Energy in Transition
The era of cheap and convenient sources of energy is coming to an end. A transition to more expensive but less polluting sources must now be managed.
John P. Holdren
约翰·P·霍德雷恩Understanding this transition requires a look at the two-sided connection between energy and human well-being. Energy contributes positively to well-being by providing such consumer services as heating and lighting as well as serving as a necessary input to economic production. But the costs of energy －including not only the money and other resources devoted to obtaining and exploiting it but also environmental and sociopolitical impacts －detract from well-being.
For most of human history, the dominant concerns about energy have centered on the benefit side of the energy －well-being equation. Inadequacy of energy resources or (more often) of the technologies and organizations for harvesting, converting, and distributing those resources has meant insufficient energy benefits and hence inconvenience, deprivation and constraints on growth. The 1970’s, then, represented a turning p oint. After decades of constancy or decline in monetary costs －and of relegation of environmental and sociopolitical costs to secondary status －energy was seen to be getting costlier in all respects.It began to be plausible that excessive energy costs could pose threats on a par with those of insufficient supply. It also became possible to think that expanding some forms of energy supply could create costs exceeding the benefits.
The crucial question at the beginning of the 1990’s is whether the trend that began in the 1970’s will prove to be temporary or permanent. Is the era of cheap energy really over, or will a combination of new resources, new technology and changing geopolitics bring it back? One key determinant of the answer is the staggering scale of energy demand brought forth by 100 years of unprecedented population growth, coupled with an equally remarkable growth in per capita demand of industrial energy forms. It entailed the use of dirty coal as well as clean; undersea oil as well as terrestrial; deep gas as well as shallow; mediocre hydroelectric sites as well as good ones; and deforestation as well as sustainable fuelwood harvesting.
Except for the huge pool of oil underlying the Middle East, the cheapest oil and gas are already gone. Even if a few more giant oil fields are discovered, they will make little difference against consumption on today’s scale.Oil and gas will have to come increasingly, for most countries, from deeper in the earth and from imports whose reliability and affordability cannot be guaranteed.
There are a variety of other energy resources that are more abundant than oil and gas. Coal, solar energy, and fission and fusion fuels are the most important ones. But they all require elaborate and expensive transformation into electricity or liquid fuels in o rder to meet society’s needs. None has very good prospects for delivering large quantities of electricity at costs comparable to those of the cheap coal-fired and hydropower plants of the 1960’s. It appears, then, that expensive energy is a permanent condition, even without allowing for its environmental costs.
The capacity of the environment to absorb the effluents and other impacts of energy technologies is itself a finite resource. The finitude is manifested in two basic types of environmental costs. External costs are those imposed by environmental disruptions on society but not reflected in the monetary accounts of the buyers and sellers of the energy. “Internalized costs” are increases in monetary costs imposed by measures, such as pollution-control devices, aimed at reducing the external costs.
Both types of environmental costs have been rising for several reasons. First, the declining quality of fuel deposits and energy-conversion sites to which society must now turn means more material must be moved or processed, bigger facilities must be constructed and longer distances must be traversed. Second, the growing magnitude of effluents from energy systems has led to saturation of the e nvironment’s capacity to absorb such effluents without disruption. Third, the monetary costs of controlling pollution tend to increase with the percentage of pollutants removed.
Despite these expenditures, the remaining uninternalized environmental costs have been substantial and in many cases are growing. Those of greatest concern are the risk of death or disease as a result of emissions or accidents at energy facilities and the impact of energy supplied on the global ecosystem and on international relations.
The impacts of energy technologies on public health and safety are difficult to pin down with much confidence. In the case of air pollution from fossil fuels, in which the dominant threat to public health is thought to be particulates formed from sulfur dioxide emissions, a consensus on the number of deaths caused by exposure has proved impossible. Widely differing estimates result from different assumptions about fuel compositions, air pollution control technology, power-plant sitting in relation to population distribution, meteorological conditions affecting sulfate formation, and, above all, the relation between sulfate concentrations and disease.
Large uncertainties also apply to the health and safety impacts of nuclear fission. In this case, differing estimates result in part from differences among sites and reactor types, in part from uncertainties about emissions from fuel-cycle steps that are not yet fully operational (especially fuel reprocessing and management of uranium-mill tailings) and in part from different assumptions about the effects of exposure to low-dose radiation. The biggest uncertainties, however, relate to the probabilities and consequences of large accidents at reactors, at reprocessing plants and in the transport of wastes.
