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英汉互译教程

?一本书 a book

?申请书Letter Of Application ?协议书Agreement

?家书 a letter from home ?(使用)说明书Directions

?成交确认书Sales Confirmation ?情书 a love letter

?国书credentials

?议定书protocol

?证书certificate

?书报亭news—stand

?书画painting and calligraphy ?书房study

?书记secretary

?书生intellectual ?参考书目bibliography ?奋笔疾书wield one's writing brush energetically ?一封信 a letter

?去取信to fetch mail

?失信to break promise

?信守诺言to keep one's promise

?信以为真to accept sth as true

?信不信to believe it or not

?信佛to profess Buddhism

?取信于民to win people's confidence

?信口开河to talk irresponsibly

?信笔to write freely

?信步to stroll idly

信风trade wind

?信(达、雅) faithfulness

?信男信女devout men and women

信史authentic history

?在这种情况下

?under such circumstances / such being the case ?这种情况必须改变。

?This state of affairs must change.

?现在情况不同了。

?Now things are different.

?情况怎么样?

?How do matters stand? ?我们应当根据具体情况做出决定。

?We should make decisions in accordance with specific conditions.

?他问起了她的健康情况。

?He inquired after her health

?前线有什么情况?

?How is the situation at the front?

? 4. 近

?近在咫尺

?be close at hand

?近几年来

?in recent years

?近百年史

?the history of the last hundred years ?年近六十?approaching sixty; getting on for sixty ?两家走得挺近。

?The two families are on intimate terms. ?西方文western culture(civilization) ?文化界cultural circle

?文化人intellectuals

?文化程度schooling

?文化用品stationery

?农业是国民经济的基础。(广义)

?Agriculture is the foundation of our national economy.

?这些年来,我国的农业、林业、畜牧业和渔业都得到相应的发展。(狭义)

?Over the years,corresponding developments have been made in our farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery.

?法西斯的暴行激起了全世界人民极大的愤怒。

?The atrocities of the fascists roused the people in the world to great indignation.

?大城市 a big city

?大厦 a large building

?大会堂 a great hall

?大雨heavy rain

?大雾thick fog

?大风strong wind

?大地震violent (great) earthquake ?大路main road

?大手术major operation

?大哥eldest brother

?大白菜Chinese cabbage

?大病serious illness

?大科学家an outstanding scientist ?大人物an important person

?大款millionaire

?他抓住了我的手臂。

?He grabbed me by the arm.

?主人抓住我的手,热情地和我握手。

?The host seized my hand and shook it heartily. ?我们应该抓产品质量。

?We should emphasize the quality of the products ?这项工作由他抓。

?He is in charge of this work.

?他的演讲抓住了听众。

?He attracts listener's attention with his speech. ?各国人民都要和平。(希望得到) ?A1l nations want peace.?她要我陪你去。(请求) ?She asked me to go with you.

?他要学法语。(意志) ?He wants to learn French.

?我们要相信群众。(应该) ?We must have faith in the masses.

?天要黑了。(将要) ?It is going to be dark soon。

?要不是他指引,我们就迷路了。(如果)

?If it weren?t for him,we would have gone astray.?今天要比昨天冷。(比较) ?It?s colder today than yesterday.

?翻译下列各句,注意词语选择:

?1.我最终认识到这件事为何非做不可。?2.看来他还未认识到有危险。

?3.他讲的是一套,做的是另一套。

?4.讲干劲,她比谁都足。

?5.他把他的全部书籍都献给了图书馆。?6.教师应当献身于教育事业。

?7.我要忘了,就请提醒我一下。

?8.诗人应该具有丰富的想像力。

?9.真遗憾,你的想像力太丰富了。

?10.好人相逢,恶人远离。

?11.他总是当老好人。

?12.不许他给我们集体脸上抹黑。

?13.争取运动成绩与精神文明双丰收! ?14.你把自行车借给我骑一下好吗?

?15.火借风势,越烧越旺。

?1.I came to realize in the end why it must be done.

