The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism
2.文章标题：The Context, Meaning and Scope of Tourism 旅游业的意义
Questions 1-4 小标题配对题
1. Paragraph B
2. Paragraph C
3. Paragraph D
4. Paragraph E
1. 选ii。定位到第二段第一句话：Tourism in the mass form as we know it today is a distinctly twentieth-century phenomenon. 表明就我们所知，广义的旅游业是一个
二十世纪的现象。选项中的mass tourism与原文中的tourism in the mass form是同义替换。
2. 选i。定位到第三段第一句话：Tourism today has grown significantly in both economic and social importance. 即目前旅游业对经济及社会都非常重要。选项中的significance替换原文的importance。
3. 选v。定位到第四段第一句话：However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden or obscured its economic impact are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself. 意思是旅游业的主要问题是这个产业本身的多样性和分散性，这使得其经济影响变得不那么明显。选项中的difficulty，effects分别替换原文的problems和impact。
4. 选vii。定位到第五段第一句话：Once the exclusive province of the wealthy, travel and tourism have become an institutionalised way of life for most of the population. 表明旅游业曾经是富人们的特权，而现在已经变成大多数人们习以为常的一种生活方式了。选项中的world，impact替换原文的most of the population, institutionalised。
Questions 5-10 判断题
5. The largest employment figures in the world are found in the travel and tourism industry.
6. Tourism contributes over six per cent of the Australian gross national product.
7. Tourism has a social impact because it promotes recreation.
8. Two main features of the travel and tourism industry make its economic significance difficult to ascertain.
9. Visitor spending is always greater than the spending of residents in tourist areas.
10. It is easy to show statistically how tourism affects individual economies.
5. 选TRUE。定位到第三段第三句话： According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (1992), ‘Travel and tourism is the largest industry in the world on virtually any economic measure including value-added capital investment, employment and tax
6. 原文没有提到Australian gross national product这个概念，所以选择NG。
8. 选TRUE。定位到第四段第一句话：However, the major problems of the travel and tourism industry that have hidden, or obscured its economic impact, are the diversity and fragmentation of the industry itself. 意思是旅游业的主要问题是这个产业本身的多样性和分散性，这使得其经济影响变得不那么明显。题目中的two main features指代原文的diversity and fragmentation。
9. 原文没有提到visitor spending 和residents’ spending的比较关系，所以选择NG。
10. 选FALSE。定位到第四段倒数第二句，原文表明this problem has made it difficult ...to estimate the contribution it makes, 即估算旅游业对经济的贡献很困难，所以选FALSE。
Questions 11-13 句子填空题
11. In Greece, tourism is the most important ________.
12. The travel and tourism industry in Jamaica is the major ______ .
13. The problems associated with measuring international tourism are often reflected in the measurement of _______ .
11. 填source of income/home。定位到最后一段的第三句: For example, tourism is the major source of income in Bermuda, Greece, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, and most Caribbean countries. 说明旅游业在以下国家都是收入的主要来源，题目中的most important替换原文的major。
12. 填employer。定位到最后一段的第四句: In addition, Hawkins and Ritchie, quoting from data published by the American Express Company, suggesting that the travel and tourism industry is the number one ranked employer in the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, France, (the former) West Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Singapore. 说明旅游业在一下国家是最需要聘用雇员的行业，题目中的major替换原文的number one ranked。
13. 填domestic industry。定位到最后一段的最后一句: In many cases, similar difficulties arise when attempts are made to measure domestic tourism. 说明测量估算国内旅游业非常困难，题目中的measurement, problems替换原文的measure, difficulties。
2. 文章标题：Autumn leaves 秋天的叶子
Questions 14-18 段落信息配对题
14. a description of the substance responsible for the red colouration of leaves 题解：题目的意思是一种对叶子产生红色的物质的描述，定位在C段首句：the source of the red is widely known: it is created by anthocyanin,所以答案选择C。
15. the reason why trees drop their leaves in autumn
题解：题干定位drop leaves in autumn在B段第六行：the tree saves its precious resources and discards them 树节省了资源并且把他们丢弃，所以选择B。
16. some evidence to confirm a theory about the purpose of the red leaves
题解：题目的意思是证明红叶目的的理论证据，出现在H段第二行：there are clues out there.所以选择H。
17. an explanation of the function of chlorophyll
题解：题目的意思是对叶绿素功能的解释，定位在B段第一行：the molecule that captures sunlight and converts that energy into new building materials for the tree，的意思是一种分子用来捕捉阳光并转变成树木成长所需的能量。所以选择B。
18. a suggestion that the red colouration in leaves could serve as a warning signal 题解：定位在E段第二行：they are healthy and robust and would be easily able to mount chemical defences against infestation，树木是健康和强健的并且能轻松分泌出化学物质来抵抗感染。所以选择E。
Questions 19-22 句子填空题
The most vividly colored red leaves are found on the side of the tree facing the ___19___.
题解：题目定位most vividely在原文H段第三行the reddest, 所以答案填sun。
The ___20___ surfaces of leaves contain the most red pigment.
