that day,
Helen's teacher came and unfolded a new world before Helen.
3)A."White darkness" here refer to a feeling of being lost, like a ship at sea almost unable of
finding her way in white fog without sunshine. That is the true reflection of Helen's inner
B.It refers to the ship.
4)She felt tense and anxious, waiting for something to happen with pounding heart.
5)It refers to both the new doll and the big rag doll.
6)The words and the objects the words refer to.
7)Everything has it name.
8)The living word here refers to the word "water" which denotes the wonderful cool thing
flowing over Helen's hand. The living word awakened Helen's soul, so it became alive.
9)Because great change happened in Helen's life after she discover the mystery of words, just
like Aaron's rod, which had been a piece of dead wood, burst into flowers with God's love.
She stood on the porch, waiting for the teacher for the come.
the teacher tried time and again to teach her the connection between words and things
she felt the fragments of the broken doll at her feet
she finally discovered the mystery of language in the well-house
she tried vainly to put the broken doll together
Helen Keller's Feelings:
pleasant and proud
1. Section A
Section B
1)renewed 2)apply 3)persist 4)succeeded 5)drop 6)revealed 7)wonder
8)keenly 9)vainly 10)impressed
2. 1)unconsciously 2)expectant 3)eventful 4)immeasurable 5)imitation/imitating
6)continually 7)tenderness 8)impatient
1)I became more anxious when I saw all the people walking to and fro outside the office.
2)In time he will know who is his real friend.
3)That scientist's experiment gave birth to a new medicine.
4)Because of his illness, he had been shut in during mush of the winter.
5)They would practice their oral English at the first opportunity.
6)All the things she cherished would probably sweep away overnight.
7)Towards the close of the semester, students are all busy with preparing for exams.
8)We long for the departure of so cold winter.
Part Three
FURTHER Development
1. 1)AABBC 6)BCCAB 11)CA

Part Four Writing and Translation
2. Translation Practice (P239)
1) 他钦佩布朗太太,这使我很惊奇。
2) 暴风雨持续了一整天;就在这段时间里船破裂了。
3) 虽然那个学生在做试验前已仔细阅读过实验说明,但由于他生搬硬套,未能得到满意的结果。
4) 我知道萨拉会将那个好消息告诉她姐姐的,而她姐姐又很可能将它告诉她的同学。
5) 史密斯先生很有教学经验,他将在春天和我们一

6) 邮递员早晨6点30分来。这个时候我通常还在睡大觉呢。

Unit 6
2. Section A
1)squirrel 2)owl 3)dolphin 4)tiger 5)monkey 6)dog 7)beaver 8)lion
9)penguin 10)ostrich
Section B

III. Post-Reading

Reading Comprehension

1. Understanding the Main Idea of the Passage
A Comparison of Animal and Human Aggression
Animals Human beings
Causes of aggression 1) Abnormal conditions 8) Living conditions in crowded cities.
Consequences 2) It will show abnormal aggressiveness. 9) People may behave aggressively toward each other.
Examples 3) A tiger once came out of the jungle into a village and attacked a man.
4) The caged lion often becomes more aggressive than it would be in the wild. 10) A once self-employed crafts-man and people who once worked in a small firm will express aggression through resentment and anger.
11) A man may kill thousands of people by dropping a bomb from a plane.
Behavior in desirable situations 5) The tiger would have stayed in the jungle and hunted for food in the customary way.
6) The caged lion would be continually active, ranging over long distances, hunting in family groups. 12) People might have been no more aggressive than their fellow creatures.
13) The man would hesitate to hit another person in front of his eyes.
Possible solutions 7) The lion should be free to wander on the grassy plains of Africa. 14) Hostility and aggression should be expressed in constructive activity and non-violent competition.