? 2.It seems that she is still not aware of the dander. ? 3.He said one thing and did another. ? 4.When it comes to drive, she …s got more than any one of us.

? 5.He presented all his book to the library

? 6.A teacher should devote himself to the cause of education.

?7.In case forget, please remind me about it.

?8.A poet should have rich imagination.

?9.What a pity! You? ve got into wild flights of fancy.

?10.When good folks meet, evil men keep their distance.

?11.He always tries to get along with person. ?12.We are not going to let him bring shame to our collective.

?13.For better athletic records and sportsmanship. ?14.Could you lend me your bicycle?

?15.Fanned by the wind, the fire burned more and more furiously.

?报纸上没有什么有趣的新闻。

?There is nothing interesting in the newspaper.

?几乎所有重要的问题在会议上讨论过了。?Almost everything important has been covered in the meeting.

?除了山姆没有别人看到这起事故。

?No one else but Sam saw the accident

?中国可供出口的商品种类繁多。

?Chinese commodities available for export are varied. ?这是惟一能想出的解决办法。?This is the only solution imaginable

?这是现在能找到的最早的版本。

?This is the earliest edition obtainable

?他是当今最伟大的哲学家之一。

?He is one of the greatest philosophers alive. ?只有这把钥匙能开这个门。

?The key alone will open the door.

?那是今天该付的账单。

?That is a bill due today.

?(4) 某些分词作定语时常后置。例如:

?有关当局the authorities concerned

?涉及的利益the interests involved ?说话的人the man speaking

?被调查的妇女those women

surveyed

(5) 某些表示位置、方向的副词

作定语时,往往后置。例如:

?海外市场market abroad

?附近所有的房all the buildings

around

?天上的云the clouds above

?惟一的出路the only way out

?(6) 有些固定词组,其形容词

修饰语放在名词之后。例如:

秘书长secretary general 总额sum total

总领事馆consulate general (法)当然继承人heir apparent

军事法庭Court Martial

激战battles royal

善良而正直的人a man good and

true

(7) 当一个名词有几个形容词作定语时,在汉语中,越是能说明事物本质的定语越要放在前面,说明规模大小或

力量强弱的定语要放在后面。英语则相反,其语序为越能说明事物本质的定语越要靠近它所修饰的名词,定语和所修饰的词关系越密切,位置越接近;若关系远近难分的,则按词的长短排列,短的在前,长的在后。一般情况下,英语形容词词序的排列遵循限定词——大小、长短、高低——形状——年龄、新旧——颜色——国籍、地区、出处、材料——名词这一规律。在汉译英中,译者要根据英语的表达习惯来斟酌排序。例如

?一张木头小圆桌 a small round wooden table

?一片白色孤帆 a lonely white sail

?勤劳勇敢的中国人the brave hard-working Chinese people

?国际经济新秩序 a new international economic order

?他亲眼目睹了美国战后第一次后果严重的波及各个领域的经济危机。

?He witnessed the first post-war economic crisis of serious consequences prevailed in various fields in the U.S.

?据统计,每天前来游览敦煌壁画的游客数以千计。

?As is shown by statistics, every day tourists coming to visit the Dunhuang murals amount to thousands.

?在山顶上有一座十丈高的宝塔。

?One the top of the hill stands a pagoda about a hundred feet high.

?介词“to”表示“隶属”、“归属”关系,强调相互间的关系。如:

?问题的答案

?answers to the questions

?经理的秘书

? a secretary to the manager

?北大附中

?the Middle School to Beijing University ?中国驻日大使

?the Chinese Ambassader to Japan

?练习题的答案?keys to the exercises

?词典的附录

?an appendix to dictionary

?课文注释

?notes to the text

?大厅入口

?the entrance to the hall

?人民英雄纪念碑

?the monument to the people?s heroes

?我昨天带来放在书架上的一本新的汉英成语词典,对翻译很有帮助。

? A new Chinese-English phrases dictionary that I brought here yesterday and placed on the shelf is very helpful for translation

?我们多年聚居的老屋,已经卖给别人了。

?The old house our clan had lived in for so many years had already been sold.

