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?一本书 a book

?申请书Letter Of Application ?协议书Agreement

?家书 a letter from home ?(使用)说明书Directions

?成交确认书Sales Confirmation ?情书 a love letter





?书画painting and calligraphy ?书房study


?书生intellectual ?参考书目bibliography ?奋笔疾书wield one's writing brush energetically ?一封信 a letter

?去取信to fetch mail

?失信to break promise

?信守诺言to keep one's promise

?信以为真to accept sth as true

?信不信to believe it or not

?信佛to profess Buddhism

?取信于民to win people's confidence

?信口开河to talk irresponsibly

?信笔to write freely

?信步to stroll idly

信风trade wind

?信(达、雅) faithfulness

?信男信女devout men and women

信史authentic history


?under such circumstances / such being the case ?这种情况必须改变。

?This state of affairs must change.


?Now things are different.


?How do matters stand? ?我们应当根据具体情况做出决定。

?We should make decisions in accordance with specific conditions.


?He inquired after her health


?How is the situation at the front?

? 4. 近


?be close at hand


?in recent years


?the history of the last hundred years ?年近六十?approaching sixty; getting on for sixty ?两家走得挺近。

?The two families are on intimate terms. ?西方文western culture(civilization) ?文化界cultural circle





?Agriculture is the foundation of our national economy.


?Over the years,corresponding developments have been made in our farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery.


?The atrocities of the fascists roused the people in the world to great indignation.

?大城市 a big city

?大厦 a large building

?大会堂 a great hall

?大雨heavy rain

?大雾thick fog

?大风strong wind

?大地震violent (great) earthquake ?大路main road

?大手术major operation

?大哥eldest brother

?大白菜Chinese cabbage

?大病serious illness

?大科学家an outstanding scientist ?大人物an important person



?He grabbed me by the arm.


?The host seized my hand and shook it heartily. ?我们应该抓产品质量。

?We should emphasize the quality of the products ?这项工作由他抓。

?He is in charge of this work.


?He attracts listener's attention with his speech. ?各国人民都要和平。(希望得到) ?A1l nations want peace.?她要我陪你去。(请求) ?She asked me to go with you.

?他要学法语。(意志) ?He wants to learn French.

?我们要相信群众。(应该) ?We must have faith in the masses.

?天要黑了。(将要) ?It is going to be dark soon。


?If it weren?t for him,we would have gone astray.?今天要比昨天冷。(比较) ?It?s colder today than yesterday.












?13.争取运动成绩与精神文明双丰收! ?14.你把自行车借给我骑一下好吗?


?1.I came to realize in the end why it must be done.

? 2.It seems that she is still not aware of the dander. ? 3.He said one thing and did another. ? 4.When it comes to drive, she …s got more than any one of us.

? 5.He presented all his book to the library

? 6.A teacher should devote himself to the cause of education.

?7.In case forget, please remind me about it.

?8.A poet should have rich imagination.

?9.What a pity! You? ve got into wild flights of fancy.

?10.When good folks meet, evil men keep their distance.

?11.He always tries to get along with person. ?12.We are not going to let him bring shame to our collective.

?13.For better athletic records and sportsmanship. ?14.Could you lend me your bicycle?

?15.Fanned by the wind, the fire burned more and more furiously.


?There is nothing interesting in the newspaper.

?几乎所有重要的问题在会议上讨论过了。?Almost everything important has been covered in the meeting.


?No one else but Sam saw the accident


?Chinese commodities available for export are varied. ?这是惟一能想出的解决办法。?This is the only solution imaginable


?This is the earliest edition obtainable


?He is one of the greatest philosophers alive. ?只有这把钥匙能开这个门。

?The key alone will open the door.


?That is a bill due today.

?(4) 某些分词作定语时常后置。例如:

?有关当局the authorities concerned

?涉及的利益the interests involved ?说话的人the man speaking

?被调查的妇女those women


(5) 某些表示位置、方向的副词


?海外市场market abroad

?附近所有的房all the buildings


?天上的云the clouds above

?惟一的出路the only way out

?(6) 有些固定词组,其形容词


秘书长secretary general 总额sum total

总领事馆consulate general (法)当然继承人heir apparent

军事法庭Court Martial

激战battles royal

善良而正直的人a man good and


(7) 当一个名词有几个形容词作定语时,在汉语中,越是能说明事物本质的定语越要放在前面,说明规模大小或


?一张木头小圆桌 a small round wooden table

?一片白色孤帆 a lonely white sail

?勤劳勇敢的中国人the brave hard-working Chinese people

?国际经济新秩序 a new international economic order


?He witnessed the first post-war economic crisis of serious consequences prevailed in various fields in the U.S.


?As is shown by statistics, every day tourists coming to visit the Dunhuang murals amount to thousands.


