I. B. II. 1. T; 2. T; 3. T; 4. F; 5. F.
2. It is our society, which overemphasizes winning, considers failure a sin, and sees prosperity in the present as a sure sign of salvation in the future.
2. Paragraph 4. Because the students may have acquired more or less knowledge out of the course than the grade indicates.
3. Paragraph 5. His attitude is critical. He complains the exclusion of such important characteristics as courage, kindness, wisdom and good humor.
4. Paragraph 8. It was to make a clear distinction between the student as classroom performer and the student as human being. So a low grade, at best, indicates an incompetent classroom performer, not an incompetent human being.
5. Paragraph 9. He thinks social labels, including grades, are basically irrelevant and misleading, though necessary. But it’s not self-contradictory because social labels are necessary as ways of distinction for job choice, not as reasons for attitude toward others or ourselves in human terms.
1. Being unsuccessful and disadvantaged is regarded as sinful because in this word people tend to think today’s success can save one from evil in the future.
2. It is important to see the fact that although they differ in their class status and educational background, human beings are essentially the same. Biologically they are constructed in the same way, and they share the common feelings of fear and joy and the common experience of suffering and achieving. This commonality has bound them together. All of them will regard wars, diseases, and disasters both private and public as unfortunate big events in their life time.
Structural analysis of the text
1. Paragraph 2—5. Key words: Disappointment. Main idea: Grades do not mean everything.
2. Paragraph 6—8. Key words: The student as performer; the student as human being. Main idea: Getting a B in class does not mean one will always be a B performer in life.
3. Paragraph 9—10. Key words: Perspective. Main idea: In a complex society like ours, labels are necessary but they should be kept in perspective.
Section Four Consolidation Activities
Part one. Vocabulary Analysis
I. Phrase practice
1. essence: inner nature; indispensable quality; the most important part 本质，实质，精髓
e.g. His works reflect the essence of fascism. 他的作品反映出法西斯的本质。
2. deadly sins: sins leading to damnation. (pride, covetousness, lust, anger, gluttony, envy and sloth, in Christianity)
3. misleading: making you think or act wrongly 误导，误入歧途
e.g. He deliberately misled us about the nature of their relationship. 关于他们究竟是什么关系，他故意给我们留下错误印象。
This sentence has misled us into thinking that the answer was wrong. 这句话误使我们认为那个答案是错误的。
4. conventional task: task traditionally required of students 传统任务
e.g. This conventional task is so easy that even a pupil can finish it. 这个传统任务是如此简单，甚至小学生都能完成。
5. in short supply: far from enough 供给不足，缺乏
e.g. The water and food for disaster area is in short supply. 这些水和食物给灾区是远远不够的。Potatoes are in short supply because of the bad harvest. 由于收成不好，现在马铃薯供应不足。
3. correspond to;
6. makes a point of;
7. apt to;
8. go round.
III. Word derivation. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words.
1. His vision was nearly restored to normal after the removal (remove) of the tumor in his brain.
2. The major issue of the conference was how to cope with the severe consequences resulting from the climatic (climate) changes on our planet.
3. This company is in trouble and the latest plan for its salvation (salvage) has few supporters.
4. It is said in the job ad that those who apply for the vacancy should have proficiency (proficient) in at least two languages.
5. Don’t rely on the information she gave you — it’s pure assumption (assume) on her part.
6. The age of college students normally (norm) ranges from 18 to 22.
7. The government’s inaction to curb inflation and unemployment caused strong resentment (resent) among the public.
8. The Sichuan earthquake turned out to be the most disastrous (disaster) one the country has witnessed in the past one hundred years.
1. remove v. 消除，除去；脱掉
removable a. 可除去的，可移动的
removal n. 移动，移居；除去
Our home has removed from Beijing to Shanghai.
He removed his hat as a sign of reverence.
2. climate n. 气候；风气
climatic a. 气候上的
She adapted herself quickly to the changeable climate.
3. salvage v. 打捞，抢救
salvageable a. 可抢救的，可打捞的
salvation n. 得救，拯救；赎罪
There is nothing that is salvageable in the building.
After so much dry weather, the rain has been the farmer’s salvation.
4. proficient a. 熟练的，精通的
proficiency n. 熟练，精通
I’d say I am quite proficient at singing.
5. assume v. 假定，设想；承担；认为
assuming conj. 假定，假如
assumption n. 假定，设想
I assumed you could speak English fluently.
Assuming that it is true, what should we do now?
