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This type of spring is extensively used in electrical instruments, and deserves special consideration.


P.24 例3

If the reaction took hours, and not seconds, the fuel costs would be prohibitive.



Keep the batteries in dry places, and electricity may not be made to leak away.




In other words mineral substances which are found on earth must be extracted by digging, boring holes, artificial explosions, or similar operations which make them available to us.



The solar wind grossly distorts the earth's magnetic field, dragging it out to a long tail.



P.26 例17

The substitution of some rolling friction for sliding friction results in a very considerable reduction in friction.



An understanding of the essential character of scientific investigation is best acquired from the study of a representative particular science.


P.27 例23

The moon is a world that is completely and utterly dead, a sterile mountainous waste on which during the heat of the day the sun blazed down with relentless fury, but where during the long night the cold is so intense that it far surpasses anything ever experienced on the earth.


原句中含有4个分句:由关系代词that引导的定语从句,修饰a world;介词on+关系代词which引导的定语从句,修饰a world的同位语a sterile mountainous waste;关系副词where 引导的定语从句,也修饰a sterile mountainous waste;so…that引导的结果状语从句。


Computing machines are essentially machines for recording numbers, operating with numbers, and giving the result in numerical form.



P.29 例29

The ON condition makes the data equipment ready to the communication equipment to be connected to the communication channel.




Then the surgeon cut him open and took out the appendix and stitched him up again



P.30 例32

It is very much like communicating with an accurate robot who has a very small vocabulary and takes everything literally.



P.32 例5

Design is a series of operations involved in taking a product from a conceptual stage to a form that meets both company goals and customer expectations.


After the spring has been close to its solid height, the compressive force is removed.


原句中solid height的意思在汉译时做了技术性引中,翻译为“并紧高度”。


Dimensioning is a complicated work and long experiences are required for the mastering of it.




Semiconductors devices have no filament or heaters and therefore require no heating power or warmed up time.




The diameter and the length of the wire are not the only factors to influence its resistance.



P.34 例20

As noted previously, the catalyst in the first reactor can be divided into two beds, with an intermediate liquid quench, where high reactivity of the charge makes close temperature control mandatory.




These waves, which are commonly called radio waves, travel with the velocity of light.




To picture the stress state, select the original a reference system at the center of the contact area with x parallel to the cylindrical axes, y perpendicular to the plane formed by the two cylinder axes, and z in the plane of the contact force.

为描述应力状态,选择参考坐标系,原点选在接触面的中心,x轴平行于圆桂体的轴线,y 轴垂直圆柱体轴线所形成的平面,z轴处于接触力所在的平面上。

2018<科技英汉互译教程> 中篇期末考试范围


P.42 例5

The new medicine will expire in 2 years.



The operation of a machine needs some knowledge of its performance.


P.43 例17

This experiment is an absolute necessity in determining the best processing route.



Employers by and large are resistant to mediation.


P.44 例26

This metal is less hard than that one.



This experiment is an absolute necessity in determining the solubility.


原句中的名词necessity转换成汉语中的形容词“必要的”,原句中的形容词absolute 转换汉语中的副词“绝对”。

P.45 例37

It is demonstrated that dust is extremely hazardous.



Chlorine is very active chemically.


P.46 例46

The government is behind this project.


P.47 例59

The frequency, wave length and speed of sound are closely related.


P.48 例61

The temperature needed for this processing is lower than that needed to melt the metal.



Carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon oxides.


P.49 例77

These early cars were slow, clumsy, and inefficient.



P.50 例91

The resistance of a given section of an electric circuit is equal to the ratio of its voltage to the current through this section of the circuit.


P.51 例98

Since copper possesses good conductivity, it is widely used in electrical engineering.



P.52 例105

Finally, this condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the cycle repeats itself.


P.53 例114

Therefore the transformer can be used to step up or step down alternating voltage.




Stainless steel possesses good hardness and high strength.


P.54 例123

Strain Gauge Technology, which grew out of Applied Science Publishers Developments in Stress Analysis scries, does not replace or supersede existing textbooks and reference books



P.55 例135

Machines used for making plastic objects are very different from those used for manufacturing articles of wood or metal or other natural materials.



P.56 例138

Gas, oil, and electric furnaces are most widely used in industry.


原句中gas, oil和electric三个形容词同时修饰furnaces,但在译文中必须“油”和“电“连用才能使意思明确。

P57 例144

There are some partly mechanized versions of the process, however, in which higher current and deposition rates can be used.


Increasingly sophisticated computer-controlled robots are entering industry to cut down production costs, time and labor requirements.


P.58 例149

Being very small, this force may be neglected.



P.59 例158

Plastics is made from water which is a natural resource inexhaustible and available everywhere, coal which can be mined through automatic and mechanical processes at less cost, and lime which can be obtained from the calcinations of limestone widely present in nature



Generally speaking, the typical metal conducts electricity and heat. It shows lustrous surface, usually with white, or so-called metallic luster. It is ductile and malleable.


P.60 例163

The circulating water system of this power plant is a closed-cycle type of cooling system which consists of cooling tower, basin, pump house and supply / return pipelines.

该电厂循环水系统是由冷却塔、水池、泵房以及供水/回水管路组成的闭式循环冷却系统。P.61 例169

This type of "early discovery" of lung cancer followed by surgical cure, which currently seems to be the most effective form of therapy, is often bubbled by diverse biologic behaviors in the rate and direction of the growth of cancer.

人们希望“早期发现”肺癌,随后进行外科治疗,因为外科治疗可能是效果最好的办法。然而,由于肺癌生长速度和生长方向等生物学特征有很大差异,早期发现的希望往往落空。P.62 例172

Water is a substance suitable for preparation of hydrogen and oxygen.