?这就是我少年时生活过的地方。

?This is the place where I spent my childhood.

?我差点儿把整个事儿都忘了。

?I almost forget about the whole thing. ?她上班很少迟到。

?She is seldom late for work

?我的确该走了。

?I really must be going now

?他从来就不是一个会说话的人。

?He never was a good speaker

?他们愉快地接受了邀请。

?They gladly accepted the invitation. 或者:They accepted the invitation gladly.

?一切进行得很顺利。

?Everything goes on smoothly

?(1)当一系列表示时间或地点的状语连用时,汉语中习惯从大到小、从宽到窄、由远及近的顺序排列,而英语则大体相反,在汉译英时要作语序上的调整。例如:

?他出生在绍兴附近的一个小村子里。

?He was born in a small village near Shaoxing.

?中国于2003年10月成功地发射了第一艘载人航天飞船。

?China successfully launched its first manned space ship in October 2003.

?(2) 当表示时间、地点、方式的状语同时出现在一个句子中时,汉语状语的语序是;时间状语、地点状语、方式状语、动词;英语状语的语序是;动词、方式状语、地点状语、时间状语。例如:?我们上星期天在他家饱餐了一顿。

?We ate to our heart?s co ntent at his home last Sunday.

?他们昨天下午在会议室里热烈地讨论这个计划。

?They discussed the plan animatedly in the meeting room yesterday afternoon

? 3.状语的位置

?汉译英时有时为了强调,把译文中的状语前置,放在句首。例如:

?落潮在向后退,退入海中。

?Back to its depths went the ebbing tide.

?边防战士们日日夜夜守卫着祖国的边疆。

?Day and night, frontier guards defend our motherland?s border areas.

?史密斯先生多次在紧急时刻助我一臂之力。

?Many a time has Mr. Smith given me a hand in emergency.

?当几个语言成分并列时,汉语习惯将较大、较强、较极端或给人印象较深的成分放在前面;而英语一般按逻辑上的轻重、前后、因果或先部分后整体的顺序排列。有一些并列结构的词语已经形成了各自固定的语序,在翻译时应进行必要的调整。例如:

?眼疾手快quick of eye and deft of hand

?转战南北fight north and south

?血肉相连as close as flesh and blood

?水火不容as incompatible as fire and water

?不论晴天下雨,我们明天非去不可

?Rain or shine, we?ll have to go tomorrow.

?我们决不应当盲从。

?On no account should we follow blindly.

?他激动不已,不禁流下了热泪。

?To such an extent was he excited that he could not hold back his tears.

?种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。

?As men sow, so will they also reap.

?让大雨冲洗出个干净清凉的世界。May the thunderstorm sluice the world, making it clean and cool! ?我原计划今年二月访问美国,后来不得不推迟,这使我感到很扫兴。

?It was a great disappointment to me that I had intended to pay a visit to America in February but then I had to postpone it.

?生不带来,死不带去,倒也公平

?it?s quite fair that we bring nothing with us when we?re born and take nothing with us when we die.

?驾车经过这一地区,真是太危险了。

?It is dangerous to drive through this area.

? 2. 主语的确定与转换

?因为汉英语言在结构上存在较大差异。汉语的主语不明显,主语的句法功能弱。作翻译时,应首先确定主语,即根据原文的意义,确定英译文的主语或者将汉语的非主语转换成英语句子的主语。?(1)保留原主语

?保留原主语就是原文的主语在译文中保持不变,例如:

?我知道他完全够条件。

?I understand that he is well qualified.

?(2)调整语序,改变主语

?我国各族人民每年都要热烈庆祝十一国庆节。

?National Day is enthusiastically celebrated on Oct. 1 by the Chinese people of all nationalities every year ?将来会生产出小得可以放在口袋里的计算机。

?In the future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. ?(4)其他成分转化成主语

?河畔长着青草。

?The grass and trees are green by the riverside.

