socrates was a classical greek philosopher who is credited with laying the fundamentals (基础) of modern western philosophy. he is a mysterious figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his most famous student plato.socrates has become well known for his contribution to the field of ethics. his method of teaching, known as the socratic method, by asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to explain ideas remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions. he also made important and lasting contributions to the field of epistemology (认识论) and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains a strong foundation for western philosophy that followed.socrates was the most colorful figure in the history of ancient philosophy. his fame was widespread in his own time, and his name soon became a household word although he constructed no philosophical system, established no school, and founded no sect (宗派).
confucius was a great thinker and educator in chinese history. he was the founder of confucianism and was respectfully referred to as an ancient sage. his words and life story were recorded in the analects. an enduring classic of ancient
chinese culture, the analects has had a great influence on the thinkers, writers, and statesmen that came after confucius. without studying this book, one could hardly truly understand the thousands-of-years traditional chinese culture. much of confucius thought, especially his thought on education, has
had a profound influence on chinese society. in the 21st century, confucian thought not only retains the attention of the chinese, but it also wins an increasing attention from the international community.
原文： christmas is a widely observed cultural holiday, celebrated on december 25 by millions of people around the world. it commemorates (纪念) the birth of jesus christ. the festival dated from as early as 336 ad. gradually it evolved into
a religious as well as secular (非宗教的) celebration, celebrated by an increasing number of non-christians. today christmas is observed as an important festival and public holiday around
the world. christmas customs differ in different countries. popular modern customs of the holiday include an exchange
of christmas cards and gifts, christmas singing, church attendance, the display of various christmas decorations and trees, family gatherings, and a special meal preparation. to
small children, the festival is full of fantasy and surprise.
legend (传说) has it that santa claus will enter each house through the chimney and bring gifts to well-behaved children
on christmas eve. because gift-giving and many other aspects
of the christmas festival heighten economic activity among
both christians and non-christians, the holiday has also
become a significant event and a key sales period for businesses.
圣诞节是一个被广泛庆祝的文化节日，全世界有许许多多的人在1 2月2 5日庆祝这一节日。它是为了纪念耶
稣基督的诞辰。该节日最早可追溯到公元3 3 6年。渐渐地，这一节
的经济活动，圣诞节也因此成为商家的一个重大活动和主要销售季。原文：每年农历（chinese lunar calendar）八月十五是我国
的传统节日——中秋节（the mid-autumn festival）。这时是
according to the chinese lunar calendar, august 15 of every year is a traditional chinese festival — the mid-autumn festival. this day is the middle of autumn, so it is called mid-autumn.
one of the important mid-autumn festival activities is to enjoy the moon. on that night, people gather together to celebrate
the mid-autumn festival, looking up at the bright moon and eating moon cakes. the festival is also a time for family reunion. people living far away from home will express their feelings of missing their hometowns and families at this festival. there are many customs to celebrate the festival, all expressing peoples love and hope for a happy life. since 2008, the mid-autumn festival has become an official national holiday in china.
he london underground is a rapid transit (交通运输系统)
system in the united kingdom, serving a large part of greater london. the underground system is also known as the tube,
due to the characteristic shape of the subway tunnels. it all started in the mid-1800s. the tube was the worlds first underground train system, with the first section opening in 1863. since then it has grown to an underground masterpiece (杰作) of 12 lines, 275 stations, and over 250 miles of rail track, 45% of which is underground. it is the fourth largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles. it also has one of the largest numbers of stations. as an affordable and easy way to get around london, the tube remains the first choice for millions of commuters each day, as well as tourists visiting the city on holidays. the tube has been an international icon for london. the london underground celebrated its 150 years of operation in 2013, with various events marking the milestone (里程碑).