P65 例187

In 1951,Harvard University undergraduate Marvin Minsky built a learning machine out of vacuum

tubes and motors based on the McCulloch-Pitts neuron model.

1952年,哈佛大学的研究生Marvin Minsky,根据McCulloch-Pitts的神经模型,采用真空管和电动机制作出了一台学习机。


P.69 例6

When an acid reacts with a base, a neutral product usually results, and we call it a salt.



P.73 例32

When an acid reacts with a base, a neutral product usually results, and we call it a salt.



P.74 例36

The closed loop system protects the operator from liquor contact and hazard from the same.



P.75 例45

Ideal voltage and current sources are active circuit elements, while resistors and conductors are passive elements.



P.76 例56

The critical pressure is the pressure at which a gas can be liquefied.


原句中形容词critical原义是“关键的”、“紧急的”。在翻译时进行了引中处理,译为“临界的”。P.77 例58

The thicker the wire, the more freely it will carry current.



The chief problem with brush-type motors is the low reliability of the commutator-and-brush assembly.


P.78 例71

The shunt motor operates nearly at constant speed.


P.79 例82

The fence by the cable ditch is too low.


P.80 例89

With its great potential, the wide use of optical communications will not come overnight.



P.81 例101

It is through this interface that the substation operator must control and monitor the entire substation.


P.82 例113

If we permit the current to flow longer, more heat will be produced.


P.83 例123

The choice of material in construction of bridges is basically between steel or concrete and main trouble with concrete is that its tensile strength is very small.

桥梁建筑材料基本上仍在钢材和混凝土之间选择,而混凝土的主要缺点是抗拉强度低。P.84 例128

The distance between the two plates is small compared with their linear dimensions.


P.86 例155

As the temperature increases, the volume of water becomes greater.


P.87 例158

The materials are excellent for use where the value of the work pieces is not high.


原句中的从属连词where 转译为“如果”,表示条件。


Every object, large or small, has a tendency to move toward every other object.



P.88 例167

The electricity crisis can be solved as long as low-cost power is available.



The dielectric material is not perfect, so a small leakage current will flow through it.


not perfect指的是materials在绝缘性方面的特性,所以译文中要将此名词增译出来。

P.89 例180

The force necessary to stretch the spring is great.


P.90 例184

This is the key for the extremely low D.C. power achievable.



He is quite ignorant of electromagnetics.


P.91 例197

Traditionally, our society has trained men to be comfortable with competition and uncomfortable with intimacy.


P.92 例211

The AC and DC components can be treated separately.


P.93 例223

The absence of atmosphere in space will allow the space telescope to show scientists light sources as far as 14-billion light years away.


P.94 例232

Going through the process of heat treatment, metals become much stronger and more durable.




While small generators frequently have revolving armatures, large machines usually have stationary armatures and revolving fields.



P.95 例241

Modern industry needs considerable quantities of this metal, either in the form of iron or in the form of steel.


P.97 例258

This kind of film is twice thinner than ordinary paper, but its quality is quite good.


P.99 例270

The minimum clearance path is the minimum distance that must be provided between conducting surfaces which differ in voltage.


原句中形容词minimum分别修饰distance 和clearance path,根据汉语词语对应关系的需要,分别译成“最小”和“最短”。


P.104 例7

Knowing the properties of the material, we can make full use of it.



Using a transformer, power at low voltage can be transformed into power at high voltage.



Copper has less resistance than aluminum for the same size wire, but aluminum,being much lighter in weight, has less resistance per unit of weight.


P.105 例19

Being stable in air at ordinary temperature, mercury combines with oxygen if heated.


P.107 例30

We can store electrical energy in two metal plates separated by an insulating medium.


P.109 例46

With the base grounded, transistor Q4 is a very high impedance.



P.110 例55

It is necessary to prevent induction motors against overload and under voltage.


原句中的介词短语against....voltage翻译为“以.…欠压”,在句中作宾语induction motors的补足语。

P.111 例64

Transistors, integrated circuits, and the chip itself only came about because materials scientist learned how to process silicon from common beach sand.


P.112 例72

When the effect of inductance is such as to cause an induced voltage in the same circuit in which the changing current is flowing, the term self-induction is applied to the phenomenon.


原句中the effect of inductance是when引导的时间状语从句的主语,它是不定式短语to cause an induced voltage动作的发出者,两者之间形成主谓关系。


Another important factor to be taken into consideration is that current strength is equal at certain points in a series circuit.


原句中的不定式短语to be....consideration插入在主语another important factor与系动词is之间作后置定语。两者构成汉语中的动宾关系“考虑因素”。

P.113 例79

To allow our silicon crystal to conduct electricity, we must find a way to allow some electrons to move from place to place within the crystal.


P.115 例90

It is to be emphasized that a source of electricity current is simply a device for causing electricity to move around a circuit.


原句中it是形式主语,替代that引导的主语从句。不定式短语to move....circuit作宾语electricity的补足语。


A minimum electric power system is shown in Fig.1, a combination of an energy source, a prime mover, a generator, and a load.



P.116 例99

The primary concern of electrical engineering is the doing of work by the delivery of energy.


原句中electrical engineering与主导词concern在逻辑上是主谓关系,汉译时也要按照主谓关系翻译,即将名词concern转译为动词“关注”,与主导词“电工学”构成主谓关系“电工学主要关注”。

P.117 例105

The gear teeth should have the strength sufficient to operate.