题解：题目定位the most red pigment在原文H段第四行the red is brighter,所以答案填upper。
Red leaves are most abundant when daytime weather conditions are ___21___ and sunny. 题解：题目定位and sunny在原文H段第五行intense red colors are dry, sunny days and cool nights,所以答案填dry。
The intensity of the red color of leaves increases as you go further ___22___. 题解：题目定位increases在原文H段倒数第三行get much redder the more north，所以答案填north。
23. it is likely that the red pigments help to protect the leaf from freezing temperatures.
题解：题目定位在D段第三行increases a leaf’s tolerance to freezing. However there are problems with each of these theories.的意思是增加叶子抵抗寒冷的能力，但是这些理论有很多问题，所以答案选FALSE。
24. the ‘light screen’ hypothesis would initially seem to contradict what is known about chlorophyll.
题解：题目定位在F段第三行it sounds paradoxical, paradoxical替换contradict所以
25. leaves which turn colors other than red are more likely to be damaged by sunlight. 题解：原文没有找到相关信息，所以选择NOT GIVEN。
Questions 26 单选题
For which of the following questions does the writer offer an explanation?
A why conifers remain green in winter
B how leaves turn orange and yellow in autumn
C how herbivorous insects choose which trees to lay their eggs in
D why anthocyanins are restricted to certain trees
题解：答案选B，定位在B段最后一句this unmasking explains the autumn colours of yellow and orange,这个解释揭露了叶子在秋天变黄变橙。
Beyond the blue horizon
2. 文章标题：Beyond the blue horizon
27 通过Pacific island of éfaté; 定位到文章第一段。通过3,000-year-old定位到句’An agricultural worker, digging in the grounds of a derelict plantation, scraped open a grave-the first of dozens in a burial ground some 3,000 years old.’，发现该句中derelict是题目中abandoned的同义替换，都用来修饰plantation，因此答案选B。
28 通过agricultural worker和cemetery可定位到文章第一段。读题发现第一段第一句’An important archaeological discovery on the island of éfatéin the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu...’中important是题目significant的同义替换，修饰
29 根据题号顺序原则，并通过tools定位到第二段中’They were also pioneers who carried with them everything that would need to build new lives- their livestock, taro seedlings and stone tools.’从中发现除了tool之外还带了livestock和seedlings，而livestock和题目中选项animals为同义替换，因此答案选I。
30 通过人名Spriggs定位到第三段It’s an important discovery,’ says Matthew Spriggs, professor of archaeology at the Australian National University... 根据分析得出文中it即是important修饰的对象。对比原文发现it指的是前文中的 a Lapita burial urn，所以答案选G。
31 与上一题紧密关联。Spriggs后面还说了’...says Matthew Spriggs, professor... , ‘for it conclusively identifies the remains as Lapita.’’此句表示remains就是Lapita，而remains和选项中的bones为同义替换，因此答案选D。
32 通过题号顺序原则及accomplish定位到第五段发现’There is one stubborn question for which archaeology has yet to provide any answers: how did the Lapita accomplish the ancient equivalent of a moon landing, many times over? No-one has found one of their canoes or any rigging, which could reveal how the canoes were sailed.’其中stubborn是difficulties的同义替换，to provide any answers即explaining how...因此定位成功。文中发现原因是no-one has found one of their canoes以及nor do the oral histories and traditions of later Polynesians offer any insights即没发现独木舟实物也没有口述的历史信息传承下来，即little information can be relied on，因此答案为C。
33 通过题目所示the sixth paragraph定位到第六段，发现’Those sailing skills, he says, were developed...’其中developed对应题目的extraordinary。原文中又说’Those sailing skills... through the archipelagoes of the western Pacific, making short crossings to nearby islands.’所以sailing skills指的就是选项中的A。
34 通过题目所示the seventh paragraph定位到第七段，找到this指代的对象’This is what would have made the whole thing work.’在这里this指的是之前的’if they didn’t find anything, they could turn about and catch a swift ride back on the trade winds.’‘turn about’及’back’即题目中的’return home’，因此答案选D。
35 通过题目所示the eighth paragraph定位到第八段，发现原文说’the geography of their own archipelagoes would have provided a safety net.’又说’... forming a backstop for mariners riding the trade winds home.’ safety和backstop都表示其是一种aid，因此答案选C。
36 通过prevailing trade winds定位到第七段’The Lapita’s thrust into the Pacific was eastward, against the prevailing trade winds’原文说against而题目中是sail into，完全相反，因此选NO。
37 通过climate定位到第10段，’El Ni?o, the same climate disruption that affects the Pacific today, may have helped scatter the Lapita,’。这里的climate disruption 对应题目extreme climate conditions；help对应play a role；scatter对应migration。所以答案为YES。
38 通过El Ni?o定位到第十段’El Ni?os’ might have taken the Lapita on long unplanned voyages’这里只说到the Lapita might have been taken by El Ni?os，并未提到learn to predict因此答案为NOT GIVEN。
39 通过题号原则及’across the Pacific’定位到最后一段，发现‘then called it quits for reasons known only to them.’这里’called it quits’对应题目中的’halted’；’for reasons known only to them’对应题目中’it remains unclear’。因此选YES。
40 通过题号原则及’Fiji’定位到最后一段’they encountered hundreds of islands- more than 300 in Fiji alone.’只提到了碰到的光是斐济的岛超过300，但未提及’the majority of Lapita settled...’因此选NOT GIVEN。