Thanks to modern remote-sensing techniques, a ruined city in Turkey is slowly revealing itself as one of the greatest and most mysterious cities of the ancient world. Sally Palmer uncovers more.
The low granite mountain, known as Kerkencs Dag, juts from the northern edge of the C'appadocian plain in Turkey. Sprawled over the mountainside are the rums of an enormous city, contained by crumbling defensive walls seven kilometers long. Many respected archaeologists believe these are the remains of the fabled city of Plena, the sixth-century BC stronghold of the Mcdes that the Greek historian Herodotus described in his famous work The Histories. The short-lived city came under Median control and only fifty years later was sacked, burned and its strong stone walls destroyed.
British archeologist Dr Geoffrey Summer has spent ten years studying the site. Excavating the ruins is a challenge because of the vast area they cover. The 7 km perimeter walls run around a site covering 271 hectares. Dr Summers quickly realised it would take far too long to excavate the site using traditional techniques alone. So he decided to use modem technology as well to map the entire site, both above and beneath the surface, to locate the most interesting areas and priorities to start digging.
In 1993. Dr Summers hired a special hand held balloon with a
remote-controlled camera attached. He walked over the entire site holding the balloon and taking photos. Then one afternoon, he rented a hot-air balloon and floated over the site, taking yet more pictures By the end of the 1994 season. Dr Summers and his team had a jigsaw of aerial photographs of the whole site. The next stage was to use remote sensing, which would let them work out what lay below the intriguing outlines and ruined walls. "Archaeology is a discipline that lends itself very well
to remote sensing because it revolves around space," says Scott Branting, an associated director of the project, lie started working with Dr Summers in 1995.
The project used two remote sensing techniques. The first is magnetometry which works on the principle thai magnetic fields al the surface of the Earth are influenced by what it buried beneath. It measures localised variations in the direction and intensity of this magnetic field. "The Earth's magnetic field can vary from place to place, depending on what happened there in the past." says Branting. "if something containing iron oxide was heavily burnt, by natural or human actions, the iron particles in it can be permanently reoriented, like a compass needle, to align with the Earth's magnetic field present at that point in time and space." The magnetometer detects differences in the orientations and intensities of these iron particles from the present-day magnetic field and uses them to produce an image of what lies below ground.
Kerkenes Dag lends itself particularly well to magnetometry because it was all burnt at once in a savage fire. In places the heat was sufficient to turn sandstone to glass and to melt granite. The fire was so hot that there were strong magnetic signatures set to the Earth's magnetic field from the time - around 547 BC - resulting in extremely clear pictures. Furthermore, the city was never rebuilt, "if you have multiple layers confusing picture, because you have different walls from different periods giving signatures that all go in different directions," says Branting. "We only have one going down about 1.5 meters, so we can get a good picture of this fairly short-lived city”.
The other main sub-surface mapping technique, which is still being used at the site, is resistivity. This technique measures the way electrical pulses arc conducted through sub- surface soil. It's done by shooting pulses into the ground through a thin metal probe. Different materials have different electrical conductivity. For example, stone and mudbrick arc poor conductors, but looser, damp soil conducts very well. By walking
around the site and taking about four readings per metre, it is possible to get a detailed idea of what is where beneath the surface. The teams then build up pictures of walls, hearths and other remains. "It helps a lot if it has rained, because the electrical pulse can get through more easily," says Branting. "Then if something is more resistant, it really shows up." This is one of the reasons that the project has a spring season, when most of the resistivity work is done. Unfortunately testing resistivity is a lot slower than magnetometry. "If we did (r the whole site it would take about 100 years," says Branting. Consequently, the team is concentrating on areas where they want to clarify pictures from the magnetometry.
Remote sensing does not reveal everything about Kerkenes Dag, but it shows the most interesting sub-surface areas of the site. The archaeologists can then excavate these using traditional techniques. One surprise came when they dug out one of the fates in the defensive walls. "Our observations in early seasons led us to assume that wall, such as would be found at most other cities in the Ancient Near East," says Dr Summers. "When we started to excavate we were staggered to discover that the walls were made entirely from stone and that the gate would have stood at least ten metres high. After ten years of study, Pteria is gradually giving up its secrets."
Reading Passage2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.