2. Understanding Specific Information
1) D 2) C 3) A 4) C 5) D 6) B

3. Questions for Group Discussion
1) –Yes. There were 2 world wars before, during which large numbers of people were killed and the great majority of them were innocent. Human beings or the whole world can be destroyed if nuclear or biological weapons should be used by violent insane people. We have never heard of anything like these in the animal world. Besides humans have killed large numbers of animals for food, clothes, medical research, pleasure, or for no reason at all. So I think humans are much more aggressive than animals.
– No, animals are, in general, more aggressive than humans. Humans are good by nature, while animals have no power of reasoning. What’s more, animals have more physical force and other defenses such as claws and fangs. Without weapons, man is weaker and less aggressive than animals.
2) – Yes, sports are generally a good way to channel energy and aggression, especially boxing, wrestling, ball games, etc. International sports enable athletes from many countries to meet and to compete for medals. To prepare for international sports competitions, they have to improve their skills, strengthen their muscles, develop effective strategies, etc. Others, non-athletes, will feel concerned with them, excited with them, and proud of them, and cheer for them.

– No, the Olympic Games are just sports competitions. They won’t change the political ideas of nations. We have never heard of any sports games that have stopped disputes, conflicts, wars, etc., but on the other hand there were athletes who were prevented from participating in the Games because of international conflicts. And there have been acts of terrorism, and examples of unfair judgments and aggressive behavior at the Olympic Games.



Verb Noun Adjective Adverb
aggress aggression aggressive aggressively
/ violence violent violently
behave behavior / /
/ territory territorial /
/ hostility hostile /
disable disability disabled /
compare comparison comparative/comparable comparatively/comparablely
destroy destruction destructive destructively
resent resentment resentful resentfully
construct construction constructive constructively
compete competition competitive competitively
/ evidence evident evidently

2. violent —non-violent doubtfully — undoubtedly
satisfied — dissatisfied normal — abnormal
constructive — destructive personal — impersonal
diminish — increase encourage — discourage

1) survive 2) conflicts 3) available 4) likely
5) injuring 6) absorbed 7) competition 8) instinct
9) hesitated 10) similar

Aggression is the fighting instinct in beast and man, which is directed against members of the same species. It is theorized that in natural conditions aggression helps to ensure survival of individuals (and thus the species), by preventing too dense a population from developing and exhausting all of its food sources. Fighting is generally considered to be a trait characteristic of males and uncharacteristic of females. However, many but not all female mammals exhibit aggression during the postpartum (产后的) period in defense of their young.
The great animal behaviorist Konrad Lorenz observed that in every individual the readiness to fight is greatest in the most familiar place: in the middle of its territory. As the distance from territory increases, readiness to fight decreases proportionately. This was not the case with my pet rat; he was ready and willing to beat up his neighbors the minute he stepped through their door. What causes some rats to be more aggressive than others? There is certainly evidence that aggression has a genetic basis, at least in some animals.

1. She always behaves badly when her aunt comes to visit.
2) If it hadn’t been for your help, we wouldn’t have been able to finish the task in time.
3) I warned him off going to the east coast because it was full of tourists.
4) The fact that something is cheap doesn’t necessarily mean it’s of low quality.
5) Without anyone to turn to for help, making an appropriate choice can be difficult.
6) His sadness at the death of his wife found expression in his music.
7) Only if Peter goes to the even

ing party will she go.
8) I can only compare the experience to a nightmare.

FURTHER Development
Writing and Translation
2. Translation practice (P279)
1) 这种理论的核心是:我们的环境同我们的本能、性格特征和行为,即使有什么联系的话,也是微不足道的。

Unit 7
1)collection 5)modern 7)resort 8)clean 10)since 11)art 12)lane 13)sacred
1)commercial 2)centre 3)industrial 4)mixture 6)drive 9)never

III. Post-Reading
Reading Comprehension

1. Understanding the Organization of the Text

A. Two things that I was dissatisfied with (Para.1-3)
1. My job
2. My engagement
B. Purpose of my trip (Para.4-6)
3. To transform myself
C. Process for change (Para.7-14)
4. I created a mindset that made me ready for change.
5. I insulated myself from the usual influences in my life and the people whose approval was most important.
6. I structured my time in order to produce change and growth.
7. I pushed myself to experiment with new ways of being.
8. I made public commitments of what I intended to do, so it would be harder to back down.
9. I processed my experiences systematically.
10. I made changes when I returned that continued the transformation that started while I was in Aruba.
D. Conclusion (Para.15)
11. I would continue going on transformative trips to keep my growth in the future.