Altogether, the ranges of estimated hazards to public health from both coal-fired and nuclear-power plants are so wide as to extend from negligible to substantial in comparison with other risks to the population. There is little basis, in these ranges, for preferring one of these energy sources over the other. For both, the very size of the uncertainty is itself a significant liability.
Often neglected, but no less important, is the public health menace from traditional fuels
widely used for cooking and water heating in the developing world. Perhaps 80 percent of global exposure to particulate air pollution occurs indoors in developing countries, where the smoke from primitive stoves is heavily laden with dangerous hydrocarbons. A disproportionate share of this burden is borne, moreover, by women (who do the cooking) and small children (who indoors with their mothers).
The ecological threats posed by energy supply are even harder to quantify than the threats to human health and safety from effluents and accidents. Nevertheless, enough is known to suggest they portend even larger damage to human well-being. This damage potential arises from the combination of two circumstances.
First, civilization depends heavily on services provided by ecological and geophysical processes such as building and fertilizing soil, regulating water supply, controlling pests and pathogens, and maintaining a tolerable climate; yet it lacks the knowledge and the resources to r eplace nature’s services with technology. Second, human activities are now clearly capable of disrupting globally the processes that provide these services. Energy supply, both industrial and traditional, is responsible for a striking share of the environmental impacts of human activity. The environmental transition of the past 100 years －driven above all by a 20-fold increase in fossil-fuel use and augmented by a tripling in the use of traditional energy forms －has amounted to no less than the emergence of civilization as a global ecological and geochemical force.
Of all environmental problems, the most threatening, and in many respects the most intractable, is global climate change. And the greenhouse gases most responsible for the danger of rapid climate change come largely from human endeavors too massive, widespread and central to the functioning of our societies to be easily altered: carbon dioxide (CO2) from deforestation and the combustion of fossil fuels; methane from rice paddies, cattle gusts and the exploitation of oil and natural gas; and nitrous oxides from fuel combustions and fertilizer use.
The only other external cost that might match the devastating impact of global climate change is the risk of causing or aggravating large-scale military conflict. One such threat is the potential for conflict over access to petroleum resources. Another threat is the link between nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons. The issue is hardly less complex and controversial than the link between CO2and climate; many analysts, including me, think it is threatening indeed.
新思维综合英语第一册 How to talk about a foreign language 如何谈论一门外语 How to talk about one’s family 如何谈论家庭 How to talk about events in the past如何谈论过去的事情 How to talk about how you met someone如何谈论与别人相识的经过 Luke Taylor and Maya Winston are talking about their families. 1.How does Luke know that Koziol is Polish? __Luke’s wife is Polish,and Luke’s spent some time in Poland. So he should be able to speak a little Polish or at least recognize the Polish sound. 2.How did Luke get to know his wife? __She studied in his English class in the States. 3. How is Luke’s wife,Stenia’s English now? How did she
achieve that? __She speaks English almost perfectly now.She worked so hard on her English(while she was learning English). 4. Where are Maya’s relatives now?What language do Maya’s parents speak at home? ___They are all living in the States now.Maya’s parents speak English now because in the dialogue,Maya says that her father used to speak Polish,and her mother forgot all other languages since she learned English. （所以他们家就说英语了。） What an unusual necklace!是个感叹句，What a …后边一般跟名词性短语。 如：What an interesting story(it is)!这个故事多有趣呀！What a splendid performance! 演出多精彩啊！ Stand for代表，表示。如：What does“K”stand for? K 的意 思是什么？PE stands for physical education. PE 表示体育课的意思。 在西方国家里，女孩子长大结婚后一般要改用丈夫的姓氏，Maiden name指女孩结婚前所用的姓。 The States(S大写)，指the United States. 口语中，人们谈起美国时，用得更多的是the States 或America, 来代替the USA.
Unit 1 C 1.The younger generation should continue to sustain and develop our fine traditions and long-standing culture. 2.In the course of preparing one’s speech, one should be clearly aware of how one could make effective use of statistics and examples to bolster one’s point of view. 3.An impromptu speech is one of the speaking skills that college students should learn and develop through practice. 4.By using simile and metaphor, you can make your language more vivid and more attractive to your audience. 5.The proper examples you cite might help reinforce the impression on your listeners and make your viewpoints more convincing. 6.When you are speaking, you should choose common and easy words and at the same time avoid clutter in your speech.