原句中sufficient to operate是“形容词+不定式”构成的形容词短语,在汉译时将形容词sufficient 译为前置定语“足够的”,不定式to operate译为宾语的补足语。


P.122 例13

The last 10 years witnessed the great changes in the development of hydroelectric power in China.最近10年,中国在水力发电方面取得了重大进展。

当英语用表达时间的词作主语,用witness,see,notice, find等词作谓语时,将主语转译为汉语的状语,使译文通顺。

P.123 例21

It concentrated on installing radio system in power plants.


P.124 例30

The function of a fuse is to protect the circuit.


P.125 例35

The new equipments provide a relatively small loss of energy.


原句中宾语loss of energy转译为主语“能耗”,主语汉译时转译为该词的定语“新设备的”,宾语的定语译为形容词作谓语“较小”。

P.127 例47

Hydroelectric stations offer quite a number of advantages over their thermal and nuclear counterparts.


原句中作状语的介词短语中的over 转译成表示比较关系的状语短语。

P.129 例60

Aluminum remained unknown until the nineteenth century, because nowhere in nature is it found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen, for which it has strong affinity.


P.130 例66

Great efforts will be made to achieve advancement and independent innovation of technology, which will lead to improved safety and cost-efficiency of nuclear power reactors and competitiveness of nuclear power.




When you use a computer to process information, you must have input, which is the data you will deal with; you must process the data, which is the act of doing something with data according to instructions, and you must have output, which is the result of your processing.


P.132 例79

The equivalent circuits, being descriptive and simple, are very useful for the solution

to a number of problems.


原句中being descriptive and simple表原因,故可转译为原因状语分句“由于……”。

P.133 例84

Wherever conductors are needed, insulators will be indispensable.



The amount of deformation is directly proportional to the applied stress provided the force does not exceed a certain limit.


P.134 例97

The advantage of rolling bearing is that they cause less friction.


P.135 例104

The possibility that a circuit breaker may fail to perform its function, when instructed to do so, is higher than for protection and trip circuit.


P.136 例111

Scientists have already known that under the extreme temperatures,say 260℃, metal presents

zero resistance, that is, superconductivity of metal.


P.137 例115

The principal objection to arc lighting was its high intensity, making it unsuitable for most indoor applications.



P.141 例15

This extraction rate was confirmed in batch tank tests.


P.142 例27

The newly-found electrical material is widely used home and abroad.


译法的特点是,把原句中作状语的介词结构中的宾语译成主语,同时把原句的主语译成宾语。P.143 例31

It should be noted that increasing the length of the wire will increase its resistance.


P.145 例44;

But for friction, the driving wheel would not run the belt, neither would the belt run the wheel to be driven.



It is by the use of steam-jackets that a reduction in condensation is achieved.


P.146 例54

Should the current be cut off, coil would return to its original position.


P.147 例61

Heat the substances and they will have the tendency to expand.



He developed a computer model based on the data accumulated in these studies.



If broken anywhere, the electric circuit will immediately stop carrying a current.



One China-made 300MW PWR reactor and turbogenerator unit has been installed at Qinshan in Zhejiang province.



电力系统继电保护原理习题 第一章绪论 1、什么是主保护、后备保护?什么是近后备保护、远后备保护?在什么情况下依靠近后备保护切除故障?在什么情况下依靠远后备保护切除故障? 2 、说明对电力系统继电保护有那些基本要求。 3、简要说明继电保护装置的一般构成以及各部分的作用。 4、针对下图系统,分别在D1、D2、D3点故障时说明按选择性的要求哪些保护应动作跳闸。

第二章 电网的电流保护 1、分析电流保护中各段如何保证选择性?各段的保护范围如何,与哪些因素有关? 2、什么是继电器的返回系数,增量动作继电器、欠量动作继电器的返回系数有什么区别? 3、在图示网络中,试分析断路器1DL 、4DL 和9DL 保护的最大和最小运行方式。 4、在图所示网络中,线路AB 电源端装有三段式电流保护,线路BC 装有二段式电流保护,均采用不完全星形接线方式,系数参数如图所示,线路AB 和BC 的最大负荷电流分别为2.3A 和2A ,线路BC 的过电流保护动作时限为3S ,负荷自起动系数为1。试计算:(1)、线路AB 和BC 各段电流继电器的动作电流set I 和时间 继电器的动作时限set t 。(2)、求出无时限电流速断的保护范围和校验Ⅱ、Ⅲ段的 灵敏度。 ( 1 .1,2.1===III rel II rel I rel K K K ) 5、如图所示,对保护1进行三段式相间电流保护的整定计算。3.11 =rel K , 1.12=rel K , 2.13 =rel K ,85 .0=re K ,5.1=ss K ,线路阻抗为0.4Ω/km ,阻抗角为 700,AB 线最大负荷电流为170A 。电源阻抗Ω=2m i n sA X ,Ω=3max sA X ,