6. norm n. 标准，规范
normal a. 正常的，正规的
normality n. 常态
normalize v. 使正常，使标准化
It was several days before the floodwater sank and life returned to normal. 我们的关系正常了。
Our relationship has been normalized.
7. resent v. 憎恨，生气
resentment n. 怨恨，愤恨
resentful a. 不满的
resentfulness n. 怨恨，愤恨
I bitterly resent the encroachment on my time.
He is resentful at the way he has been treated.
8. disaster n. 灾难
disastrous a. 灾难性的
After the disaster there were many who wanted food and shelter.
The economic condition of the country is disastrous.
V. Synonym / Antonym: Give a synonym or an antonym of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.
1. The essence of success is that there’s never enough of it to go round in a zero-sum game where one person’s winning must be offset by another’s losing …
Synonym: balanced, compensated
2. The level of your proficiency has been determined by your performance of rather conventional tasks …
3. But they are important: crucially so, because they are always in short supply.
Antonym: abundant, plentiful
4. If you value these characteristics in yourself, you will be valued — and far more so than those whose identities are measured only by little marks on a piece of paper.
Synonym: evaluated, assessed
5. There were a lot of us then: older than the norm, in a hurry to get our degrees and move on …Synonym: average
6. It is important to recognize that human beings, despite differences in class and educational labeling, are fundamentally hewn from the same material and knit together by common bonds of fear and joy …
Synonym: essentially, basically
7. But these distinctions should nev er be taken seriously in human terms …
Antonym: lightly, frivolously
8. Even in achievement terms, your B label does not mean that you are permanently defined as a
B achievement person.
VI. Prefix: Write in each space one word that has the same prefix as underlined in each given word.
1. interfere international ____
2. transcend ___ translate
3. circumstances ____ circumference
4. neocolonial neoclassical
5. control conform
6. antibiotic antisocial
7. unlock undo 8. outnumber outshine
e.g. interaction, interdependent, interconnect
trans-: across or beyond
e.g. transplant, transform, transatlantic
e.g. circumcision, circumlocution, circumspect
neo-: new, in a later form
e.g. neonatal, neo-fascist, neo-Georgian
con-: strengthen or reinforce
e.g. convince, constrain, conquer
anti-: opposed to, against
e.g. antiwar, antihero, antidote
un-: in verbs that describe the opposite of a process
e.g. unfold, unload, unbend, uncut
out-: greater, better, further, etc.
e.g. outgrow, outlive, outwit
Part two. Grammar Exercises
A disjunct is a type of adverbial that expresses information that is not considered essential to the sentence it appears in, but which is considered to be the speaker’s or writer’s attitude towards, or descriptive statement of, the propositional content of the sentence.
More generally, the term disjunct can be used to refer to any sentence element that is not fully integrated into the clausal structure of the sentence. Such elements usually appear peripherally
(at the beginning or end of the sentence) and are set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma (in writing) and a pause (in speech).
e.g. Honestly, I couldn’t believe it.
Unfortunately, Kim has had to leave us.
I. Practice: Rewrite the following sentences using proper disjuncts.
1. Unfortunately, …
2. It is hoped that the report will go out to shareholders no later than June 1.
3. It is odd enough that he did not raise any objection to the plan.
Oddly enough, …
4. Rightly, …
5. Luckily, …
6. Fortunately, …
7. It is strange enough that the burglar should not have taken the diamond away.
Strangely enough, …
Type 1 expresses a judgment on the whole and meanwhile the subject, so three types of sentence structures can be used;
Type 2 expresses no judgment on the subject.
1. It was right that … / They were right to have ….
2. It was foolish that … / It was foolish of the boy not to say … / The boy was foolish not to say ….
3. type 1.
4. type 2.
5. type 2.
6. type 2.
7. type 2: It was lucky that ….
8. type 2: It is hoped that ….
III. Relative words
Relative words are used to refer to a noun mentioned before and of which we are adding more information. They are used to join two or more sentences in the way we call “relative sentences”.
e.g. I know many boys who / that play rugby.
The shirt which / that Carl bought has a stain on the pocket.
This is the boy whose mother works for the BBC.
Barnstaple has a very old covered market where I bought some lovely old plates.
Sunday is the day when people usually don’t go to work.
If the verb in the relative clause needs a preposition, we usually put it at the end of the clause: e.g. The music which / that Julie listens to is good.
Sometimes, the preposition can also be placed before the relative pronoun.
e.g. My brother met a woman with whom I used to work.