第一单元? 如何发表演说 斯蒂芬·卢卡斯? ???? 在人类创造的万物中，语言可能是最卓越的一项创造。通过语言，我们可以分享经验、阐明价值观念、交流思想、传播知识、传承文化。确实，语言对于思想本身至关重要。和流行的信仰不同的是：语言并不是简单地反映事实，而是通过对事件意义的思考来帮助人们感悟现实。? ???? 优秀的演说者尊重语言并懂得如何驾驭语言。语言是演说者展示才能的工具，对于他们来说，如同其他职业的工具一样,语言也有特殊的功用。作为一名演说者，你应该意识到话语的意义，并懂得如何准确无误地使用语言，使其表达清楚，趣味横生，恰如其分。? 如同数字对于会计的重要性一样，准确地使用语言对于演说者至关重要。在没有确切知道一个词语的意思之前，千万不要盲目使用。碰到没有把握的词语，一定要查词典追根究底。当你准备演讲之前，一定要不断地问自己：“我究竟想说些什么？我究竟想表达什么样的意思？”因此，对于一篇演讲稿的用词来说，必须准确无误。? 如果语言表达清楚无误，听众就能很快抓住你的意思。鉴于此，演说者应该使用那些对于大多数人来说非常熟悉的词语，这些词语不需要任何专业背景就能够理解；演说者应该使用那些表达具体而不是相对抽象的词语；并且千万不要乱堆砌辞藻，哗众取宠。? 准确生动地使用语言能够使你的演说贴近生活。有一种方法可以使你的语言更加生动形象，那就是通过展开联想或创造语言图示。通过使用表达具体的词语、明喻或者暗喻等手法可以展开想像。明喻是对事物不同之处的比较，不过有些是相同的：它们总是包含“像……一样”或者“如同……一样”这样的连词。暗喻是一种隐性的比喻，它能够把两个形式不同但是有一些相通之处的事物联系在一起，暗喻不包含“像……一样”或者“如同……一样”这样的连词。? 另一种让你的演说生动形象的方法是注重语言的节奏感。有四种修辞格可以让你的语言富有节奏感：排比、重复、头韵和对比。排比是将一组或一系列具有相似结构的词语、短语或者句子排列在一起；重复是在一系列短句或者长句的开头或者结尾使用相同的一句话或者一组词语；头韵是指邻近或者相邻的几个句子中的首个词语的辅音字母相同；对比是将一些意思相反的词语或者句子并列在一起，通常使用排比结构。 恰当地使用语言是指语言的运用要符合特定的场合、特定的观众和特定的主题。同时，恰当地使用语言还意味着演说者要有自己的语言风格，而不是模仿他人的口吻。如果演说者的语言在各个方面都能够做到恰如其分，那么这篇演说成功的机率就会大大提高。??????? 优秀的演说并不是空穴来风、缺乏论据的决断。演说者必须找到强有力的论据来支持其观点。实际上，熟练地使用论据经常是区别一篇优秀演说词和一篇空洞演说词的关键所在。一般来说，通常有三种论据材料：事例、统计数据和证词。? ???????在演说过程中，你可以使用一些简明扼要的例子——比如过去发生的一个很具体的事件——有时候，你可以罗列好几个简明的例子，借此增强听众的印象。扩展性的例子——描述、叙述或者奇闻轶事——通常长一些，但更具体。夸张性的例子描述想像中的情形，这种例子能够将相关的想法有效地传达给听众。这三种例子都能够帮助演说者理清思绪、加强印象或者使演说更加娓娓动听。为了使表达更加富有效果，例子应该生动活泼，丰富多彩。 只要演说者对于统计数据用之得当并且加以解释，这些数据将有助于有效地传达信息，听众也能从统计数据中获益匪浅。最重要的是：演说者应该对统计数据了如指掌，并且运用得恰如其分。由于数据很容易操纵和捏造，因此，对于演说者来说，一定要确保图表没有张冠李戴，并且要确保统计方法正确，数据来源可靠。?