?One the top of the hill stands a pagoda about a hundred feet high.



?answers to the questions


? a secretary to the manager


?the Middle School to Beijing University ?中国驻日大使

?the Chinese Ambassader to Japan

?练习题的答案?keys to the exercises


?an appendix to dictionary


?notes to the text


?the entrance to the hall


?the monument to the people?s heroes


? A new Chinese-English phrases dictionary that I brought here yesterday and placed on the shelf is very helpful for translation


?The old house our clan had lived in for so many years had already been sold.


?This is the place where I spent my childhood.


?I almost forget about the whole thing. ?她上班很少迟到。

?She is seldom late for work


?I really must be going now


?He never was a good speaker


?They gladly accepted the invitation. 或者:They accepted the invitation gladly.


?Everything goes on smoothly



?He was born in a small village near Shaoxing.


?China successfully launched its first manned space ship in October 2003.

?(2) 当表示时间、地点、方式的状语同时出现在一个句子中时,汉语状语的语序是;时间状语、地点状语、方式状语、动词;英语状语的语序是;动词、方式状语、地点状语、时间状语。例如:?我们上星期天在他家饱餐了一顿。

?We ate to our heart?s co ntent at his home last Sunday.


?They discussed the plan animatedly in the meeting room yesterday afternoon

? 3.状语的位置



?Back to its depths went the ebbing tide.


?Day and night, frontier guards defend our motherland?s border areas.


?Many a time has Mr. Smith given me a hand in emergency.


?眼疾手快quick of eye and deft of hand

?转战南北fight north and south

?血肉相连as close as flesh and blood

?水火不容as incompatible as fire and water


?Rain or shine, we?ll have to go tomorrow.


?On no account should we follow blindly.


?To such an extent was he excited that he could not hold back his tears.


?As men sow, so will they also reap.

?让大雨冲洗出个干净清凉的世界。May the thunderstorm sluice the world, making it clean and cool! ?我原计划今年二月访问美国,后来不得不推迟,这使我感到很扫兴。

?It was a great disappointment to me that I had intended to pay a visit to America in February but then I had to postpone it.


?it?s quite fair that we bring nothing with us when we?re born and take nothing with us when we die.


?It is dangerous to drive through this area.

? 2. 主语的确定与转换




?I understand that he is well qualified.



?National Day is enthusiastically celebrated on Oct. 1 by the Chinese people of all nationalities every year ?将来会生产出小得可以放在口袋里的计算机。

?In the future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. ?(4)其他成分转化成主语


?The grass and trees are green by the riverside.


?The product is characterized by unique design, high quality and great capacity


?Her hatred for them grew more.


?应当坚定不移地执行“计划生育”的基本国策。?Efforts should be made to firmly carry out the basic state policy of family planning.


?China plans to open further and expand the level of opening to the outside world.


?It?s raining .


?What time is it? it?s ten.

?青出于蓝而胜于蓝。?The students often surpass their teacher


?Man proposes, heaven disposes


?The old professor was seen making an experiment late at night.


?He was considered quite satisfied with the job.


?I?m nearly starved to death.

?采用无灵主语(inanimate subjects)


?The sight of the big tree always reminds me of my childhood.


?The quick arrival of the engineers sent by them and their careful examination of all facilities brought about the very speedy rest oration of the factory? s production.



?She took the photo and laid it on the coffee table.


?We must strictly require, manage and supervise Party members, especially leading cadres.


?Having finished her homework, she began to play the piano.


?Opening the cupboard she took out a teapot.


?我们要采取更加有利的措施使社会治安状况得到改善。?We shall take stronger measures to improve public security. ?一定要吸取这次失败的教训,避免重犯此类错误。?Be sure to learn from the failure to avoid similar mistakes. ?她上楼去拿大衣。?She went upstairs for her overcoat. ?我伸手去接包袱。

?I reached out my hand for the bundle. ?人民起来反抗压迫。

?The people rose against oppression.



?He left for Shanghai by plane last night. ?她光着脚走进了房间。?She came into the room with no shoes on.


?Soon he came back, holding a big watermelon in his arms.




?He taught me to play basketball.


?We tried to prevent him from investing this project. ?他要求他的学生独立思考。

?He asked his students to think for themselves. ?他们强迫这个孩子去行窃。

?They forced the child into theft.

?英语中有大量的动词含有“使……”的意思,如confuse使……困惑,excite使……激动,exhaust 使……筋疲力尽等。翻译兼语式谓语时,可以利用这类动词。

?这道题让所有的学生都很困惑。?This problem confused all the students. ?他的行为令我们十分震惊。?His behavior shocked us a lot.



?The teacher?s praise for his hard working displeased many students.