2. Retelling the Process for Change
“The writer was determined and ready to make changes. First, he made a point of getting away* from familiar situations and people that he wanted to impress. Next, he organized his days so that he could do activities that helped him change and develop. After that, he made an effort to try new ways of doing things. Then, he announced publicly what he planned to do so that it would be difficult for him to break his promises. Later, he analyzed his experiences in a logical way. When he returned, he changed things in his life so that he would continue the process that began while he was away. The process for change was a success.”

*make a point of doing something: be certain that one does something, usually in an obvious way.
e.g. From then on he made a point of avoiding her.

3. Understanding Specific Information
1) C 2) C 3) D 4) A 5) C 6) A 7) C 8) D 9) B 10) A

4. Questions for Group Discussion
1) I think it’s interesting and effective. Any change in scenery or surroundings can be beneficial. Yet it is too expensive, too self-centered and too time-consuming. Isolating oneself from one’s friends and family doesn’t seem to be the best way for transformation to take place. Anyway, one has to get back to their friends and family who are important for their life and happiness.
2) Other possible ways to make changes:
-- to do new and different things (sports, reading, painting);
-- to do things to help other people;
-- to look for a new job;
-- to find a new hobby.
I think the most effective way is to help other people.

1. 1) engagement 2) separating 3) influences 4) arranged 5) chosen 6) In case 7) processed 8) changes 9) benefited 10) go on

1) end 2) booked 3) trapped 4) book
5) ended 6) appeal 7) trap 8) appeal
9) samples 10) structure 11) value 12) structured
13) sampled 14) process 15) valued 16) process

3. 1) a. emptied b. emptiness
2) a. terrified b. terrifying
3) a. entertaining b. entertainment
4) a. introductory b. introduction
5) a. employed b. employment
6) a. transform b. transformation
7) a. convinced b. convincing
8) a. approval b. approve
9) a. isolates b. isolation
10) a. reinforcement b. reinforced

1. I didn’t realize putting on/staging a play involved so much work.
2. The most important thing is not what you say but what you do.
3. This is the best result that can be expected in such circumstances.
4. It isn’t the first time that you have found yourself in such a situation.
5. This difficulty challenges my mind to find an answer.
6. The new threat on the horizon is unemployment.
7. We have alternative ways of expressing the same idea.
8. He slipped into the old habit of drinking.
FURTHER Development
1. 1)BABBC 6)BBABC 11)BC

Writing and Translation
2. Translation practice (P320)
A. From English to Chinese
1) 悲观主义者的典型特征是他们往往认为坏事会持续很久,会损害他们所做的每一件事情,而且都是自己的过错。
2) 猴子回答说他确信自己有足够的力量同志天庭。
3) 好消息是并非A型行为的各个方面都同样有害。
4) 有观察表明,如果人们不被告知正在发生的事情,他们会变得更不耐烦。这是Larson研究的另一个课题。
5) 有时病人所需的只是一种安慰;一切都会好的。
B. From Chinese to English
1) The question to ask is not whether we should travel but where we should travel.
2) The distinctive feather of the island is that it is made

up of pink coral.
3) The belief that he would win helped him go out of the desert.
4) The fact that the town had beautiful scenery and low expense made us overjoyed.
5) He wanted to find some evidence that the restaurant overcharged him.

Unit 8

Part one
3.1)expected 2)conclude 3)account 4)nurture 5)argues 6)myth 7)predetermine
8)react 9)consequences 10)revolution 11)between 12)creature
Part two
Reading Comprehension
1. 2)A.same genes, same environment
B.physical, psychological
C.weight, height, hair color, teeth,
confident, graceful,
personal appearance, considerable polish and ease,
shy, self-conscious, quiet, charming or graceful manners
3)What we can do is set by the genes, but what we actually do is largely determined by the environment.
2. 1)resemble 2)alike 3)like 4)similar 5)same 6)Identical,same,alike
3. 1)absolutely 2)eventually 3)obviously 4)Similarly 5)remarkably
6)approximately 7)exclusively 8)actually
Part Three
FURTHER Development

Writing and Translation
2. Translation practice (P365)