中国开始实施载人航天飞行工程（manned spaceflight program）。2003年，中国成功发射了神舟五号载人飞船，使中国成为第三个发
chinas space industry was launched in 1956. over the past decades, chinas space industry has created one miracle after another. in 1970 china launched its first man-made earth satellite, ranking china the fifth country in the world to independently develop and launch man-made earth satellites.
in 1992 china began to carry out the manned spaceflight program. in 2003 china launched shenzhou-5, a manned spaceship. the successful launch
made china the third country to launch manned spaceships. in 2007 change-1, the first lunar-orbiting man-made satellite, was sent to space. in 2013 shenzhou-10, the fifth manned spaceship, was launched successfully, laying the foundation
for building the chinese space station.
原文： as one of the first europeans to travel across asia through china, marco polo is perhaps the most well-known foreign merchant and voyager to the chinese people. he traveled extensively (广泛地) with his family, journeying from europe to asia from 1271 to 1295. he remained in china for 17
of those years. his book the travels of marco polo depicts his journeys throughout asia, giving europeans their first comprehensive look into the far east, including china, india,
and japan. from his written accounts the westerners learned of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, printing, paper money, and silk for the first time. the wealth of new geographic information recorded by polo was widely used in the late 15th and the 16th centuries during the age of the european voyages of discovery and conquest (征服). in the centuries since his death, marco
polo has received the recognition that failed to come his way during his lifetime. marco polos story has inspired countless other adventurers to set off and see the world.
是中国人最熟知的外国商人和航海家。从1271 年到1295 年，他和
纸币以及丝绸。在15 世纪末和16 世纪欧洲发现与征服的大航海时
原文：郑和是中国历史上最著名的航海家（maritime explorer）。公元1405 年，明朝的统治者为了稳固边防（border defense）和开展海上贸易，派郑和下西洋（the western seas）。在此后的28 年里，郑和带领船队七下西洋，前后出海的人员有10 多万人，访问了30 多个国家和地区。船队纵横南亚、西亚，一直到非洲大陆。郑和下西洋是世界航海（navigation）史上的壮举，它展现了郑和卓越
的航海和组织才能，同时展现了明朝的国力和国威（national strength and prestige），加强了明朝和海外各国之间的关系。
翻译： zheng he was the most famous maritime explorer in chinese history. in 1405 ad, the ruler of the ming dynasty sent zheng he on a voyage to the western seas in order to strengthen border defense and develop trade by sea. in the following 28 years, zheng he led his fleet, made seven voyages to the western seas with over 100,000 crew members in total, and visited more than 30 countries and regions. the fleet traveled far into south asia and west asia, and made all the way to the continent of africa. zheng hes voyages to the western seas were a great feat in the worlds navigation history. it showed zheng hes outstanding navigation and organization talents; meanwhile, it exhibited the national strength and prestige of the ming dynasty, and strengthened the relationships between the ming dynasty and the overseas countries. unit 5
the first written records of the ancient olympic games date to 776 bc. the ancient olympics were held every four years between august 6 and september 19 during a religious festival honoring zeus (宙斯). the first modern olympics were held in athens, greece, in 1896. the olympic symbol consists of five interlaced rings of equal dimensions, representing the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the olympic games. the olympics truly took off as an international sporting event after 1924, when the 8th olympic games were held in paris. some 3,000 athletes
from 44 nations competed that year, and for the first time the games featured a closing ceremony. the winter olympics debuted (问世) that year, including such events as figure skating, ice hockey, bobsledding and the biathlon. eighty years later, when the 2004 summer olympics returned to athens for
the first time in more than a century, nearly 11,000 athletes
from 201 countries
competed, breaking the then record of participating countries.