1.Here great disturbances at the heart of the earth caused mountains and volcanoes to rise above the water. 这里,由于地心的剧烈活动,使山脉和火山升出水面。 2.After the Australian Taxation Office made its taxation forms simpler, it actually received praise from taxpayers who could finally understand it. 澳大利亚税务局将其表格文字简化后,受到了纳税人的广泛称赞,因为他们终于能看懂这些表格了 3.Although people are born to win, they are also born helpless and totally dependent on their environment. Winners successfully make the transition from total helplessness to independence, and then to interdependence. Losers do not. 虽然人们生来要成功,然而,他们同样生来就是无助的,完全依靠环境。成功者成功地从完全不能自立过渡到了独立,然后过渡到相互依靠。失败者则不然。 4.Darwin was convinced that the loss of the tastes in music and drawing was not only a loss of happiness, but might possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character. 达尔文认为,失去对音乐和绘画方面的兴趣,不仅失去了幸福,而且还可能损伤智力,甚至可能会伤害道德。 5.No eating tools on the Chinese dinner table are more magical and distinctive than the chopsticks. 中餐桌上最神奇,最有特色的用餐工具莫过于筷子. 6.It is not on the shores of continents, nor in the coastal islands, however, that the soul of the great Pacific is found. It lies far out where the fabled South Sea Islands are scattered over the huge ocean like stars in the sky. 然而,浩瀚的太平洋最精美之处不在其大陆海岸,也不在沿海诸岛,而是在远离陆地的海域。在那里,富有神奇色彩的南太平洋诸岛像天上的繁星一样散布在广阔的海面上。 7.Circumstances and people are constantly changing. Some friendship last “forever”; others do not. 环境与人都在不断地改变。有些友谊地久天长,有些则如昙花一现。


Part I: Translate the Chinese in the brackets into English. (15%) 1. ____________________(爱因斯坦相对论)is the only one which can explain such phenomena. 2. Rate of penetration was found to ____________________ (与……成正比) the net pressure applied by the tool. 3. Being a ______________(非良导体/绝缘体), rubber is often used in cables. 4. Properly speaking, ___________(并非所有的物质) exist in three states. 5. An electric current produces ______________(磁场) around it. 6. With the result of automation, productivity has ___ ___________ (增加了5倍) in that factory. 7. Copper and aluminum are the best conductors of electric current ______________(仅次于银). 8. The neutron has __________________(既不带正电荷,也不带负电荷). 9. When the water temperature is increased, it vaporized more quickly until it reaches ________(沸点). 10. A __________(变压器) is a very useful device, even though it can be sued only with alternating current. Part Ⅱ: Choose the better rendition for each of the following sentences.(20%) 1.由于我在会上发表论文,如蒙介绍有关会议的详细情况,不胜感激。 A) Because I will deliver a thesis at the conference, I shall appreciate it very much if you could introduce to me the detailed condition of the meeting. B) As I will present a paper at the conference, I will be grateful if you could supply me with detailed information about the meeting. 2. 西安附上我提供会议的论文,题目是“动物克隆在中国”,一式三份,如果要发电子邮件以转录软盘,我可以立即发出。 A) I am enclosing herewith my paper of the topic of “Animal Cloning in China” one form in three B) I am enclosing, in three copies, my paper entitled “Animal Closing in China” for the conference. If req uired, I can send an e-mail for the disk right away. 3.核能发电,是在20世纪才发展起来的新事物。不幸的是,建立和维持核发电厂的成本很高,使得建设速度要比原先预料的慢许多。---中国的第一座核发电厂,是于20世纪后期建立在深圳,靠近香港。 A) Using nuclear energy to generate electricity is a new thing developed in the 20th century. What is unfortunate is that the costs of building and maintaining a nuclear power plant are very high, making the speed of construction much slower than previously predicted. ----China’s first nuclear power plant was built in the late 20th century at Shenzhen near Hongkong. B) The production of nuclear power is a new development of the 20th century. Unfortunately, the high costs of building and maintaining a nuclear power plant have led to a much slower rate of growth than was predicted. -----China’s first nuclear power plant was built in the late 20th century at Shenzhen near Hongkong. 4. 不少科学家论证说,三国演义里所说的“木牛流马”,可能是一些有相当复杂性的机器,其工作原理可说类似于今天的某些器械装置。 A) Quite a few scientists say by reasoning that the “wooden cows, running horses” described in the Romance of the Three Kingdo ms could be rather complex machines whose working principles can be said to be like certain mechanical devices of today. B) Quite a few scientists argue that the “wooden cows, running horses” described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms could be machines of sufficient complexity working on principles supposedly similar to certain present-day mechanical devices. 5. 摘要:本文简单叙述和分析了本实验室最近对猪流感病毒所作的两次实验的成果。 A) Abstract: The results of two experiments on swine flu virus are briefly described and analyzed. B) Abstract: this article simply states and analyzes the results of two experimental tests this laboratory recently performed in the research on swine flu virus. 6. 珠江三角洲在中国的南部,气候良好,交通系统效率高,一向工农业都在快速发展。 A) The Pearl River Delta is to the south of China. It has a nice weather and a highly efficient communication system. Both of its industry and agriculture


华电电厂招聘化学试题 一.选择题: 1 燃烧需要的三个条件是(C)。 A 燃烧、空气、锅炉; B可燃物质、催化剂、氧气;C 可燃烧的物质、助燃的氧气、足够高的温度;D 锅炉、风机、燃煤。 2 由于试剂不纯引起的误差属于(A)。 A 系统误差; B 偶然误差; C 过失误差; D 随机误差。 3 需要进行定期计量检定的仪器,器具有(C)。 A 瓷舟,称量皿; B 坩埚,分析天平; C 热电偶、分析天平; D 瓷舟、压力表。 4 热力机械工作票制度规定下列工作人员应负工作的安全责任。(D) A 厂领导、车间(队、值)领导、队长; B 车间主任、班长、工作负责人; C 工作票签票人、检修人员、运行人员; D 工作票签发人、工作负责人、工作许可人。 5 通常用于检验一组数据异常值的方法是(D)。 A T检验法; B F检验法; C 相关性检验法; D Grubbs法。 6 在煤堆上采样时,采样工具的开口宽度应不小于煤最大粒度的(D)倍。 A 1.5; B 2.5; C 3; D 2.5—3。 7 现行国标中规定采样的精密度:对原煤和筛选煤当Ad>20%,精密度为(C)(绝对值)。 A ±1%; B ±1.5%; C ±2%; D ±3% *8 对于炉渣样品的采集,现行国标中规定每值、每炉采样量约为总渣量的(D)但不得小于10kg。 A 千分之五; B 千分之一; C 万分之六; D 万分之五。 9 测定煤中灰分时,炉膛内要保持良好的通风状态,这主要是为了将(D)排出炉外。 A 水蒸气; B 烟气; C 二氧化碳; D 二氧化硫和三氧化硫 10 常用于检验碳、氢测定装置可靠性的标准物质有(D)。