14. The reason why various investigative methods are introduced.
15. An example of an unexpected discovery.
16. The methods to surveyed the surface of the site from above.
17. The reason why experts want to study the site.
Next Year Marks the EU's 50th Anniversary of the Treaty A. After a period of introversion and stunned self-disbelief，continental European governments will recover their enthusiasm for pan-European institution-building in . Whether the European public will welcome a return to what voters in two countries had rejected so short a time before is another matter. B. There are several reasons for Europe’s recovering self-confidence. For years European economies had been lagging dismally behind America (to say nothing of Asia)， but in the large continental economies had one of their best years for a decade， briefly outstripping America in terms of growth. Since politics often reacts to economic change with a lag，’s improvement in economic growth will have its impact in ， though the recovery may be ebbing by then. C. The coming year also marks a particular point in a political cycle so regular that it almost seems to amount to a natural law. Every four or five years， European countries take a large stride towards further integration by signing a new treaty： the Maastricht treaty in 1992， the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997， the Treaty of Nice in . And in they were supposed to ratify a European constitution， laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters. But the political impetus to sign something every four or five years has only been interrupted，not immobilised， by this setback. D. In the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome， its founding charter. Government leaders have already agreed to celebrate it ceremoniously， restating their commitment to “ever closer union” and the basic ideals of European unity. By itself， and in normal circumstances， the EU’s 50th-birthday greeting to itself would be fairly meaningless， a routine expression of European good fellowship. But it does not take a Machiavelli to spot that once governments have signed the declaration (and it seems unlikely anyone would be so uncollegiate as to veto
剑桥雅思口语真题解析 Part 1: 1.1姓名 1. What’s your full name? 2. Can I have your name, please? 3. Are there any special meanings of your name? 4. Do you like your name? Why? 5. Do Chinese people like changing their names? 6. What kind of people in China like changing their names? 7. Is there any rule for Chinese people giving names to their children? 1.2故乡 My hometown is Guangzhou. It is the capital of Guangdong province in the southwest of China. It is a large industrial city. It is close to Hong Kong so a lot of the industries involve trade and retail. It is also a finance area. The people in Guangzhou are very genial and helpful, also are very easy to get around. If you lose your way and ask someone, he will give you the direction immediately, he can also give you a hand if you are in trouble. By the year 2011, it is believed that my hometown Guangzhou has become the economic center of China. 2. Where is it located? 3. How about the climate in your hometown? Which season do you like? In my hometown Guangzhou, the four seasons are not evident, which only has spring and summer. It is too hot in the summer and it is also humid in the winter. I like summer better, for we will go swimming and start our outdoor activities in the summer, it gives us pretty environment, which full of various kinds of colors. Another reason is that it is suitable for traveling around. 4. How about the people in your hometown? The people in my hometown Guangzhou are very genial and helpful, also are very easy to get around. People will always give you a hand with things. If you lose your way and ask someone, he will give you the direction immediately, he can also give you a hand if you are in trouble. 5. What do most people do in your hometown? 6. Oh yes. Even though Guangzhou is very modern, it has some interesting temples and streets. There is one called the Temple of Six Banyan Trees and it was built about 1500 years ago. There is also a famous cultural and commercial street in Guangzhou called Beijing Road. In this street, you can not only see a historic exhibition about different years roadbed, which has more than thousand histories, but also has many business shops sale almost all kinds of things. Besides, you can taste traditional snacks and refreshments or experience temples with /unusual special architectural style nearby. Anyway, it is an interesting place so worth to visit! 7. How about the style of the building in your hometown? 8. What is one of the greatest changes having taken place over the years? 9. What problems still exist in your hometown? 10. How to improve the situation in your hometown? 11. Where is Chinese population mainly distributed? 12. What changes have occurred in people’s dwelling? 1.3学习 1. Are you an employee or a student? (Are you working or studying?) 2. What is your major?
