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Oxford University 牛津大学

Oxford University is the oldest university in Britain and one of the world's most famous institutions of higher learning. Oxford University was established during the 1100's. It is located in Oxford, England, about 80 kilometers northwest of London.


The university has over 16,300 students (1999-2000), almost a quarter of these students are from overseas and more than 130 nationalities are represented. It consists of 35 colleges, plus five private halls established by various religious groups. Three of the five private halls are for men only. Of the colleges, St. Hilda's and Somerville are for women, and the rest are for men and women.



At Oxford, each college is a corporate body distinct from the university and is governed by its own head and fellows. Most fellows are college instructors called tutors, and the rest are university professors and lecturers. Each college manages its own buildings and property, elects its own fellows, and selects and admits its own undergraduate students. The university provides some libraries, laboratories, and other facilities, but the colleges take primary responsibility for the teaching and well-being of their students.


Each student at Oxford is assigned to a tutor, who supervises the student's program of study, primarily through tutorials. Tutorials are weekly meetings of one or two students with their tutor. Students may see other tutors for specialized instruction. They may also attend lectures given by university teachers. Students choose which

lectures to attend on the basis of their own special interests and on the advice of their tutors.


The university, not the individual colleges, grants degrees. The first degree in the arts or sciences is the Bachelor of Arts with honors. Oxford also grants higher degrees, diplomas, and certificates in a wide variety of subjects.


The Rhodes scholarship program enables students from the United States, Canada, and many other nations to study at Oxford for a minimum of two years. The British government grants Marshall scholarships to citizens of the United States for study at Oxford and other universities that are located in Britain.


The competition for scholarships and grants is, however, extremely strong and there are usually strict requirements. Students should check carefully that they are eligible to apply for a particular scholarship before making an application as most of the schemes are restricted to certain nationalities and/or programs.


The students and staff at Oxford are actively involved in over 55 initiatives (2001), including visits to more than 3,700 schools and colleges, to encourage the brightest and best students to apply to Oxford, whatever their background.



The university has been named the UK's most innovative university in the Launchit 2001 competition, which aimed to discover which British university has demonstrated the greatest achievements in innovation and enterprise across the broadest range of activity. In the national Teaching Quality Assessment exercises for 2000, Oxford was awarded top marks in six out of ten subjects assessed.


Oxford, Stanford and Yale Universities have recently become partners in a joint

'distance learning' venture, the Alliance for Lifelong Learning, which will provide online courses in the arts and sciences.

牛津、斯坦福和耶鲁三所大学最近合作开发了 "远程学习"项目"终生学习联盟",该项目将提供文科和理科的在线课程。

The mission of Oxford is to aim at achieving and maintaining excellence in every area of its teaching and research, maintaining and developing its historical position as a world-class university, and enriching the international, national, and regional communities through the fruits of its research and the skills of its graduates.


In support of this aim the university will provide the facilities and support for its staff to pursue innovative research by responding to developments in the intellectual environment and society at large; and promote challenging and rigorous teaching which benefits from a fruitful interaction with the research environment, facilitating the exchange of ideas through tutorials and small-group learning and exploiting the University's resources in its libraries, museums, and scientific collections, to equip its graduates to play their part at a national and international level.




Your Dream Job: A Click Away鼠标轻点,美梦成真

Less than a month from graduation day, Theresa Smith of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, had yet to find the right job. The career placement center referred the liberal-arts major to JOB-TRAK, an Internet site listing 45,000 entry-level positions.


Smith selected four keywords: Chicago, business, marketing and full-time. Immediately she found 45 jobs meeting her criteria, including one as an assistant to an administrator at the University of Chicago’s business school. Four weeks later she was hired at a starting salary of $32,000.

史密斯选择了四个关键词:Chicago(芝加哥),business(商务),marketing(营销),full time(全职)。她马上就找到45个工作合乎她的标准,其中一个是芝加哥商业学院行政助理。四个星期以后,她得到了这份工作,底薪32,000美元。

“I had no training,” says Smith, “but the Internet was extremely easy to use. I’d never have known about this job without it.”


Smith is one American who clicked her way into a job. Steven Tools is another.


In 1996, the Rockville, Md., resident came across an employment site named CareerBuilder. He had just been promoted to director of marketing for a company that produces tradeshow exhibits and wasn’t looking for a job. But curious, he decided to

“give it a try.”




Tools filled out a profile with the keywords marketing manager and entered his electronic-mail address. Within a week his computer’s mailbox was filling up with available positions. Two interviews later he jumped to a new job. “The Internet is like hiring a personal assistant,” says Tools. “Effortlessly you can become aware of opportunities that may elevate your career.”

图尔斯填写了一份简历,关键词是market manager(行销经理),并输入了





Even a couple of years ago, most job listings on the Internet were in high-tech fields. Today, non-technical jobs — salesclerks, bank tellers, secretaries, for example — are the fastest growing segment of Internet employment opportunities. Most major newspapers and trade publications have online versions of their classified listings, enabling job-seekers to scan for work available across town, in another state, or around the world.





Madeline Gragg and Nedzad Dozlic are still another two who clicked their luck online.

马德琳·格拉格和内德扎德·多兹里克也是通过轻点鼠标,在网上碰到了好运。In 1996, Madeline Gragg, a 28-year-old high school teacher from St. Louis, wanted a change. When a friend mentioned teaching English in Japan, Gragg was intrigued. 1996年,圣路易斯的一名高中老师,28岁的马德琳·格拉格,想换个工作。


She visited the popular Yahoo! website and typed teaching English in Japan for a list of employment opportunities. She then followed the procedure for the online application. A week later she received a call and set up an interview with a recruiter in Chicago and got the job.