太极拳（tai chi）是一种武术（martial arts）项目，也是一种健身
tai chi is a kind of martial arts, and a fitness exercise as well. it has a long history in china. with slow and gentle movements,
tai chi is suitable for people of any age, sex, or body type to practice. it can be used to provide self-defense as well as build the body. therefore, it has become very popular among
chinese people. during its development, tai chi borrowed and absorbed desirable elements from traditional chinese philosophy, medicine, and martial arts, and it has developed
into a sport with unique features. as a unique sport in china, tai
chi is also gaining increasing popularity among many foreign friends.
unit 6 原文：
gap year (间隔年) refers to a period of time —not necessarily a year — in which students take time off and do something other than schooling, such as travel or work. the year out is most commonly taken after high school and before going to university. during this time, a student might travel, engage in volunteer work or undertake (承担) a working holiday abroad. a new trend is to participate in international education programs that combine language study, home stays, cultural exchange, community service, and independent study. the practice of taking a year out developed in the united kingdom in the 1960s. it has grown very popular among students in the uk, australia, new zealand, and canada. in the united states, however, the practice of taking a year off remains the exception (例外). but in recent years, taking a year out has become slightly more common for americans. some 40,000 american students participated in 2013 in gap year programs, an increase of almost 20% since 2006. universities such as princeton university, harvard university, massachusetts institute of technology have formal policies allowing students to defer (延期) admission.
（revitalize the country），全面提倡素质教育 (quality-oriented education)。同时，积极推进教育公平，保障人人有受教育的机会。中国的教育成就反映在两个不同的层面：一个是全面普及了九年义
务教育（nine-year compulsory education），另一个是实现了高
等教育大众化（mass higher education）。教育的发展为中国的经济发展和社会进步作出了重大贡献。近年来，为适应社会、经济发
since its economic reform and opening-up to the world, chinas education has gone through rapid development and made remarkable achievements. the chinese government gives top priority to the development of education, persists in
revitalizing the country by science and education, and fully advocates quality-oriented education. meanwhile, it actively promotes equality in education to guarantee everyone access
to education. chinas achievements in education can be reflected in two different layers: one is the popularization of
the nine-year compulsory education; the other is the
realization of mass higher education. the development of education has made significant contributions to chinas economic development and social progress. in recent years, to satisfy the needs of social and economic development, the chinese government has sped up the training of qualified personnel urgently needed in various fields.
原文： the belief in the freedom of the individual is probably
the most basic and most strongly held of all american beliefs. the most important thing to understand americans is probably their devotion (深爱) to individualism. they have been trained since very early in their lives to consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own situations in life and their own destiny. americans view themselves as highly individualistic in their thoughts and actions. they resist being thought of as representatives of any homogeneous (由同类组成的) group. when they do join groups, they believe they are special, just a little different from other members of the same group. closely associated with the value they place on individualism is the importance americans
assign privacy. americans assume people need some time to themselves or &qu
ot;some time alone to think about things or recover their spent psychological energy. americans have great difficulty understanding foreigners who always want to be with another person and who dislike being alone.
翻译： integrity and harmony are traditional chinese virtues. harmony is demonstrated in various aspects. in regard to interpersonal relations, traditional chinese thoughts hold that harmony is most precious and a family that lives in harmony
will prosper. a harmonious social environment can be created based on these principles. as for relations between human beings and nature, people should learn to understand, respect and protect nature. harmony is essential to interpersonal relations, relations between human beings and society, as well as between human beings and nature. nowadays, harmonious development is still the way of running the country and managing talented personnel. with the development of chinas society, economy and culture, the idea of harmony goes even deeper into peoples hearts. china is on its way toward the goal of building a harmonious socialist society.
as the worlds only truly universal global organization, the united nations (un) has become the foremost forum to address issues that transcend (超越) national boundaries and cannot be resolved by any one country acting
么充分的准备，你都很难在这么吵杂的招待会上发表演讲。 no matter how experienced a speaker you are, and how well you have prepared your speech, you will have difficulty making a speech at such a noisy reception. 2 .就像吉米妹妹的朋友都关心
吉米一样，吉米也关心着他们。just as all his sister’s friends cared about him, jimmy cared about them.
car manufacturers stamp a vehicle identification number at several places on new cars to help track down stolen vehicles.
the defendant, a woman of only 30, kept insisting on her own innocence.