1.那些实验是在EMS平台下进行?那些实验是在DTS平台下进行? EMS:1)电力系统有功功率分布及分析;2)电力系统无功功率分布及分析;3)电力系统综合调压措施分析;4)电力系统有功-频率分布;5)电力系统潮流控制分析;6)电力系统对称故障计算及分析;7)电力系统不对称故障及计算分析 DTS:1)电力系统继电保护动作特性分析;2)电力系统稳定性计算及分析;3)电力系统继电保护动作情况与系统稳定性关系分析 2.欲调节电压幅值,调有功P有效还是无功Q有效?为什么? 1)电压对无功变化更敏感,有功虽然对电压也有影响但是比较小 2)只考虑电压降落的纵分量:△U=(PR+QX)/U,从公式看出,电压降落跟有功P和无功Q 都有关系,只不过在高压输电系统中,电抗X>>R,这样,QX在△U的分量更大,调节电压幅值就是在调节无功。 3.重合闸有什么好处?若电气故障设为三相短路,故障分别持续t1和t2时长,则两个实验结果有什么不同? 重合闸好处:1)在线路发生暂时性故障时,迅速恢复供电,从而提高供电可靠性;2)对于有双侧电源的高压输电线路,可以提高系统并列运行的稳定性,从而提高线路的输送容量;3)可以纠正由于断路器机构不良,或继电器误动作引起的误跳闸 故障延时长的接地距离一段动作次数,相间距离一段动作次数,三相跳开次数比故障延时短的多,开关三相跳开的次数多。 4,.以实验为例,举例说明继电保护对暂态稳定的影响? 实验八中,实验项目一体现出选保护具有选择性,当其故障范围内出现故障时,有相应的断路器动作跳闸。实验项目二体现出保护是相互配合的。当本段拒动时,由上一级出口动作跳闸。实验项目三做的是自动重合闸的“前加速”和“后加速”保护。继电保护快速切除故障和自动重合闸装置就是使故障对系统的影响降到最低,尽早的将故障切除能避免故障电流对设备的冲击减小对系统的扰动,有利于暂态稳定的实现。 5.·在电力系统潮流控制分析试验中,可以通过改变发电机的无功进行潮流调整,也可以通过改变发电机所连升压变压器的分接头进行潮流调整,实验过程中这两项调整对发电机的设置有何不同?为什么? 改变发电机无功:设置发电机无功时以10MV AR增长。不能保证发电机有功功率和发电机电压恒定,他们可能会随着无功功率的改变有微小的变化。 改变变压器分接头:设置此时发电机相当于一个PV节点,即恒定的有功P和不变的电压U。原因:发电机是无功电源,也是有功电源,是电能发生元件;变压器是电能转换元件,不产生功率。 7在实验中考虑了哪些调压措施?若某节点电压(kv)/无功……电压升高3kv,则应补偿多少电容? 【实验】调节发电机端电压(调节有功,调节无功),调整变压器分接头 【百度】电力系统的调压措施主要有: 1靠调节发电机机端电压调压 2靠改变变压器分接头调压 3靠无功补偿调压 4靠线路串连电容改变线路参数调压 我的实验灵敏度系数为0.075,所以若电压升高3kv,应补偿3/0.075=40Mvar的电容 8在调频实验中。对单机单负荷系统,若发电机的额定功率……频率怎么变化?当负荷功率大于发电机功率的额定功率…… 通过K=△p/△f来判断f如何变化 9、几个实验步骤 实验九试探法求故障切除实验的实验步骤


《科技英语翻译》课程练习十六 一、将以下指示与说明文体译成汉语 1. Important safety instructions 1) AC extension cords are not recommended for use with this product. If an extension cord must be used, be sure it is an approved type and has sufficient current-carrying capacity to power this product. 2) NEVER operate this product with any covers removed. 3) NEVER wet the inside of this product with any liquid. 4) NEVER pour or spill liquids directly into this unit. 5) NEVER block air flow through ventilation slots or heat sinks. 6) NEVER bypass any fuse. 7) NEVER replace any fuse with a value or type other than those specified. 8) NEVER attempt to repair this product. If a problem occurs, contact your local retailer. 9) NEVER expose this product to extremely high or low temperatures. 10) NEVER operate this product in an explosive atmosphere. 11) ALWAYS keep electrical equipment out of the reach of children. 二、将以下某款前置放大器使用说明译成汉语 1) DISPLAY INTENSITY BUTTON Cycles among four levels of brightness (including “off”)for the display, allowing adjustment for various ambient lighting conditions. When “off”, the display will turn on for a few seconds whenever a setting is changed. When used in conjunction with certain compatible ABC components, this button will control the display intensity of all lin ked components. (For more information, see “Linked Functions.”) 2) MODE INDICATORS Three LEDs give visual confirmation of the Operational Mode the preamplifier is in at any moment. 3) MODE BUTTON Cycles among the three primary Operational Modes of the preamplifier: Monitor (the source being listened to); Record Select (the source being provided to the Record Outputs); and Balance (the relative volumes of the Left and Right channels). Confirmation of these operating modes is given by the Mode Indicators below the