It was the stream in which the elephant and the mouse preferred to swim.
Notice that we cannot use who or that after a preposition, for the relative pronoun now serves as the object of the preposition.
III. Practice: Fill in each blank with a proper relative word. Use “preposition + relative word” if necessary.
1. Good writing is built on a solid framework of logic, argument, narrative, or motivation ___which / that____ runs through the entire piece of writing and holds it together. This is the time __when___ many writers find it most effective to outline as a way of visualizing the hidden spine ___by which___ the piece of writing is supported.
2. The element __on which__
4. James Russell is a man __for whom__ I have the greatest respect.
5. with whom
6. to whom
7. of which
8. at which
1. where, where
2. what, which
8. which, which, what
V. whatever, wherever, whoever, whichever, whenever, and however
The words whatever, wherever, whoever, whichever, whenever and however have similar meanings to “no matter who, what, which …”. A word of this kind has a double function: it acts as a subject, object or adverb in its own clause. It also acts as a conjunction joining its clause to the rest of the sentence.
e.g. Whatever you may say, I am not going to take him back. (No matter what you say, ...) Wherever you go, I shall follow you. (No matter where you go, I shall follow you.)
Whoever disobeys the law must be punished. (No matter who disobeys the law …)
However much he eats, he never gets fat. (No matter how much he eats, …)
These words are also used to suggest something not definitely known.
e.g. I shall come whenever I can slip away.
· We shall send whoever is available.
· You will have to be content with whatever you can get.
V. Practice: Complete the following sentences with the appropriate words in the box.
whoever wherever whatever
however whenever whichever
2. __Whatever_____ problems you may have, we will help.
5. Take __whichever_____ book you like best.
7. __However___ late it is, you must come to the party because it will be something fantastic.
8. whenever / whenever
1. not the most important thing—it’s t he only thing
2. enough …. Nor…rather….
Part three. Translation exercises
1. 他因急性阑尾炎住院治疗，结果连期末考试都没参加。（with the result that）Translation:
He was hospitalized with acute appendicitis, with the result that he missed the final examination.
2. 前来听讲座的人数远远超出原来的计划，分发给大家的讲义不够了。（go round）Translation:
As many more people came to the lecture than expected, there were not enough handouts to go round.
No matter what a long / busy day he may have, he makes a point of checking his e-mail inbox before going to bed.
Unemployment is found in all countries in the world, but governments vary in their way to
handle the problem.
5。第一次来到异国的人往往会感到自己周围的一切既陌生，又有趣。（be apt to）Translation:
Anyone who has come to a foreign country for the first time is apt to find everything around him both strange and interesting.
6. The football fans were very disappointed at the performance of the players of both teams.
7. 他的话，你得好好想一想，千万不要他说什么你就信什么。（take at face value）Translation:
Never take what he says at face value. Think it over yourself.
8。The doctor’s words removed his fears about the operation.
VI Writing Practice
Paragraph development — Classification
In our daily life we are constantly organizing things in one way or another. Classification is the grouping of items into categories according to some consistent principle. Most families of things can be divided or classified according to several different principles. The key to good classification writing is to use a single rule of division for each part. Classification is done of things that belong to one family, things that have something in common, but the purpose of classification is to compare and contrast them, showing their differences, so that the reader might have a better understanding of them. Classification is extensively used in technical writing, but the strategy can also be used for nontechnical purposes. Original and interesting classification for rhetorical effect can surprise the readers and capture their attention.
Words and expressions often used for classification include, among many others, the following: include, comprise, contain, have, be sorted into, be classified into, differ in, be divided into, be a type of, fall under, belong to, be a part of, fit into, be grouped with, and be associated with.
Exercises: Write two paragraphs based on the following topic sentences with the classification strategy.
1. High school teachers tend to sort their students into the following categories: pleasant high achievers, unpleasant high achievers, the average, pleasant underachievers, and unpleasant underachievers.
Ideas for reference:
The pleasant high achievers take part in various kinds of activities happily and study effectively, efficiently and fruitfully.
The unpleasant high achievers concentrate on school work with high scores, but without pleasure.
The average achievers studies sufficiently but doesn’t work more than necessary.
The pleasant underachievers make little efforts in school work, but make use of every
opportunity to enjoy themselves
The unpleasant underachievers can’t deal with school work well due to wrong approaches, nor can they find pleasure in life.
2. In Shanghai, the most popular English language examinations include, among others, TEM 4, TEM 8, Interpreter Certificate, TOEFL, and IELTS.