2.总体来看，枣、豆类以及一些多叶的绿色蔬菜是最好的铁质来源。 all tings considered, dates, beans and some leafy green vegetables are the best sources of iron.
3.正餐时不提供饮料，饮料会影响消化。 no beverages are
served with meals because they interfere with digestion.
unit2 1.从个方面考虑，这座城市都是世界上最令人激动的城市。everything considered, this city is the world’s most exciting city.
though with no approval from his parents, he went ahead with his plan to study abroad.
生命。 the bridge was named after the hero who gave his life
for the cause of people
会被尽可能地避免。 we should try our best to forecast earthquakes so that destruction of property caused by them could be prevented as much as possible.
2.一个农民注意到很多鱼在水面上游动，他说这预示着可能有地震发生。 a farmer noticed large schools of fish swimming near the surface of the water, which, he said, indicated the possible occurrence of an earthquake.
3.要将英英词典放在手边。当你不能准确地理解单词时，你就能随时查阅。 keep an english-english dictionary handy, and when you cannot understand a word with accuracy, you may refer to it any time
unit7 1.因此，以盖茨为首席执行官的微软还能走多远依然是个有趣的问题。 an interesting question therefore remains as to how far microsoft can go with gates as its ceo.
2.抱怨是没有用的，因此抱怨并改变不了什么。重要的是采取措施预防类似的事件发生。there’s/it’s no use complaining since nothing ever changes as the result of a complaint. what’s important is to take measures to prevent similar events from happiness.
3.要学会接受这样一个事实：有些认为是朋友的人结果却是敌人。learn to accept the fact that some people you thought were friends turn out to be enemies.
unit8 1. 那个提议听起来很诱人，但如果是个骗局怎么办。 it sounds like a good idea, but what if it’s a trick?
2. 这一地区的城镇因为地震遭受了很大的损失，受灾最严重的地方包括九江和瑞昌。 cities and towns in this area suffered a lot from the earthquake with jiujiang and ruichang among the worst-hit.
3. 他抱怨说，他们压根儿就不应该参与这件事。 he complained that they should not have got involved in it in the first place. unit11.with his index finger,patterson pointed toward a plain color-coded box beneath a long wooden table. 以他的食指，派特森在一张长木制的桌子之下指向一个简单的编码颜色的盒子。
2.he disguised himself as a waiter and watched what was going on around. 他伪装自己作为一个侍者而且看什么正在继续在周围.
3.he often whistles a tune during the morning tea break when his boss is not around. 当他的老板不在附近时，他时常在早晨期间吹口哨歌曲茶休息。
4. 4.and again she shouted in a high-pitched voice,word by word,with no attempt to restrain herself,“i cannot stand any
5.there were certain people in that room,like peter and
john,who had failed to
grasp what i was saying. 那房间有特定的人，像彼得和约翰，他[她] 没有抓住我正在说的。
6.during that time i was overwhelmed with longing for those innocent days of early childhood. 应得的东西我与渴望那些无罪
7.i’m just praying that the board of directors will take steps before it is too late. 我仅仅正在祈祷在它太晚之前，董事会将会采
8.she was the directors faithful assistant in whom he could have absolute confidence. 她是他会有的指导者的忠实助手绝对的
9.these developers pledge to build low-income housing units when the supply of affordable housing for poor people continues to shrink. 当贫穷的人的可负担住屋的补给继续收缩时，这些开发者保证建立低收入住屋组件。
10.people have been mobilized to build defenses and drain flooded land as heavy rains continue to fall. 人已经被动员建立
unit21.church mill,although of fairly moderate size compared with some of its neighbors,is a delightful tow-story building of stone. 教堂米尔，虽然非常适度大小，和一些它的邻居相比较，是
2.if your weight remains constant you must be using up all
your calories,but if you are gaining weight then some of the calories you consume are being stored as fat. 如果你的重量依然持续你一定用光你所有的卡路里，但是如果你当时正在增胖，你消
费的一些卡路里是被储存如胖。 3.i dont think it advisable that
tim be assigned the job since he has no experience. 我不想它适当的因为他没有经验提姆被分配工作。
4.meals also have to be modified from their original state so that they will have a beneficial effect on the body. 一餐也必须
5.his face was very red,which was a clear evidence of his fever. 他的脸非常红色，哪一个是一个他的发烧的清楚证据。