学术综合英语1~5单元单词及重要词组总结（包含易考单词）=============UNIT1================ *sustain支撑，保持，撑住 craft手艺，工艺 *clutter凌乱，杂乱 simile明喻 *metaphor隐喻 *implicit不言明的，默认的，含蓄的 *rhythm节奏，节律 parallelism平行，对应，排比 alliteration头韵 antithesis对比，对偶 juxtaposition并列，并置 *assertion断言 bolster支持 testimony证明，证据 anecdote轶事 hypothetical假设的，假定的 textured具有特定结构或特征的 sparing节约的 credible可靠地 credentials可信任的证明 extemporaneously即兴的， impromptu无准备的 *unbiased公正，无偏见 *contrary to与。。。相反 *look up查找 *adapt to适应 *at hand在附近，在手边 hot air空话连篇 *in the course of在、、、、过程中 in passing附带地，顺便地 =============UNIT2================ detract贬低，减损，降低 dominant首要的，主要的，主导的 inadequacy缺乏，匮乏，不足 convert转化 deprivation缺失，匮乏 constancy不变，恒定 plausible貌似合理/可信的
staggering惊人的 unprecedented史无前例的 entail要求 mediocre二流的平庸的，劣质的elaborate复杂的 effluent工业废水 disruption有限，限定，限度 traverse穿行 magnitude程度 particulate微粒，颗粒 *consensus一致意见 concentration浓度 *liability不利因素 *menace威胁 *portend预示 pathogen病原体 *striking显著地 augment增加 emergence出现 *intractable难处理的 *massive巨大的 central重要的 *devastating毁灭性的 *aggravate恶化，加重，是恼火 *plausible貌似可信的 *entail使需要，承担 *triple三倍的 *intractable不听话的 *pose造成，形成 *staggering蹒跚 *emergence出现 *resurgence复活，再现，再起 *contribute to导致，引起，为。。。做贡献*center on集中于 *on a par with等同于 *pin down准确界定，确定 *detract from贬低 kindle点燃 revere尊敬
新思维综合英语1模拟试题三 Vocabulary and Structure： Directions:Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points) Example: The old couple at last in finding a flat to rent. A.managed B.did C.finished D.succeeded The sentence should read, "The old couple succeeded at last in finding a flat to rent." Therefore, you should choose D. 1．Hey, you haven't changed these years. A.a bit B.a few C.bit D.little 2．The common cold is the most of all illnesses. A.consequent B.frequent C.sequent D.subsequent 3．This lobster tastes funny. A.all kinds of B.kind of C.a kind of D.kind 4．I don't want to you. I call you just for greeting. A.disturb B.hurt C.interrupt D.break 5．How does this sound? “Sunny one-bedroom near, centrally located …” A.transmission B.transportation C.transition D.transfer 6．Some doctors suggest that you large amount of vitamins at the beginning of getting cold. A.take
Task 2 A contrary to implicit assertion look up adapted Sustain unbiased In the course of metaphor clutter B bolster credible impromptu sparingly anecdote Credentials testimony hypothetical paraphrase juxtaposition Task 3 Translation B.发言提纲是有效发言的基础。通过写发言提纲，你可以确保你的思想是相关联的，你的思路从一点谈到另一点，你的讲话结构是连贯的。通常，准备讲演你可以采用两种提纲方式：详细准备提纲和简单发言提纲。 在准备发言提纲中，应该写出你的特定目的及中心思想，并以连贯的方式确定主要观点和次要观点，发言提纲应该由简要的提要组成，这些提要在你讲话时能够给予你一些帮助。发言提纲还应该包括帮助你记忆的重点词或重点短语。在写发言提纲时，可采用准备提纲的模式，尽可能使你的发言提纲简要，同时，要确保提纲清晰，易于辨认。 C. 1. The younger generation should continue to sustain and develop our fine traditions and long-standing culture. 2. In the course of preparing one’s speech, one should be clearly aware of how one could make effective use of statistics and examples to bolster one’s point of view. 3. An impromptu speech is one of the speaking skills that college students should learn and develop through practice. 4. By using simile and metaphor, you can make your language more vivid and more attractive to your audience. 5. The proper examples you cite might help reinforce the impression on your listeners and make your viewpoints more convincing. 6. When you are speaking, you should choose common and easy words and at the same time avoid clutter in you speech. 7. When you write a paper, citing the views from some experts is a good way to make your ideas more credible. 8. A good method of delivering a speech will improve its quality and will help convey the speakers’ ideas clearly and interestingly. 9. You should mot blindly use a word that you are not sure about, and if you are not sure, look up the word in a dictionary. 10. Your language should adapt to the particular occasion and audience. If your language is appropriate in all respects, your speech is successful. D. Before you deliver an academic speech, you should, first of all, get well prepared for it. Then, you should make your major points clear in your speech, and your speech should be well organized. When speaking, you should not speak too fast, and your language should be exp licit. Don’t always read the notes you prepared beforehand. From time to time, you should look at your audience. On one hand, you can show your respect to your audience, and on the other hand, you will be able to go on with your speech more smoothly.