?本产品的特点是设计独特,质量高,容量大。

?The product is characterized by unique design, high quality and great capacity

?她对他们越来越憎恨。

?Her hatred for them grew more.

?3.主语的增补

?应当坚定不移地执行“计划生育”的基本国策。?Efforts should be made to firmly carry out the basic state policy of family planning.

?扩大对外开放程度,提高对外开放水平

?China plans to open further and expand the level of opening to the outside world.

?下雨了。

?It?s raining .

?几点了?十点了。

?What time is it? it?s ten.

?青出于蓝而胜于蓝。?The students often surpass their teacher

?谋事在人,成事在天。

?Man proposes, heaven disposes

?有人看见老教授深夜还在做实验。

?The old professor was seen making an experiment late at night.

?大家认为,他对做这项工作很满意。

?He was considered quite satisfied with the job.

?真把我饿死了!

?I?m nearly starved to death.

?采用无灵主语(inanimate subjects)

?一看到那棵树,我就会想起童年的情景。

?The sight of the big tree always reminds me of my childhood.

?他们派来的工程师迅速到达,并检查了所有的设备,工厂很快恢复生产。

?The quick arrival of the engineers sent by them and their careful examination of all facilities brought about the very speedy rest oration of the factory? s production.

?(1)将表示先后关系的连动式谓语译成并列句

?她把照片接过来放在茶几上。

?She took the photo and laid it on the coffee table.

?我们必须对党员特别是领导干部严格要求,严格管理,严格监督。

?We must strictly require, manage and supervise Party members, especially leading cadres.

?她写完了作业开始弹琴。

?Having finished her homework, she began to play the piano.

?她打开橱柜拿出一个茶壶。

?Opening the cupboard she took out a teapot.

(1)将连动式谓语译成核心动词+非谓语动词

?我们要采取更加有利的措施使社会治安状况得到改善。?We shall take stronger measures to improve public security. ?一定要吸取这次失败的教训,避免重犯此类错误。?Be sure to learn from the failure to avoid similar mistakes. ?她上楼去拿大衣。?She went upstairs for her overcoat. ?我伸手去接包袱。

?I reached out my hand for the bundle. ?人民起来反抗压迫。

?The people rose against oppression.

?①在有些表示动作、方式的连动式谓语中,通常把表示动作的动词作为核心动词,把表示动作方式的动词转换成介词短语或分词。

?他已于昨晚乘飞机去了上海。

?He left for Shanghai by plane last night. ?她光着脚走进了房间。?She came into the room with no shoes on.

?不久,他抱着一个大西瓜回来了。

?Soon he came back, holding a big watermelon in his arms.

?3.汉语兼语式谓语的翻译

?兼语式谓语是指谓语有两个动词,前一个动词的宾语又是后一个动词的主语。翻译兼语式谓语的方法通常有以下几种。

?他教我打篮球。

?He taught me to play basketball.

?我们极力阻止他投资这个项目。

?We tried to prevent him from investing this project. ?他要求他的学生独立思考。

?He asked his students to think for themselves. ?他们强迫这个孩子去行窃。

?They forced the child into theft.

?英语中有大量的动词含有“使……”的意思,如confuse使……困惑,excite使……激动,exhaust 使……筋疲力尽等。翻译兼语式谓语时,可以利用这类动词。

?这道题让所有的学生都很困惑。?This problem confused all the students. ?他的行为令我们十分震惊。?His behavior shocked us a lot.

?(3)作为句子的一个成分时,可将兼语式谓语转换成名词性短语。

?老师表扬他努力学习让许多学生十分不满。

?The teacher?s praise for his hard working displeased many students.

?他反对他们进行调查说明他卷入了这起丑闻中。

?His objection for our investigation indicates that he has been involved in this scandal.

?他按响汽车喇叭,前门应声而开。

?The front door opened to his hoot.