雅思考试阅读考题回顾 朗阁海外考试研究中心李园 考试日期： 2015年7月23日 Reading Passage 1 Title: Traditional Farming System in Africa (V100717 P1) Question types: Complete the sentences 4题Classify 4题 TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN 4题Multiple choice 1题 文章内容回顾介绍非洲传统的农业系统 相关英文原文阅读参考文章（粗体字部分为阅读高频词）： A By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals, but as in many other parts of Africa is allocated by the headman or headwoman of a village to people of either sex, according to need. Since land is generally prepared by hand, one ulupwa cannot take on a very large area; in this sense land has not been a limiting resource over large parts of the province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a scarcity of land for cultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership patterns are becoming prevalent. B Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula, as n the Bemba area to the east, is based on citemene, a system whereby crops are grown on the ashes of tree branches. As a rule, entire trees are not felled, but are pollarded so that they can regenerate. Branches are cut over an area of varying size early in the dry season, and stacked to dry over a rough circle about a fifth to a tenth of the pollarded area. The wood is fired before the rains and in the first year planted with the African cereal finger millet (Eleusinecoracana). C During the second season, and possibly for afew seasons more the area is planted to variously mixed combinations of annuals such as maize,pumpkins (Telfiriaoccidentalis) and other cucurbits, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, Pharsalus beans and various leafy vegetables, grown with a certain amount of rotation. The diverse sequence ends with vegetable cassava, which is often planted into the developinglast-but-one crop as a relay. D Richards (1969) observed that the practice ofcitemene entails a definite division of labour between men and women. A man stakes out a plot in an unobtrusive manner, since it is considered
2012年9月1日的雅思考试过后，环球雅思也在第一时间整理了完整的2012年9月1日雅思阅读机经，在此次的雅思阅读考试的三篇文章中，其中比较典型的几个题型的TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN、Complete table、多选题、Sentence completion的出题比例依旧比较稳定，可以看到判断TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN还是2012年9月1日雅思阅读机经中的重头戏。 考试日期：2012年9月1日 Reading Passage 1 Title:Man and Machine Question types:段落细节信息配对题填空题summary 文章内容 回顾 关于机器人的，MIT和日本的一些研究 英文原文阅读Types of Robots Humanoid Entertainment Robots ASIMO, manufactured by Honda QRIO, by Sony HOAP(*1) Robot Series (Humanoid for Open Architecture Platform), Manufactured by Fujitsu Toyota Partner Robot, manufactured by Toyota. EMIEW, by Hitachi
Androids Androids are robots designed to strongly resemble humans. Actroid, a realistic female robot demonstrated most prominently at Expo 2005 in Japan Hanako, a humanoid robot designed for dentist training HRP-4C, a humanoid robot with a realistic head and the average figure of a young Japanese female Animal (four legged) robots Aibo playing with kids AIBO is a commercial robotic dog manufactured by Sony Electronics. Social robots PaPeRo Paro, a robot baby seal intended for therapeutic purposes Wakamaru Guard robots Guardrobo D1 is manufactured by Sohgo Security Services. Banryu, manufactured by Sanyo and TMSUK. Domestic robots SmartPal V, manufactured by Yaskawa Electric
2019-2020-雅思阅读同义词替换(剑八TEST 3)-实用word文档 本文部分内容来自网络整理，本司不为其真实性负责，如有异议或侵权请及时联系，本司将立即删除！ == 本文为word格式，下载后可方便编辑和修改！ == 雅思阅读同义词替换(剑八TEST 3) 雅思阅读同义词替换 Cambridge 8 TEST 3 1. building = property = construction n .建筑 2. support = back = be behind = in support of = back somebody up v .支持 3. financial support = fund = financial aid 资助 4. stumbling block = difficulty = trouble n .麻烦 5. create = generate = form = produce v .形成 6. direct = guide = lead = instruct = give order / instruction v .指导 7. beam = laser = ray = glow = glare n .光线，激光 8. aim = direct at = purpose = point = idea = objective = goal = target n .目的 9. test in real = field test 实地测试 10. genius = giftedness / talent / intellectual = intelligence = brains = brilliant = wisdom n .天才 11. inherit = run in family = receive = get = be given = be awarded v .继承 12. talent = prodigy = skill = ability = craftsmanship = flair = have a knack = a natural ability to do something well n .才能，技能 13. lessen = minimize = subside = lighten = relieve = ease = allay v .减少