Unit 9
Part one
1.1)violin、piano、drum、viola、cello、mouth organ、saxophone、classical guitar、electronic guitar、
trumpet、accordion、electronic keyboard、harp、and some Chinese folk instruments like Erhu、
2)Bach、Chopin、Beethoven、Strauss、Brahms、Mozart、Schumann、Liszt、Xian Xinghai,etc.
3)classical、modern、county、folk、jazz、blues、light、heavy metal、rock、pop、rap、ballad、sonata、
4)solo、duet、trio、quartet、chorus and choir.
dream maker,heart breaker
2)dreamy,empty,keep on,once,part,wonderful,happened,arms

Post- Reading

Reading Comprehension
1. Understanding the organization
1) Introduction: (Para.1)
Music may calm you down but it can also lead to traffic accidents.
2) Effect of music on drivers: (Para.2-9)
A. Argument: Both extremes of music can result in risk. (Para.2)
Music with a strong beat leads to aggressive driving.
Soothing and melodious music makes drivers relaxed and sleepy.
B. Supporting Evidence (Para.3-9):
a. Introduction to the research (Para.3):
Sponsor: British Automobile Association
Subjects: Volunteer drivers, including newly qualified ones.
i. Men in the 17-25 age bracket were the most dangerous and accident-prone group.
ii. Men in this group listen to music for seventy percent of the time they are on the move.
b. The pace of the driving is governed by the pace and beat of the music (Para.4-5):
i. Drivers subjected to loud music find themselves making faster gear changes, accelerating
more quickly and braking more abruptly.
ii. Drivers subjected to slow ballads often find their attention wandering.
iii. Comments by the volunteer drivers (Para.6-8):
i) Simon told the AA that the fast rock music was potentially lethal.
ii) Another volunteer said that he was speeding along singing loudly without noticing the fire engine behind his car while listening to ZZ Top’s music.
iii) Other comments: “I get lost in my own thoughts”… “It’s possible to suffer a dulling of the senses”… “Not hearing other vehicles is a problem”…
c. Slower music stimulates a change in a person’s brain pattern. (Para.9)
i. It encourages Alpha waves.
ii. It induces a feeling of well-being.
iii. Prof. Shirley Fisher’s warning: Some music can lull you into concentration loss, or
even mini-sleep, which can cause horrific accidents.
3) An analysis of the effect of music on driving: (Para.10-12)
A. Selecting your music to suit the conditions (Para.10-11):
a. Stimulating music can be useful on long boring roads, but it can distract you when traffic conditions are difficult, or traffic is heavy.
b. According to Dr. Robert West, Carefully selected music may improve our driving, particularly in the high risk group.
B. High-tech music systems built into our cars also cause accidents (Para.12).
A recent traffic and road safety report showed that 40% of minor road accidents were caused by people taking their eyes off the road to change a cassette or disc.
4) A car intelligence system: (Para.13-14):
A. Its producers: Rover, British Aerospace, Philips and Sweden’s Road and Traffic Research Institute.
B. Its name: Application of Real-Time Intelligent Aid For Driving
C. Its working principle: It’s a sophisticated electronic system which takes advantage of radar to warn the driver when a collision is possible.
D. Its ways to warn the

a) It sends a vibration through the accelerator pedal to warn the driver to slow down.
b) If early warnings go unheeded, the engine cuts out and the hazard warning lights go on.
5) Conclusion: (Para.15)
Music lovers should be careful when driving.

2. Understanding Specific Information
1) T 2) F 3) F 4) T 5) T 6) T 7) F 8) F 9) T 10) F

1. 1) stimulate 2) distract 3) qualify/be qualified 4) induce 5) accelerate
6) soothe 7) overtaken 8) wander 9) combine 10) commissioned
2. 1)C 2) D 3) A 4) C 5) A 6) C 7) C 8) A

1. I took advantage of the fine weather today to play tennis.
2. You may even swim in the lake -- if you feel inclined to.
3. The loud music brought on another one of his headaches.
4. A careless person is apt to make mistakes.
5. The experiment resulted in the discovery of a cure for cancer.
6. Comparatively speaking, we are more concerned with work efficiency and product development.
7. Doctors once said that surgery could induce heart attack.
8. I qualified as a doctor at London University 30 years ago.
or: I was qualified as a doctor by London University 30 years ago.
Part Three
FURTHER Development
1. 1)CBBAA 6)BBC