?因为距离远,又缺乏交通工具,农村社会是与外界隔绝的,这种隔绝状态,由于通讯工具不足,就变得更加严重了。

?The isolation of the rural world because of distance and the lack of transport facilities is compounded by the paucity of the information media.

?她,一个瘦弱多病的女孩子,以她坚强的毅力写出了一部部催人奋进的小说。

?Sickly and weak the girl is, she wrote one inspiring novel after another with her strong will

?一定要言行一致,理论与实践相结合,反对华而不实和任何虚夸,少说空话,多做工作,扎扎实实,埋头苦干。

?Deed and word must match and theory and practice must be closely integrated. We must reject flashiness without substance and every sort of boasting. There must be less empty talk and more hard work. We must be steadfast and dedicated.

?5、转态译法

?破产企业要真关闭,不准假破产,真逃债。

?Bankrupt enterprises shall be closed and no enterprises shall be allowed to evade payment of debts through declaring bankruptcy

? 6. 正反译法

?油漆未干。?The paint is wet. ?把门关上!

?Don?t leave the door open.

?1这项工程将在明年年底竣工。

?2延迟应由他负责,这个事实是改变不了的。

?3周末我们常去听音乐会,参观博物馆,看球赛。

? 4 她抱住儿子痛哭起来。

?5她命令我明天一早六点钟准时出发。

?6今天的训练让我们大家都筋疲力尽。

?7他支持他妻子辞职,让他的朋友十分失望。

?8检票员领他到座位上。

?9她不在乎费用,仍要出国读书。

?10你教学科研都取得了长足的进步,但不能因此而骄傲自满。

?11把我们的事业全面推向二十一世纪就是要抓住机遇而不可丧失机遇,开拓进取而不可因循守旧。? 1.This project will have been completed by the end of next year

? 2.It does not alter the fact that he is the man responsible for the delay.

? 3.On weekends we go to the concert, visit museum or watch ball games.

? 4.Hugging her son, she broke down completely.

? 5.She ord ered me to set off at six o?clock early next morning.

? 6.Today?s training exhausted all of us.

?7.His support for his wife?s resign disappointed his friends.

?8.The usher took him to his seat.

?9.She was determined to study abroad despite expense.

?10.You have made good progress in teaching and researching, but you should not get conceited and arrogant.

?11.To advance our cause into the 21st century in all-round way requires us to seize opportunities without fail, and blaze new trails instead of following the beaten track.

1、汉语主动句译成英语主动句

?我们边饮酒边讨论。

?We discussed the matter over a bottle of wine.

?老师演的那个节目的确很精彩。

?That performance of the teacher was really wonderful. ?请把昨天收到的那封信给我。

?Please give me the letter you received yesterday. ?这门锁不上。

?The door won?t lock.

?休息后,会议重新开始。

?After a rest, the meeting resumed.

?这本小说比较容易读。

?This novel is comparatively easy to read.

?1)保留原文中的主语,强调被动者。

?大米主要产于南方。

?Rice is chiefly grown in the South.

?晚上九点以后,长途电话费可以减少50%。

?After9 P. m., long-distance telephone rate will be cut by half.

?听说他没有拿到金牌,我们很失望。

?We are rather disappointed that he failed to win the gold medal.

?(2)突出原文的宾语,将宾语置于主语的位置,动词用被动语态。?如果有人问你私事,你尽可以不答。

?If you are asked personal questions ,you need not answer them.

?现代工业需要大量蒸汽。

?Large quantities of steam are required by modern industry.

?(3)无具体施动者的汉语无主句。

??动宾结构的无主句。

?发现了错误,一定要纠正。

?Wrongs must be righted when they are discovered. ?没有爱心,就无法了解人生。

?Life cannot be understood without much charity.

?κ一些表示要求、规定的无主句。

?如蒙早日寄来样品或产品册,不胜感激。

?It would be appreciated if samples and brochure could be soon forwarded to us.

?通知学校全体教师下午聚会。

?The university?s faculty shall be told to attend the gathering this afternoon.