Selling Digital Music without Copy-protection Makes Sense A. It was uncharacteristically low-key for the industry’s greatest showman. But the essay published this week by Steve Jobs， the boss of Apple，on his firm’s website under the unassuming title “Thoughts on Music” has nonetheless provoked a vigorous debate about the future of digital music，which Apple dominates with its iPod music-player and iTunes music-store. At issue is “digital rights management” (DRM)—the technology guarding downloaded music against theft. Since there is no common standard for DRM， it also has the side-effect that songs purchased for one type of music-player may not work on another. Apple’s DRM system， called FairPlay， is the most widespread. So it came as a surprise when Mr. Jobs called for DRM for digital music to be abolished. B. This is a change of tack for Apple. It has come under fire from European regulators who claim that its refusal to license FairPlay to other firms has “locked in” customers. Since music from the iTunes store cannot be played on non-iPod music-players (at least not without a lot of fiddling)， any iTunes buyer will be deterred from switching to a device made by a rival firm， such as Sony or Microsoft. When French lawmakers drafted a bill last year compelling Apple to open up FairPlay to rivals， the company warned of “state-sponsored piracy”. Only DRM， it implied， could keep the pirates at bay. C. This week Mr. Jobs gave another explanation for his former defence of DRM： the record companies made him do it. They would make their music available to the iTunes store only if Apple agreed to protect it using DRM. They can still withdraw their catalogues if the DRM system is compromised. Apple cannot license FairPlay to others， says Mr Jobs， because it would depend on them to produce security fixes promptly. All DRM does is restrict consumer choice and provide a barrier to entry， says Mr Jobs； without it there would be far more stores and players， and far more innovation. So， he suggests， why not do away with DRM and sell music unprotected？“This is
雅思阅读判断题型解题方法 雅思阅读板块题型多样，其中判断题是必考题型，本文以剑桥雅思阅读真题为例，和大家解析雅思阅读中判断题型的解题方法。 剑桥雅思阅读真题解析判断题型解题方法 一、判断题题干有表示比较关系的词，考生需注意题目重点考察比较关系。 常见的比较关系词： 比较级：more/ less /adj-er than… 同级比较：as…as…/the same as…/equal/ like 试题中若出现以上比较关系词，需标记题中的比较对象(A 、B)，并明确比较逻辑(如A比B更聪明)，即可快速完成审题。如： 39. It is easier to find meaning in the field of science than in the field of art. – Test 2, Cambridge IELTS 11 审题步骤： 1.确定比较对象：A – field of science (科学领域)、B – field of art (艺术领域) 2.确定比较逻辑：科学的含义比艺术的含义更容易被人们理解(easier to find meaning)。 除了上述较明显的比较关系词外，出题人还会使用较隐晦的表达阐述比较关系，用以干扰考生的判断。因此，在审题时还需注意下列
具有隐含比较关系的表达： prefer to… compare to/compare with/contrast similar to…/similarly superior to/inferior to unusual 同样，考生在判定题干存在比较关系后，需标记题中的比较对象并明确比较逻辑。如： 35. Teachers say they prefer suggestopedia to traditional approaches to language teaching. – Test 1, Cambridge 7 1.确定比较对象：A –suggestopedia(暗示教学)、B –traditional approaches(传统教学方法) 2.确定比较逻辑：暗示教学比传统教学方法更受老师喜欢(teachers say they prefer)。 二、借助以下2种解题思路辅助解题： 1.题干中A、B存在比较关系但原文A、B不存在比较关系时，答案应为未提及——NOT GIVEN。 先看个简单的例子： 题干：喜茶比星爸爸贵得多。 原文：我的意中人是个盖世英雄，有一天他会踏着七彩祥云，排
Climate and Country Wealth Why are some countries stupendously rich and others horrendously poor? Social theorists have been captivated by this question since the late 18th century, when Scottish economist Adam Smith argued in his magisterial work The Wealth of Nations that the best prescription for prosperity is a free-market economy in which the government allows businesses substantial freedom to pursue profits. Smith, however, made a second notable hypothesis: that the physical geography of a region can influence its economic performance. He contended that the economies of coastal regions, with their easy access to sea trade, usually outperform the economies of inland areas. Coastal regions and those near navigable waterways are indeed far richer and more densely settled than interior regions, just as Smith predicted. Moreover, an area's climate can also affect its economic development. Nations in tropical climate zones generally face higher rates of infectious disease and lower agricultural productivity (especially for staple foods) than do nations in temperate zones. Similar burdens apply to the desert zones. The very poorest regions in the world are those saddled with both handicaps: distance from sea trade and a tropical or desert ecology. The basic lessons of geography are worth repeating, because most economists have ignored them. In the past decade the vast majority of papers on economic development have neglected even the most obvious geographical realities. The best single indicator of prosperity is gross national product (GNP) per capita – the total value of a country's economic output, divided by its population. A map showing the world distribution of GNP per capita immediately