她访问了著名的yahoo!网站,输入了teaching English in Japan(在日本教英




Nedzad Dozlic, 27 years old, was scanning the Houston Chronicle’s Web site for the latest baseball trades. While online, he decided to check out the classifieds and spotted a job for a driver at a local car dealership. A refugee of the war in Bosnia, Dozlic had had a variety of jobs but was now ready for something new. He read more about the position on the dealer’s Internet site and called the number listed. Two days later he was hired. “It’s really funny,” he says, “I was just checking sports, and I

ended up with a better job.”

27岁的内德扎德·多兹里克,当时在浏览Houston Chronicle网站,了解最新的棒球消息。在线时,他查看了分类广告,发现一家当地的汽车交易商招聘司机。多兹里克是波斯尼亚的战争难民,曾从事过多种不同的工作,但现在他想换个工作。他从该交易商的网站上了解了该职位的更多情况,然后拨通了上面


Another valuable use of the Internet is to research potential employers. When Wendy Mello started her job search in the summer of 1997, she logged on to CareerBuilder, where she learned of a human resources opening at Arbitron’s, a media-information-services company in Columbia, Maryland. With a click of her mouse, Mello sent her résumé to the company via e-mail and soon received an invitation for an interview.


To find out more about the company, she clicked on to Artitron’s home page and that of its parent company, Ceridian Corp., where she reviewed an annual report and the company’s financial performance.

为了了解该公司的更多情况,她又点击了Artitron的主页,以及它的母公司Ceridian Corp.的主页,查看了一份该公司的年度报告及其财政状况。

Mello also wanted to know how much she’d have to earn to maintain her present standard of living. Using an online salary calculator, she typed in her current salary, $34,000, and Baltimore (the nearest big city to Columbia). Within seconds her computer flashed $44,000. “Because of the salary calculator, I knew what to ask for,”says Mello.


By accessing an online real estate service, she saw color photos of rental properties, including detailed floor plans. When Mello arrived in Columbia, she felt completely prepared. The interview was a success, and the next day she was offered a job at a salary of $47,800.





“The Internet is easy to use and it works,” says one job seeker, “What more could

you want?”



The victim广告的受害者

You could call me a shop-a-holic, as most of my friends do, but I call myself a lover of fashion. Sitting in my room, I look in my closet at all my belongings and wonder what else I want to buy. Abercrombie, Guess, J Crew and Ralph Lauren are just a few of the name-brand items that clutter my room. And I want more. I've never stopped to question whether I'm getting what I'm paying for, though I've always been a "smart" shopper, a sale shopper. But, as I learn more about my future field, marketing, I realize that I am a victim of advertising. All the things I want and buy are influenced by what magazines, television, and other advertisers tell me I need to buy. 你可以说我是购物狂,朋友大都这样说我,不过我自认为是个时尚爱好者。


Abercrombie, Guess, J Crew, Ralph Lauren,还有其他名牌产品,充斥着我的房





Everyone wears clothes. They can be a statement, a style, or a definition of who you are. They can also be a simple necessity. For me, clothing has meant different things. As a child, I wore what my mother gave me or the hand-me-downs from my sister. I never questioned how I looked, but I liked to dress up.





In middle school, I became more concerned with my appearance, like most girls. But as I progressed to high school, advertising became a big influence. Boys began to notice girls, and all the girls wanted to look good. The clothing in high school became something that defined you; it identified you with a certain group. Wearing Abercrombie jeans meant you were the preppy all-American girl, a Guess shirt meant you were the snobby rich girl, and anything worse or less than that was unacceptable. 初中时,像大多数女生一样,我开始在意自己的打扮。但从高中开始,广告对





In college, advertising hit me in a different way. College is a place where typically no one knows you at first, so you can be whoever you want to be. There are so many students and such a variety of people that clothing begins to define you less and less and your personality begins to define you more and more. Everyone is growing and changing and beginning to learn who they really are. Yet my friends and I still turn to advertising, now not only to stay in fashion but more so to find our own style. In my quest for identity, the style of clothing I choose reflects me. It shows my personality and shows what type of person I am.






Despite my choice to have my clothing reflect and not define me, I remain a victim of advertising. Although I look to ads for the upcoming styles, I am still affected by the underlying images behind them. Advertising reflects society and also adds to societal definitions. Advertisers show us people around us, yet they choose only a certain look. By showing us just these people, they are defining those few as the beautiful people. Advertising feeds off human insecurities and makes us want to be like these beautiful people. Our insecurities with wanting to be popular and wanting to be loved are used against us. Society fosters the fascination that we should not be who we are, and advertisers use this to influence us to believe certain messages. If we do not look like the models, we are not beautiful. If we are not thin and curvy we are not attractive. Even if we have great personalities, most people will not like us if we are not physically beautiful.


Advertisers use our weaknesses to tell us what is new, what we should be like, what is cool, and what is hot. Because human nature makes us want to be popular and glamorous, we follow the lead ads give us. Is it the victim's fault for believing, or the fault of society for allowing advertisers to do so? These are the questions I often ask myself as I enter the field of marketing. It is very easy to use human insecurities as a means of targeting consumption, but is it right? How will we ever know unless we step back and stop reading magazines and watching television? Until then, I will remain a victim of advertising. And so will almost everyone else.

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