6.families with children tend to be restricted as to when they can take their vacations. 家庭用孩子容易被限制关于当他们能渡他们的假期。
7.they calculate that the aging population is adding one percent yearly to health service costs. 他们计算人口老化正在把
一 % 每年的加入公共医疗费用。
8.in the case of a polluted river,the remedy lies in the hands of the national
9.the change in leadership will have a huge impact on government policy. 领导方面的改变将会对政府产生极大的冲击政策。
10.given sufficient time,with other things remaining unchanged,prices and wages would eventually be adjusted
and full employment may be achieved. 给予的充份时间，藉由依然不变的其他事物，价格和薪水会最后被调整，而且完全雇用可能
1. this means they have been inspected by a team of professional experts and the standard of their work has been approved.这就意味着他们已经被专家组检查并且他们的工作水平已经被认可。
2. the statue of liberty had just arrived from paris and was being assembled so it was not in new york harbor when they arrived.自由女神像刚刚到达巴黎就被组装所以当它到达的时候不在纽约港。
3. this reaction to the event is rather exaggerated but on the other hand there is something in it.. 这个反应对于这件事是很夸张，但是在另一方面有什么东西在里面。
4. police had trouble understanding who was responsible for the accident，because everyone who saw it made different versions of what happened.警察不知道谁该为事故负责，因为每
5. it is an almost universal truth that the more we are promoted in a job, the less we actually exercise the skills we initially used to perform it.这是一条普遍真理—我们在工作中晋升的机会越多，我们应用最初掌握的技能的机会就越少。
6. his appointment has not been formally approved yet. 他的任命尚未正式批准呢。
7. it is getting more and more difficult to recruit experienced staff. 招募有经验的员工变得越来越难。
8. he insisted that the idea evolved out of work done by british scientists. 他坚持这项构想演变出的工作是由英国科学家完成的。
9. they are the ordinary citizens for whom the honor system was designed---people who have
dedicated their lives to duty.他们是荣誉系统已经被设定的普通公民—他们是献身于责任的人。
10. his expression became very solemn when we told him what had happened. 当我们告诉他发生了什么的时候他的表情变得很严肃。
unit61. it would have been more sensible to save the money than to spend it all on clothes.把钱省下来比把它全部花在衣服上更明智。
2. the system is so sensitive that it can detect changes in temperature as small as 0.003 degrees 该系统非常敏感，它能检测到温度的变化小到0.003度。
3.the doctor advised us to take every precaution so as not to catch cold.医生建议我们采取一切措施，以免感冒。
4.it was the strangest occurrence i can remember in my university days. 在我的大学生活里，它是我能记住的最古怪的事件。
5.the government demands that the bridge be built to withstand an earthquake of 8.3
6.on a long-term basis they may contribute to developing crops which are resistant to drought. 在长期的基础上它们可能发展成能抵御干旱的农作物。
7.in some places the cliff was almost vertical, and much too dangerous to climb. 在一些地方悬崖是几乎垂直的，攀爬是非常危险的。
8.the accidental discharge of the poisonous gas caused some chaos. 由意外导致排放的有毒气体引起了一些混乱。
9.please find enclosed the application information you requested. 请查找包含您请求的应用程序信息。
10.passengers should keep their seat belts fastened until the warning light is extinguished. 乘客应保持安全带固定，直到警告
unit71. they need more funds to modernize the country s telephone system 他们需要更多资金去现代化国家的电话系统。
2. three interpreters looked the passage over for about three
or four minutes and found that they could not interpret half of it. 看着三名翻译过了约三，四分钟，发现他们还无法解释它的一半 3. he is promoted to manager because he has done a very good job in distributing videophones to the local customers. 他被晋升为经理，因为他做了一个很好的工作，向本地客户推销可
4. participants are expected to be seated by 8:30 a.m. so that meeting can begin punctually. 上午8:30前参加者如期坐在位子上，会议准时开始。
5. in china, as in many parts of the world, energy conservation is an issue which gets a lot of attention these days. 在中国,就
6. although they might have iqs of 10 or 50 at the maximum, they should not be treated unfairly.尽管他们有可能智商在10到50之间,他们不应该被不公平的待遇