Writing and Translation
2. Translation practice (P409)
1) 音乐是人类的共同语言。——亨利W朗费罗(1807-18820,美国诗人
2) 音乐给人的启示超过哲学。——路德维希 范 贝多芬(1770-1827),德国作曲家
3) 在生命的黑夜中音乐是月光。——让 保罗 里彻 (1763-1825) ,德国作家
4) 音乐能洗涤灵魂,清除其日常生活的尘埃。——摘自《一百零一首最好的歌》
5) 人们用音乐来表达语言难以表达的情感。——埃尔伯特 哈伯德 (1856-1915),美国作家、编辑
6) 音乐真奇妙,它能平息胸中的怒气,软化坚硬的岩石,压弯长满节瘤的橡树。——威廉 康格里夫(1670-1729),英国戏剧家
7) 记忆中,所有的一切都似乎跟音乐有关。——田纳西 威廉斯(1974-1983),美国戏剧家
8) 借助音乐,孩童进入美的世界,表达内心的情感,品位创造的乐趣,增强同情心,发展智力,平和心境,陶冶情操,培养优雅的仪态。——美国全国儿童福利会,1927年
9) 人们相互表达心灵的和谐美妙所采用的最佳、最美、最理想的途径是音乐。——乔纳森 爱德华兹(1703-1758),美国传教士和神学家
10) 音乐的力量是无法抗拒的,它的功劳数不胜数;任何灵魂工程师都很少能像音乐一样激起人们的爱心,唤醒人们平和的心境,促进人们之间的友谊。——威廉斯 萨克雷(1811-1863),英国小说家

Part two
Reading Comprehension
1.1)surprised upon becoming 50 years old
is better

than ever
b.like a grain of sand by the sea
B.can be filled with meaning only through love and work of one's choice
a.loving,at nothing
b.of becoming a reporter and than an author
C.a.The conflict of man with himself
I spend more time studying myself than anything else
b.are more alike different
because I except less from them too
D.that nothing interests me more than human nature
Failures of communication between human being
2.1)Jumping from 2)regardless of 3)In my opinion 4)Now that 5)let alone
6)lost touch with 7)at peace with 8)get along with
3.1)inherited from 2)distracts...from 3)confronted with 4)probe 5)regardless of/in spite of
6)perceive 7)have identified 8)make up 9)limitations 10)genius
1)When returning home,ha was confronted with piles of work.
2)The captain of the football team scored two wonderful goals early on in the game.
3)Provided that they are healthy and well,I don't understand why they couldn't go on playing for another three or four years.
4)Even in emergencies he can make sound judgment.
5)While I admit that there are problem,I don't think that there are no solution.
6)He went on listening to her,at time impatient and at times fascinated.
7)It's still early enough for us to find a way to resolve these problem.
8)It's impossible for parents to allow their children to go to the school of their choice.
Part Three
FURTHER Development
2.Step one
Challenge, Song, Dream, Game, Love

Writing and Translation
2. Translation practice (P452)
A. 岁月可以在皮肤上留下皱纹,但是热情的丧失却会让灵魂生长皱纹。忧虑、恐惧、缺乏自信只会让人胸无大志,变成一堆行尸走肉。无论是60岁还是16岁,每个人都会被好奇所吸引,都会对未来、对人生这场游戏带给我们的欢乐怀着孩子般永不消减的渴望。在你我心灵的深处都有一个无线电台:只要它不停地从人群中、从无限的时空中接受美好、希望、激励、勇气和力量的信息,你我就都会年轻。
B. 1) 老年远不只是头上有白发,脸上有皱纹,也不只是一种感觉。真正的不幸不在于身体的虚弱,而在于心灵的冷漠。
2) 人的青春是美妙的:它充满着痛苦和魔力,青年人在当时并不知道什么是青春,只有当它永远地消失时,他才真正明白。
3) 我认为

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