reveals the vast gap between rich and poor nations. The great majority of the poorest countries lie in the geographical tropics. In contrast, most of the richest countries lie in the temperate zones. Among the 28 economies categorized as high income by the World Bank, only Hong Kong, Singapore and part of T aiwan are in the tropical zone, representing a mere 2 percent of the combined population of the high-income regions. Almost all the temperate-zone countries have either high-income economies (as in the cases of North America, western Europe, Korea and Japan) or middle-income economies (as in the cases of eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and China). In addition, there is a strong temperate-tropical divide within countries that straddle both types of climates. Most of Brazil, for example, lies within the tropical zone, but the richest part of the nation – the southernmost states –is in the temperate zone. There are two major ways in which a region’s climate affects economic development. First, it affects the prevalence of disease. Many kinds of infectious diseases are endemic to the tropical and subtropical zones. This tends to be true of diseases in which the pathogen spends part of its life cycle outside the human host: for instance, malaria (carried by mosquitoes) and helminthic infections (caused by parasitic worms). Although epidemics of malaria have occurred sporadically as far north as Boston in the past century, the disease has never gained a lasting foothold in the temperate zones, because the cold winters naturally control the mosquito-based
考试日期： 8月25日 Reading Passage 1 Title: Dirty But Clean River ---(FLOOD) Question types: TRUE\FALSE\NOT GIVEN 9题 Complete table 5题 文章内容回顾flood对生态群系的重要性，但某处flood愈发减少以致人们不得不模拟flood。 问flood or fire对森林更有害，后面问自从1663年t鱼就开始减少，还有flood最多可到3500每秒，1996的人造flood开始被认为成功了，cube鱼的减少是因为t鱼的引入，人造flood比天然的大，以前flood含有干净的水。 题型难度分析难度偏低，本文只有两种题型，且都是有顺序的题目，降低了做题难度。是非无判断的题量较大，在一定程度上降低了定位的难度。在表格填空题中，还有两道是时间（数字）的定位，难度降低。 题型技巧分析是非无判断题： 解题思路： 1. 关键词定位到原文中与题目出现重复的段落 2. 判断方式不包含任何逻辑推理 TRUE: 是原文中同义近义改写 FALSE: 对于原文信息的直接改写 NOT GIVEN: 原文没有信息，或经过原文信息不能直接推理出来3. 书写应该规范，大写全拼 剑桥雅思推荐原文练习剑桥5-3-2 Disappearing Delta 话题相似剑桥6-2-3 题型相似 Reading Passage 2 Title: graffiti（涂鸦） Question types: Which paragraph contains the following information? 5题连续两个5选2 （4题） Sentence completion 4题 文章内容回顾 graffiti（涂鸦）是艺术还是犯罪，主要讲各种去除涂鸦的方法，不足之处和注意事项 等。 英文原文阅读Graffiti (singular: graffito; the plural is used as a mass noun) is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place. Stickers and other adhesives are not considered graffiti, apparently because they are less common. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. In modern times, paint, particularly spray paint, and marker pens have become
雅思阅读高频词汇 雅思阅读高频词汇表（一）138个 accessible 易于得到的accompany 伴随accurate准确的activate 使活动，刺激adapt 适应adequate充足的affect 影响 alter 改变altitude 高地analyse 分析 anticipate预感，预期apparent明显的approach接近，方法appropriate 恰当的arise 出现，升起 arrange 整理，安排artificial 人造的assess 估计，评定assign指派，指定 attribute 把..归因于，属性authority 权力 available 可用的behave 举止，表现breed 繁殖，引起budget 预算 bully 恐吓burst 爆炸calendar 日历campaign 运动capable 能够的 capacity 容量capture 捕获cargo 货物 chronic 慢性的circumstance 环境，遭遇civil 文明的，民事的，国民的code 代码，法典communal 公用 的community 社会，社区component 元件constant 不断的，永恒的consult 商量，咨询contrast对比core 核心 corporate 全体的，社团的counterpart 与对方地位相当的 人 cure治愈curriculum 课程deduce 演绎，推断depict 描绘derive 得到，起源于 descend 下降，传下来despite 尽管，轻蔑discipline 训练，处罚，纪律distribute 分发dramatic 戏剧的，引人注目的 dynamic 动态的，有生气的ease 安逸，缓和efficient 有能力的element 要素 eliminate 消灭emphasize 强调engage 从事，占用enhance 提高entitle 给予权利，给题名 equivalent 相等的，等价物 evaluate 评价exceed 超过expand 扩张，延伸expose 暴露，揭露external 外面的extract 提 取，摘录 faculty 能力，院系，全体教职员forage 到处搜寻foundation 创办，基础fragile脆弱的fundamental 基本的
2019年11月4日雅思阅读机经真题答案及解析 一、考试概述： 本次考试的文章两篇新题一篇旧题，第一篇描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现，研究了古代人的生存方式，第二篇是讲了利用心理学对课堂行为实行研究，第三篇是讲非语言交流的，人类除了用语言交流，其他手势、行为等的非语言形式也很重要 二、具体题目分析 Passage 1： 题目：Human Remain in Green Sahara 题型：判断题4 +简答题3+填空题6 新旧水准：旧题 文章大意：描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现，研究古代人的生存方式。 参考文章： Human Remain in Green Sahara A On October 13,2,000, a small team of paleontologists led by Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago clambered out of three battered Land Rovers, filled their water bottles, and scattered on foot across the toffee-colored sands of the Tenere desert in northern Niger. The Tenere，on the southern flank of the Sahara, easily ranks among the most desolate landscapes on Earth. The Tuareg，turbaned nomads who for centuries have ruled this barren realm, refer to it as a