2009-2010学年第2学期 《实用科技英语翻译》期末考试题型和复习题 I Answer the following questions related to EST Translation (30’)(2个题) 1. What’s the definition of EST (English of Science & Technology)? EST (English for Science & Technology or Technical English or Scientific English) is a special language variety widely used in the fields of science and technology. It’s believed that it first came to being in the 1950s along with the rapid development of science and technology, and it many researchers and scholars began to conduct investigation of this common feature of this special genre including reading comprehension, writing and even translation. 2. What are stylistic features of EST? Completely different from other genres such as everyday English, literature English, EST has its own stylistic features due to the specialty in content, field and discourse functions, and partly due to the unique habits of EST writers, which are mostly represented in lexical level and syntactical level. 3. What are the general features of Compound Technical Terms? A. accuracy(确切性): accurately reflect the nature of the concept B. monosemy(单义性): one sense for one word C .systematization(系统性):the individual technical terms in a given field should be in a specific level so as to constitute a common system D. linguistically correct(语言的正确性): in accordance with the word-formation in the same language E. conciseness(简明性): concise and easy to remember F. motivation(理据性): just as the name implies, one can know the meaning of the word.


两票题库 一、判断题: 1.继电保护、安全自动装置的工作,除填用工作票外,对重要设备,特别是 复杂的保护装置或有联跳回路的保护装置,还必须填用继电保护安全措施票。(√) 2.工作票签发人可以兼任该项工作的工作负责人。(Х) 3.工作许可人不得签发工作票。(√) 4.工作票应统一编号,按顺序使用,编号原则由单位自行确定。每份工作票 的编号应是唯一的。(√) 5.合同期一年及以上承担发包单位检修、维护、施工、安装任务的承包单位 的有关人员,符合电力安全工作规程资格要求的,可以担任发包单位相关工作的工作票签发人、工作负责人。(√) 6.临时承担发包单位大小修、临故修任务的发电单位、电力检修单位的有关 人员,符合电力安全工作规程资格要求的,可以担任发包单位相关工作的工作票签发人、工作负责人。(√) 7.特殊情况下,一个工作负责人可以发给两张工作票。(Х) 8.事故抢修工作(指生产主、辅设备等发生故障被迫紧急停止运行,需要立 即恢复的抢修和排除故障的工作)可不填用工作票,但必须经值长同意,在做好安全措施的情况下方可进行工作。(√) 9.建筑工、油漆工等非电气人员进行工作时,工作票可以发给这些工作人员, 但所有安全措施必须事先向全体工作人员交代清楚。(Х) 10.工作许可人应由运行值班负责人(单元制的正、副单元长、机组长,非单 元制的运行班长、副班长)担任,有能力正确执行、检查安全措施的独立

值班人员亦可担任,但只能担任本岗位管辖范围内设备、系统检修的工作许可人,并经专门考试合格。(√) 11.在禁止明火区等防火重点部位的动火作业,除必须办理工作票外,还应办 理动火工作票。(√) 12.新增工作任务的检修期限超出工作票批准期限或需要变更、增加安全措施 者,必须签发新的工作票,并履行工作许可手续。(√) 13.工作期间,工作负责人若因故必须离开工作地点时,可指定工作班的任意 一名人员临时代替,离开前应将工作现场交代清楚,并告知工作班成员。 原工作负责人返回工作地点时,也应履行同样的交接手续。(Х) 14.工作间断时,工作班人员可继续工作,所有安全措施保持不动,工作票仍 由工作负责人执存。(Х) 15.每日收工,应清扫工作地点。次日复工时,应得到工作许可人的许可,且 工作负责人必须事前重新检查安全措施是否符合工作票的要求后,方可工作。(√) 16.工作间断时,无工作负责人或监护人带领,工作人员允许进入工作地点。 (Х) 17.在未办理工作票终结手续以前,运行值班人员不准将检修设备合闸送电。 (√) 18.为了同一操作目的,根据调度指令进行中间有间断的操作,应分别填写操 作票。(√) 19.完成操作任务后,值班负责人必须在值班记录簿内做好详细记录。(√) 20.无监护操作:指不需填用操作票的操作任务,可以进行单人操作,但操作 人必须具备相应的能力。(√)


华北电力大学(北京校区) 电力系统稳态分析题库 电力系统稳态分析思考题 第1章 1、请说明火力发电的能量转换过程。 2、电力系统中除火电、水电及核电以外的其它发电形式一般称为“新能源”,你 能说出几种新能源发电形式? 3、火力发电使用的一次能源都有哪些? 4、负荷成分主要是什么? 5、电力系统包括哪些主要组成部分?分别起哪些作用? 6、什么是电力网?什么是动力系统? 7、电力系统常用的结线图有几种? 8、电力系统生产的特点是什么? 9、对电力系统运行的基本要求是什么? 10、电能质量的主要指标是什么? 11、考核电力系统运行经济性的指标是什么? 12、什么是“有备用结线”?什么是“无备用结线”?各有几种形式? 13、我国电力系统3kV以上的额定电压等级是什么? 14、我国电力系统中性点的运行方式是什么?