Unit3 Traffic Vocabulary Development [P80-81] A: 1.They asked him to leave. In other words, he was fired. 他们让他离开。换句话说，他被解雇了。 2.The United Nations troops enforced a ceasefire in this area. 联合国军队在这片区域实行了停火。 “实行”修改成“执行”，“停火”修改成“停火协议” 联合国军队在这片区域执行停火协议。 3.The amount will be paid to everyone regardless of whether they have children or not. 无论他们是否有孩子，金额都将支付给每个人。 “金额无法支付” 无论他们是否有孩子，支付给每个人的金额是相同的。 4.Your paper does not address the real issues. 你的论文没有解决主要的问题。 5.How many vehicles were involved in the crash yesterday? 昨天的车祸有多少辆车相撞。 “相撞”修改成“涉及” 昨天的事故涉及多少辆车。 6.She felt an anxiety bordering on hysteria. 她感到焦虑接近歇斯底里的状态。 7.The new technology can be applied to farming. 新的技术能够应用于农业。 8.What do these results suggest to you? 你对这些结果有什么意见? “意见”修改成“建议” 这些结果对你有怎样的建议？ 9.He has six previous convictions for theft and burglary. 他有六个前科有关于偷盗和入室抢劫的前科。 删除了结尾的前科（重复的名词） 他有六个前科有关于偷盗和入室抢劫。
Period One – Around the Topic Period Length: 50 minutes Goals Period Length: 50 minutes Goals -Activate background knowledge about work Purposes -Get familiar with vocabulary related with work -Obtain background knowledge about curiosity and being inquisitive Step 1: Vocabulary (20 minutes) -Ask students to work on the Vocabulary on Page 150 -Encourage students to think as more as possible -List these word on the board or screen Step 2: Discovery and Discussion (30 minutes) -Work on the activity on Pages 150 & 151 as a whole and give explanations if necessary to understand the necessity of work -Discuss the issue of work with reference to the questions listed on Pages 150 & 151 -Ask each group to present their results in front Key points -All activities be carried out in English -Inspect each group for the purpose of guidance and promotion Homework -Think in depth the advantages and disadvantages of being curious
主讲：朱明 高级工程师、高级技师、国家经济师 高级国家职业技能鉴定考评员 高级技能专业教师 综合英语2Unit8 语法知识点及综合练习 had better表示"最好" had better 相当于一个助动词，它只有一种形式，它后面要跟动词原形。 had better do sth had better not do sth It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat.She'd better not play with the dog. had better have done sth表示与事实相反的结果，意为"本来最好"。 You had better have come earlier. 不定式作补语 1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do) advise，allow，appoint，believe，cause，challenge，command，compel，consider，declare，drive，enable，encourage，find，forbid，force，guess，hire，imagine，impel，induce，inform，instruct，invite，judge，know，like，order，permit，persuade，remind，report，request，require，select，send，state，suppose，tell，think，train，trust，understand，urge，warn 例句：a.Father will not allow us to play on the street.父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。 b.We believe him to be guilty.我们相信他是有罪的。 Find 的特殊用法： Find 后可用分词做宾补，或先加形式宾语，再加形容词，最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get，have。 I found him lying on the ground.I found it important to learn. I found that to learn English is important. 典型例题:The next morning she found the man ___ in bed，dead. A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying 答案：A.find的宾语后面，用分词或分词短语，起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动，也表达正在进行，过去分词表达被动。 2) to + be 的不定式结构，作补语的动词。Acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称),discover, fancy(设想),feel，find,guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see(理解), show, suppose, take(以为), understand We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class. 我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。 典型例题Charles Babbage is generally considered___ the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented 答案：A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。此句只说明发明这一个事实，