?His objection for our investigation indicates that he has been involved in this scandal.


?The front door opened to his hoot.


?The isolation of the rural world because of distance and the lack of transport facilities is compounded by the paucity of the information media.


?Sickly and weak the girl is, she wrote one inspiring novel after another with her strong will


?Deed and word must match and theory and practice must be closely integrated. We must reject flashiness without substance and every sort of boasting. There must be less empty talk and more hard work. We must be steadfast and dedicated.



?Bankrupt enterprises shall be closed and no enterprises shall be allowed to evade payment of debts through declaring bankruptcy

? 6. 正反译法

?油漆未干。?The paint is wet. ?把门关上!

?Don?t leave the door open.




? 4 她抱住儿子痛哭起来。







?11把我们的事业全面推向二十一世纪就是要抓住机遇而不可丧失机遇,开拓进取而不可因循守旧。? 1.This project will have been completed by the end of next year

? 2.It does not alter the fact that he is the man responsible for the delay.

? 3.On weekends we go to the concert, visit museum or watch ball games.

? 4.Hugging her son, she broke down completely.

? 5.She ord ered me to set off at six o?clock early next morning.

? 6.Today?s training exhausted all of us.

?7.His support for his wife?s resign disappointed his friends.

?8.The usher took him to his seat.

?9.She was determined to study abroad despite expense.

?10.You have made good progress in teaching and researching, but you should not get conceited and arrogant.

?11.To advance our cause into the 21st century in all-round way requires us to seize opportunities without fail, and blaze new trails instead of following the beaten track.



?We discussed the matter over a bottle of wine.


?That performance of the teacher was really wonderful. ?请把昨天收到的那封信给我。

?Please give me the letter you received yesterday. ?这门锁不上。

?The door won?t lock.


?After a rest, the meeting resumed.


?This novel is comparatively easy to read.



?Rice is chiefly grown in the South.


?After9 P. m., long-distance telephone rate will be cut by half.


?We are rather disappointed that he failed to win the gold medal.


?If you are asked personal questions ,you need not answer them.


?Large quantities of steam are required by modern industry.




?Wrongs must be righted when they are discovered. ?没有爱心,就无法了解人生。

?Life cannot be understood without much charity.



?It would be appreciated if samples and brochure could be soon forwarded to us.


?The university?s faculty shall be told to attend the gathering this afternoon.

? 表示事物存在的无主句。


?It is known that there are plenty of natural resources in that areas.


?There have been established more than one hundred organizations of such kind since 1983.


?As is shown by statistics, every day tourists coming to visit Dunhuang Murals amount to thousands.



?He was asked a lot of question at the press conference.


?It has long been known that there is a first relationship between heart and liver. ?(5)使语气委婉,措辞礼貌。


?You are requested to give a performance.


?It is expected that you will finish your assignments on


?今天下午有一场英语讲座,全体研究生请务必参加。?There will be an English lecture this afternoon .All the graduates are expected to attend.



?他被吓得坐起来。?He started to sit up. ?玛丽被雨淋感冒了。

?Mary caught cold because of the rain


?There stands so many big factories nearby that air is seriously polluteb by smoke.


?All the above aspects should be improved in the future.


?After the earthquake,the people there were offered some aid and help by the people all over the country. ?河上又架起了一座桥。

?Another bridge has been built across the river.

?(1)deserve, require, want, need等这类被有些语法家划为带有被动含义的动词。例如:

?这个计划需要进一步讨论。?The plan requires further discussing. ?好的品质值得表扬。?The fine qualities deserved praising. ?房间需要打扫一下。

?The room needs cleaning.


?这酒口感不错,与价格相称。?This wine drinks well for its price. ?这篇文章读起来像小说。?This paper reads like a novel. ?湿衣服易烫平。

?Damp clothes iron easily.



?The dinner is cooking. ?这部电影正在城里放映。?The film is showing in town. ?她的眼里盈满了泪水。?Her eyes were filling with tears.


? 2. 一边走着,似乎道旁有一个孩子,抱着一堆灿白的东西。驴儿过去了,无意中回头一看——他抱着花儿,赤着脚儿,向我微微的笑。(冰心:《笑》)

?As I passed along, I somewhat sensed the presence of a child by the roadside carrying something snow white in his arms. After the donkey had gone by, I happened to look back and saw the child, who was barefoot, looking at me smilingly with a bunch of flowers in his arms. (Tr. Zhang Peiji)


?Pompeii has now become a world renowned tourist spot. People visiting this place can admire the power of nature, the creativity of man or sigh with emotion that glory and prosperity are as transient as fleeting clouds.

They can also enjoy the sunshine and the soft breeze of the Mediterranean.


?Although she was both shot and slender, she had a dignified and elegant countenance, a fine nose and shinny hair.

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