? 表示事物存在的无主句。

?据了解,该地区有丰富的自然资源。

?It is known that there are plenty of natural resources in that areas.

?自1983年以来,已经建立了一百多个这样的组织。

?There have been established more than one hundred organizations of such kind since 1983.

?据统计每天前来游览敦煌壁画的游客数以千计。

?As is shown by statistics, every day tourists coming to visit Dunhuang Murals amount to thousands.

?(4)汉语中概括、泛指性的词﹙“人们”“有人”“人人”“大家”“我们”﹚等充当主语时,可译成宾语作主语的被动句或“it”为形式主语的被动句。

?在记者招会上,人们问了他许多问题。

?He was asked a lot of question at the press conference.

?长期以来,大家知道心脏和肝脏的关系是最主要的。

?It has long been known that there is a first relationship between heart and liver. ?(5)使语气委婉,措辞礼貌。

?请你为大家表演一个节目。

?You are requested to give a performance.

?希望你们能按时完成作业。

?It is expected that you will finish your assignments on

time.

?今天下午有一场英语讲座,全体研究生请务必参加。?There will be an English lecture this afternoon .All the graduates are expected to attend.

1、汉语被动名译为英语主动句。

?(1)为了符合英语的表达习惯。

?他被吓得坐起来。?He started to sit up. ?玛丽被雨淋感冒了。

?Mary caught cold because of the rain

?这附近有许多大的工厂,所以空气受到烟尘的严重污染。

?There stands so many big factories nearby that air is seriously polluteb by smoke.

?以上这些方面都应在今后的工作中加以改进。

?All the above aspects should be improved in the future.

?震后,灾区人民得到了全国人民的帮助与援助。

?After the earthquake,the people there were offered some aid and help by the people all over the country. ?河上又架起了一座桥。

?Another bridge has been built across the river.

?(1)deserve, require, want, need等这类被有些语法家划为带有被动含义的动词。例如:

?这个计划需要进一步讨论。?The plan requires further discussing. ?好的品质值得表扬。?The fine qualities deserved praising. ?房间需要打扫一下。

?The room needs cleaning.

?(2)除了上面提到的特殊用法的英语动词,还有些动词往往和表示行为方式的状语连用,以表示被动意义。例如:

?这酒口感不错,与价格相称。?This wine drinks well for its price. ?这篇文章读起来像小说。?This paper reads like a novel. ?湿衣服易烫平。

?Damp clothes iron easily.

?(3)在把形式主动含义被动的汉语句子译成英语时,英语句子可以采取进行时态表示被动意义,但是这种情况中的进行时态,实际上已经不表示动作正在进行,而是着重说明情况。

?晚饭正在做呢。

?The dinner is cooking. ?这部电影正在城里放映。?The film is showing in town. ?她的眼里盈满了泪水。?Her eyes were filling with tears.

?可以这样用的动词有:blow,drive,widen,expand,shape等等。

? 2. 一边走着,似乎道旁有一个孩子,抱着一堆灿白的东西。驴儿过去了,无意中回头一看——他抱着花儿,赤着脚儿,向我微微的笑。(冰心:《笑》)

?As I passed along, I somewhat sensed the presence of a child by the roadside carrying something snow white in his arms. After the donkey had gone by, I happened to look back and saw the child, who was barefoot, looking at me smilingly with a bunch of flowers in his arms. (Tr. Zhang Peiji)

?庞贝城现在成了举世闻名的游览地,人们可以在这里赞赏自然界的伟力与人类的创造才能,发出繁华如过眼云烟之类的种种感慨,享受地中海的太阳与和风。

?Pompeii has now become a world renowned tourist spot. People visiting this place can admire the power of nature, the creativity of man or sigh with emotion that glory and prosperity are as transient as fleeting clouds.

They can also enjoy the sunshine and the soft breeze of the Mediterranean.

?她身材矮小,容貌端庄,鼻子俏丽,头发光亮鉴人。

?Although she was both shot and slender, she had a dignified and elegant countenance, a fine nose and shinny hair.

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