新思维综合英语1模拟试题四 I.Vocabulary and Structure： Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points) Example: The old couple at last in finding a flat to rent. A.managed B.did C.finished D.succeeded The sentence should read, "The old couple succeeded at last in finding a flat to rent." Therefore, you should choose D. 请选择题型Vocabulary Dialogues Close Test Reading Translation 1．As a nursery teacher, you mustn't be with the children. A.impossible B.impatient C.important D.impractical 2．I ran Mike yesterday, who worked with me 5 years ago. A.to B.into C.with D.onto 3．There is no probability of jobs which will be created on the needed. A.spot B.scope C.range D.scale 4．The dinner party will be held in of the new comers. A.memory B.charge C.honor D.honoring 5．I saw her walking in the courtyard. A.back and forth B.down and up C. in and out D. back and front 6．Did you to get along well with your sister when you were younger? https://www.sodocs.net/doc/4611715453.html,ed
Presenting a speech （做演讲） Of all human creations, language may be the most remarkable. Through 在人类所有的创造中，语言也许是影响最为深远的。我们用语言 language we share experience, formulate values, exchange ideas, transmit 来分享经验，表达(传递？)价值观，交换想法，传播知识， knowledge, and sustain culture. Indeed, language is vital to think itself. 传承文化。事实上，对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。[Contrary to popular belief], language | does not simply mirror reality but also helps to create our sense of reality [by giving meaning to events]. 和通常所认为的不同的是，语言并不只是简单地反映现实，语言在 具体描述事件的时候也在帮助我们建立对现实的感知。 ——语序的调整。 Good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. Words are the tools of a speaker’s craft. They have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. As a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately. 好的演讲者对语言很重视，也知道如何让它发挥更好的效果。词语是演讲者演讲的重要“武器”，具有特殊的用途，这和任何其他的工作技艺没什么两样。作为演讲者，必须知道词语的具体含义，也要懂得如何做到用词准确、清晰、生动、适当。 Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. Never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. If you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. As you prepare your speeches, ask yourself constantly, “What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?”Choose words that are precise and accurate. 演讲者准确地使用语言和会计准确使用数字是一样重要的。确定词意后再措词。如果不确定，请先查词典。当你在准备演讲的时候，要不断地问自己：“我到底要说什么？我到底想表达什么意思？”用词一定要精准。 Using language clearly allows listeners to grasp your meaning immediately. You can ensure this [by using familiar words （that are known to the average person and require no specialized background）; by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter]. 用词清晰可以让听众迅速理解你的意思（抓到你的点）。要做到这一点，就要尽量使用一般人都熟悉的不需要专业知识就能懂的词语；多用具象词汇少用抽象词汇；还有要减少口误。 Using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. One way (to make your speech vivid)|is through imagery，or the creation of word pictures. You can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things （that are essentially different yet have something in common）; it always contains the words “like”or “as”. Metaphor is an implicit
Detailed Reading UNIT2 TEXTA be lost in / lose oneself in:be absorbed in; be fully occupied with - He was lost in play ing computer games so he was unaware of my entering the room. - I had lost my self in thought. - 他忙于这项工作而对周围的一切都很漠然。(He was lost to the world in this task.) available: adj. 1. able to be got, obtained, used, etc. - If y ou don’t want to buy a kite, you can make your own using directions available in the book. - We have already used up all the available space. - 对不起,这种外套没有你要的颜色和尺码。(I’m sorry. Those overcoats are not available in y our color and size. ) 2. able to be visited or seen; not too busy - 律师现在没空。(The lawyer is not available now.) or something: used when you are not very sure about what you have just said - The air fare was a hundred and ninety-nine pounds or something. - Here’s some money. Get y ourself a sandwich or something. NB: 同义的短语：or something like that go ahead:continue; begin (sometimes followed by with + n.) - The board of directors will vote today on whether to go ahead with the plan. - Henry will be late but we will go ahead with the meeting anyway. estimate: 1. vt. form a judgment about (a quantity or value) - Bill’s personal riches were estimated at $368 million. - I estimate that the total cost for the treatment of the disease will go from $5,000 to $8,000. - 我估计她有35岁。