15、什么是“消弧线圈”?作用原理是什么? 16、升压变和降压变的变比有何区别? 17、我国三峡电站将装设台水轮发电机组,每台额定容量为 MW。 18、什么是线路的经济输送功率和输送距离? 19、什么是“黑启动”? 20、*什么是“能量管理系统(EMS)”? 21、*你对电力市场了解多少? 22、*什么是高压直流(HVDC)输电系统?与交流输电相比有哪些优缺点? 23、*什么是灵活交流输电系统(FACTS)? 第2章 1、“数学模型”的含义是什么? 2、什么是发电机的“运行极限图(功率圆图)”? 3、什么是发电机“进相运行”? 4、什么是变压器的铜耗和铁耗? 5、为什么说变压器的铜耗是可变损耗?铁耗是不变损耗? 6、升压三绕组变压器三个绕组由内到外的排列顺序是:中、低、高;降压三绕组 变压器三个绕组由内到外的排列顺序是:低、中、高,为什么? 7、采用扩径导线或分裂导线的主要目的是什么? 8、220kV和500kV线路上每串绝缘子的片数一般为多少? 9、铝线和铜线的电阻率是多少? 10、架空输电线为什么要换位?何谓“完全换位”?


科技英语翻译 1.1 翻译的标准 第1节翻译练习1 The power plant is the heart of a ship. The power unit for driving the machines is a 50-hp induction motor. 动力装置是船舶的心脏。 驱动这些机器的动力装置是一台50马力的感应电动机。 第1节翻译练习2 Semiconductor devices, called transistors, are replacing tubes in many applications. Cramped conditions means that passengers’ legs cannot move around freely. All bodies are known to possess weight and occupy space. 半导体装置也称为晶体管,在许多场合替代电子管。 我们知道,所有的物体都有重量并占据空间。 空间狭窄,旅客的两腿就不能自由活动。 第1节翻译练习3 The removal of minerals from water is called softening. A typical foliage leaf of a plant belonging to the dicotyledons is composed of two principal parts: blade and petiole. 去除水中的矿物质叫做软化。 双子叶植物典型的营养叶由两个主要部分组成:叶片和叶柄。 1.2 对译者的要求 第4节翻译练习1 Einstein’s relativity theory is the only one which can explain such phenomena. All four (outer planets) probably have cores of metals, silicates, and water. 爱因斯坦的相对论是能解释这种现象的唯一理论。(直译) 这四颗外层行星的内核可能都由金属、硅酸盐和水构成。(意译) The designer must have access to stock lists of the materials he employs. Part adjustment and repair must be performed on regular basis if an acceptable printed product is to be the end product. 设计师必须备有所使用材料的储备表。(意译) 要使印刷品的质量达到要求,部件调试及修理就必须定期进行。(意译) 第4节翻译练习2 The most important of the factors affecting plant growth is that it requires the supply of water. The doctor analyzed the blood sample for anemia. The apparent change in size of the sun is caused by dust in the air near the horizon.植物生长的各因素中最重要的是水的供应。(合译) 太阳的大小看起来有变化,这是由于靠近地平线的空气中有尘粒而引起的。(分译) 医生对血样作了分析,看是不是贫血症。(分译) These fragments of rock and iron range from thousand kilometers in diameter to less than one. Manufacturing processes may be classified as unit production with small quantities being made and mass production with large numbers of identical parts being produced.这些石块和铁块的碎片大小不等,大的直径有1000公里,小的不到1公里。(分译) 制造过程可以分为单件生产和大量生产。前者指的是生产少量的零件,后者则是指生产大量相同的零件。(分译) 第4节翻译练习3 Cartography is the science of making maps. Many elements in nature are found to be mixtures of different isotopes. 制图学是研究绘制地图的科学。(增译) 人们发现,自然界里许多元素,都是各种不同的同位素的混合物。(增译) The two units used most frequently in electricity are ampere and volt: this is the unit of voltage and that of current. That like charges repel but opposite charges attract is one of the fundamental laws of electricity. 电学上最常用的两个单位是安培和伏特:后者是电压的单位,前者是电流的单位。(增译) 同性电荷相斥,异性电荷相吸是电学的一个基本规律。(省译) 第4节翻译练习4 Almost any insulated body processes to some extent the ability to retain for a time an electric charge. The angular contact bearing provides a greater thrust capacity. The properties of the weld can be altered by varying the grain orientation. 几乎任何一种绝缘体都多少具有保留电荷一段时间的能力。 向心推力轴承有较大的轴向承载能力。 通过改变晶粒的方向可以改变焊缝的性能。 2.1 词义的选择 第1节翻译练习1 The spindle rotates simultaneously round two axes at right angles to each other. The earth isn’t completely round; it is slightly flattene d at the poles. In each round of operation the particle picks up energy from the oscillating electric field. 锭子同时绕两个互相垂直的轴旋转。(介词) 粒子每运转一周都从振荡电场获取新的能量。(名词) 地球并非完全是圆的,它的两极略扁平。(形容词) An electron is an extremely small corpuscle with negative charge which rounds about the nucleus of an atom. Her waist measures forty inches round. 电子是绕原子核转动且带有负电荷的极其微小的粒子。(动词) 她腰围40英寸。(副词) 第1节翻译练习2 Rate of penetration was found to be proportional to the net pressure applied by the tool. Scientists are constantly striving to find fast and convenient way of obtaining quantitative data. To find the area of a square or oblong, you merely multiply its length by its width. Certain isotopes are not found in nature. 人们发现钻孔速度与工具所受的净压力成正比。 求一正方形或长方形的面积,你只需将其长度乘以宽度。 科学家们总是力求找到快速而简便的方法获得定量数据。 有些同位素在自然界中并不存在。 New fibers find expanding applications in engineering and industry. Kangaroos are found in Australia. This plant is found in the sea near the mouth of rivers. Microcomputers have found their application in the production of genius sensors. Plastics find wide application in our daily life. 大袋鼠产于澳大利亚。 这种植物生长在近河口的海中。 新发明的纤维在工程和工业领域得到越来越广泛的应用。 微型计算机已经应用于智能传感器的生产中。 塑料在我们的日常生活中得到广泛应用。 