7. the products not only meet the need of the domestic market, but also are exported to many parts of the world. 产品不仅能满足国内市场的需要,而且在世界上许多地方也满足工业上的需求。
8. because of the high interest rate needed to conquer inflation, brazils economy has not been growing as fast as it could. 因为高利率需要高通货膨胀,巴西经济不能尽其能增长
9. job evaluation and classification is the basis for determining the salary for a position. 工作的评估和评级是决定
10. in china now more and more people are visiting the countryside for holidays, day excursions and recreation on
unite8 1. they were running through thickly forested
3. in his article is
that being a housewife is great inferior to
very other occupation在他的文章中的含义是，作为一个家庭主妇大不如其他职业
7. 8. 9. in half.我们对一个事务，将公司一半的结论
hough they may not be the world’s fastest or strongest athletes, the 1830 competitions in the 2005 special olympics world winter games held in nagano, japan with all their hearts. at the closing princess takamado of japan made a speech .she said, ’the past week was heart that the entire world can learn something here. we can all learn from the these special athletes have shown us.’
the of the special olympics is clear. it is to encourage individuals with intellectual to become physically fit. they are also encouraged to be productive and training and competition. if an athlete competition, it is a bonus. however , could hardly i was proud of myself. i am happy not simply for winning, honestly, loving to compete and working the hardest for the longest time.
the festival the games is something to remember. it isn’t without the hugs. one event volunteer，and handing out sweatshirts to some of the athletes thumbs and said, ”all of these athletes are super! i can’t go here without getting a hug. i
for more of this sort of thing. i hope that the spirit these young people blossom over the past week has truly touched my
life. ”at the end of the festival, the vice mayor for the city of shanghai, which will 2007 summer games, accepted the flag
for the special olympics that “the city of shanghai would open its arms to the world and to the special olympics”.
jim fixx had been a heavy smoker and weighed 214 pounds when he running in the 1960s. he soon the benefits from running. his weight decreased 60 pounds by the time his book, the complete book of running, was published. his book and on television talk shows, he extolled the benefits of physical exercise and how it increased the average p eople’s life expectancy. his readers and audience became more health-conscious. however ,shock, fixx died at the age of 52 after his daily run. many who opposed his beliefs said this was running was harmful. however, his supporters that the real cause of
f ixx’s death was a heart attack. he came from a family where men had poor health stories. his father a heart attack at the
age of 35 and died of one at 42. fixx’s unhealthy lifestyle until
he took up running, many argued that running added many years to his life.
“running does have its shortcomings,” specialist paul thomas, in a recent medical journal. “the can be hard on your knees. runners are more at risk during their training, marathons., the news for runners isn’t all bad. evidence suggests in spite o f its shortcomings, amount of running exercise can actually a longer, improved life.”
dr.dale macdonald, a certified strength and conditioning specialist once a discussion by saying, “ all athletic endeavors, running comes with both great and inherent risk. more than 60% of runners will suffer an injury that causes them to take time
off running—each year!” he also said that improving one’s balance can reduce the of injury.