(I estimate her age at 35. ) 2. n. approximate calculation or judgment made about a quantity or value - According to some estimates, the number of farms has increased by 50 percent. - My estimate of her character was wrong. CF: estimate, evaluate & value 这组词都有“估计”或“估价”的意思。 estimate 指先于实际的测量、计算或测试而作的某种估计或估价，可以是经过仔细考虑，也可以是随意的。- He estimated he would do the hundred miles by noon. (他估计自已到中午时能走完这一百英里路。) - I asked three building firms to estimate for the repairs to the house. (我请三个建筑公司估计修缮房屋的费用。) evaluate 很少表示用金钱来估计某物的市场价值，而是对其相对或内在价值的评定。 - The research project has only been under way for three months, so it’s too early to evaluate its success. (这个研究项目进行了不过三个月，所以要对它的效果作出评价为时尚早。 ) value 指估计某物的价值、价格。 - He valued the house for me at ￡3,500. (他为我给这幢房子估价，价值3,500英镑。)
His Politeness Is Her Powerlessness Deborah Tannen There are many different kinds of evidence that women and men are judged differently even if they talk the same way. This tendency makes mischief in discussions of women, men and power. If a linguistic strategy is used by a woman, it is seen as powerless; if it is used by a man, it is seen as powerful. Often, the labeling of “women?s language” as “powerless language” reflects the view of wo men?s behavior through the lens of men?s. 他这样说是彬彬有礼，她这样说是低微无能 黛博拉·塔嫩各种各样的证据表明：即使女性和男性说话方式相同，人们对他们的看法还是不同。这种倾向导致有关女性、男性和有无能耐的讨论纷争不断。女性说话讲究方式方法被认为是低微无能，而换成男性则被认为是有能力的表现。视女性的语言为低微无能者的语言常常反映出男性看女性行为的视觉角度。 Because they are not struggling to be one-up, women often find themselves framed as one-down. Any situation is ripe for misinterpretation.This ambiguity accounts for much misinterpretation by experts as well as nonexperts, by which women?s ways of thinking, uttered in a spirit of rapport, are branded powerless.Nowhere is this inherent ambiguity clearer than in a brief comment in a newspaper article in which a couple, both psychologists, were jointly interviewed. The journalist asked them the meaning of “being very polite.” The two experts responded simultaneou sly, giving different answers. The man said, “Subservience.” The woman said, “Sensitivity.” Both experts were right, but each was describing the view of a different gender. 女性不为高人一等而拼搏，往往就被认为是低人一等。在任何情况下都极易发生误会。这也说明了为什么专家和非专家常常把女性以友善语言表述出来的思维方式曲解成低微无能的表现。没有什么能比一家报社刊登的采访片段更能清楚地说明这种根深蒂固的歧义。采访对象是一对心理学家夫妇，当记者问他们“表现得非常有礼貌”的含义时，这两位专家同时给出不同的答案。男性回答说：“服从。”女性回答说：“敏感。”两位专家都是正确的，只不过每个人描述的是不同性别的观点。 Experts and nonexperts alike tend to see anything women do as evidence of powerlessness. The same newspaper article quotes another psychologist as saying, “A man might ask a woman, …Will you please go to the store?? where a woman might say, …Gee, I really need a few things from the store, but I?m so tired.?” The woman?s style is called “covert,” a term suggesting negative qua lities like being “sneaky” and “underhanded.” The reason offered for this is power. The woman doesn?t feel she has the right to ask directly. 专家和非专家都习惯把女性的任何行为看为低微无能的表现。以上同一篇报刊文章援引另一位心理学家的话说：“一个男人会这样问一个女人：…请你去一趟商店好吗??同样的情况下女人会说：…哎，我真的需要从商店买点东西，但是我实在太累了。?” 女性的这种表达方式被称为“隐蔽的”，该词含有“鬼祟”和“秘密”等贬义，而这样表述的原因归咎于一个“权”字，女人觉得她没有权利直接提出要求。 Granted, women have lower status than men in our American society. But this is not necessarily why they prefer not to make outright demands. The explanation for a woman?s indirectness could just as well be her seeking connection. If you get your way as a result of having demanded it, the payoff is satisfying in terms of status: You?re one-up because others are doing as you told them. But if you get your way because others happened to want the same thing, or because they offered freely, the payoff is rapport. You?re neither one-up nor one-down by being