Ideas for reference:
There are regional differences between the five tests.
The five tests differ in their compulsoriness.
Testees受试者、应考人 are also divided on the purposes for which they take the five tests. Sample:
In Shanghai, the most popular English language examinations include, among others, TEM 4, TEM 8, Interpreter Certificate, TOEFL, and IELTS. There are some differences between these tests. The first three, TEM 4 (short for “Test for English Majors Band 4”), TEM 8 and Interpreter Certificate, are domestic tests, and among them Interpreter Certificate is a local one, peculiar to the city. Both TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) and IELTS (International English Language Testing System) are international tests, organized by the American and British educational authorities respectively. The five tests differ in their compulsoriness. The first two are compulsory: almost all college English majors are required to take them; the other three fall under the optional group. Besides, testees are also divided on the purposes for which they take the five tests. They sit in the two mandatory tests f or their bachelor’s degree, while the Interpreter Certificate is popular because it helps when a holder of it is looking for a job. Unlike them, participants in the two international English tests are usually planning to receive higher education in English-speaking countries.
VII Listening Exercises
A. Listen to the report —“Go to the Head of the Class.” Write in the second column of the table below the five ideas that can help you leap to the top of the class. Then listen to the report again, and write in the third column of the table the key words and phrases that best illustrate each idea.
B. After listening, discuss the following two questions.
1. Do you agree with the saying “Inside almost every poor to average student, there’s a smart kid yearning to get out”?
2. What can you do to help bring your “smart kid” out?
Go to the Head of the Class
How smart are you? How much can you learn? How high can you climb? Until now, schoolchildren seemed frozen in place. An average student in second or third grade paddled along, just fair to middling, until graduation from high school. A poor student languished受折磨 at the bottom of each successive class. Studies showed that more than four out of five students began and ended schools at the same level of performance.
It doesn’t have to be that way. Benjamin Bloom, a professor of education at the University of Chicago, supervised two separate research projects. In each, students were selected at random and provided with private teachers. With this one-to-one instruction, below-average students climbed to better-than-average, while average students outperformed 98 percent of the boys and girls in conventional classrooms.
Bloom identified and tested five remarkable simple ideas aimed at reproducing in the classroom the most effective components of one-to-one instruction: attention, feedback, support, encouragement, and self-esteem.
Here are the five ideas that can help you leap to the top of the class:
1. Make reading automatic. Reading is the key to school success and, like any skill, it takes practice. A child learns to walk by practicing until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other. And you do the same thing when you learn to read. You are not an automatic reader until you can read with expression, with a sense of meaning of the sentences rather than read one word at a time, without expression or meaning.
2. Win equal opportunity in the classroom. Sitting in the same classroom, different students get very different educations. Teachers often tend to give most of their attention to a handful of students, usually the top third of the class. If you think that you are not getting an equal-opportunity education, discuss it with your teacher. Let your teacher know what’s on your mind. Just raising the question will make your teachers take a closer look at what they’re doing.
3. Learn to think. Are you learning to remember information — or to use it? Do you memorize a math formula, or do you learn how it applies to all the circles of your life? According to Bloom, about 95 percent of today’s teaching focuses on the “lower mental process” —rote死记硬背 learning of grammar, multiplication tables乘法表, historical names and dates. Most teachers spend very little time on the “higher mental processes.” —problem-solving, analyzing and interpreting. When you improve your thinking skills there is a gain in rote learning too. Knowing what an idea or a principle means, and how it can be applied, helps you learn better and remember longer.
4. Have classmates help. More and more schools are trying teamwork or, as educators call it, “cooperative learning.” There are a number of ways to organize these teams, but two things are essential. First, youngsters need a reward — praise, a certificate of recognition — for doing well
as a team. Second, the teams’ success must depend on how well each member learns. It’s the good side of peer pressure. There are also important bonuses to team study. Self-esteem goes up. Students learn the value of cooperation and develop better attitudes toward classmates with different social backgrounds or physical handicaps.
5. Educate at home. According to the experts, what happens in your home is a better predictor预言者、前兆、缘由 of success in school than in any I.Q. or achievement test. The home environment has great impact on how a child learns. It is as important as the quality of teachers or curriculum. In the homes of top achievers, homework and reading are given priority over play or television; parents encourage their children’s intellectual interests and praise school achievement. Family members talk together and do things together.
Inside almost every poor to average student, there’s a smart kid yearning to渴望闯出来 get out. With these ideas, we can help to unlock that potential.