第2节翻译练习1 The cause of rolling resistance is the deformation of mating surfaces of the rolling element and the raceway on which it rolls. Traditionally, NC programming has been performed offline with the machine commands The occurrence of large mats of floating algae may result in the death of many fish from lack of oxygen. 滚动阻力的起因在于滚动体的配合面和它滚动的滚道的变形。(技术性引申) 通常,数控机床的编程是脱机完成的,指令载于穿孔带上。(技术性引申) 大片大片漂浮的藻类的出现导致很多鱼因缺氧而死亡。(修辞引申) The splitting of the uranium or plutonium nucleus is accompanied by the release of very considerable amount of energy. The major contributors in component technology have been in the semiconductor. The distance between the two plates is small compared with their linear dimensions. Just as different solids and liquids vary in density, so do gases and vapors. 元件技术中起主要作用的是半导体元件。(具体化引申) 两板之间的距离相对于其宽度和长度而言比较小。(具体化引申) 随着铀核和钚核的裂变,会有极其巨大的能量释放处理。(修辞性引申) 正像不同的固体和液体的密度不同一样,不同的气体和蒸汽的密度也不同。(具体化引申) The Curies believed that there was something in nature that gave out radiation. Obviously, there is much room for the improvement in the structure. At present coal is the most common food of a steam plant. The facts have been set down in black and white. 显然,其结构还有较大的改进余地。(抽象化引申) 目前,煤是火电厂最常用的能源。(抽象化引申) 居里夫妇坚信,自然界中有一种物质能放出辐射能。(具体化引申) 这些事实已经清清楚楚地记录下来了。(抽象化引申) 2.3 词类的转换 第3节翻译练习1 Each time a sample was drawn for color determination. What is certain is that the oil spill has delivered a devastating blow to the ecology of the Persian Gulf. We should get familiar with different systems of units. 每次取一个标本测定颜色。 可以肯定,这场石油泄漏事件对波斯湾的生态是个惨重的打击。 我们应该熟悉各种(计量)单位制。 These decision-making processes are applicable to the entire field of engineering design--- not just to mechanical engineering design. Hydrogen instead of air is frequently used for cooling large turbogenerators. When the war was over, it was discovered that the Germans were nowhere near success in developing nuclear weapons. 常以氢气代替空气来冷却大型汽轮发电机。 第二次世界大战结束后,人们发现德国人在研制核武器方面离成功还很远。 这些判定过程可以应用于工程设计的整个领域,而不仅仅限于机械工程设计。 Various precautions have been taken against leakage. Once inside the oven, panels are subjected to a temperature of 365°F. Value is defined as a numerical ratio, the ratio of the function, or performance, to the cost. This new model should appeal to potential buyers. 一旦进入烘干炉,板材就处于365华氏度的温度条件下。 价值的定义是功能或性能与成本的数值比。 已采取了各种措施防止渗漏。 这种新式样对潜在的买主肯定有吸引力。 Galileo’s experiments are not difficul t, nor is there any evidence that he performed them with exceptional skill. Sometimes a scientist observes an object and its features, for example a star or a bird; sometimes he observes an event, which is something that happens at a particular time. Earthquakes are generally more destructive of life than volcanic eruptions. 有时科学家观察一物体及其特征,例如一颗星或一只鸟;有时科学家观察某一事件,即在一特定时间所发生的事。 地震对于生命的破坏通常大于火山爆发。 伽利略的实验并不难,也没有证据表明他是以非凡的技能来做实验的。 Heat should be applied slowly to avoid localized overheating. How rapidly a fuel burns depends on how thoroughly it is mixed with oxygen or air. This is why a coil is often referred to as an inductor. 一种燃料燃烧的速度有多快,取决于它与氧气或空气混合的均匀程度。 这就是线圈常被叫做电感器的原因。 应当慢慢加热,以避免发生局部过热现象。 第3节翻译练习2 Practically all of the useful properties of materials are strongly dependent on their internal structure. The metal casts well. A wire for conducting electric current is covered with plastic; the plastic is insulation round the wire. 几乎材料的一切有用特性都与其内部的结构有密切的关系。 这种金属有良好的铸造性能。 传导电流的导线包有塑料,该塑料便是导线周围的绝缘材料。 There are many ways of determining the distribution of the magnetism about a magnet. Good lubrication keeps the bearings from being damaged. Safety in a power plant is of great importance. Most modern transmitters employ solid state circuits. 安全在电厂是非常重要的。 现代发报机大多采用固体电路。 有许多方法来确定磁场周围的磁力分布状况。 润滑良好可保护轴承不受损伤。 E-Chemmerce now offers two main levels of online business intelligence on chemical, plastic and energy e-commerce. These images tend to exaggerate the robot’s similarity to human anatomy and behavior. Aluminum remained an expensive rarity till the discovery of the electrolytic process for reducing aluminum in 1886. 这些概念常常夸大了机器人与人类在形体和行为方面的相似之处。 《电子化工商务》目前主要提供两个层次的有关化学、塑料和能源电子商务的在线商务信息服务。 直到1886年人们发现电解法还原铝之前,铝一直是一种昂贵的珍品。 Since some materials are not damaged easily as others, the possibility exists of developing radiation-resistant parts. 由于有些材料不像另一些那样容易被损坏,所以有可能研制出防辐射的零件。 2.4 词的增译 第4节翻译练习2 第4节翻译练习1 This action externally appears like the discharge of a capacitor. Once out of the earth’s gravity, an astronaut is affec ted by still another problem--- weightlessness.