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Presenting a speech


Of all human creations, language may be the most remarkable. Through


language we share experience, formulate values, exchange ideas, transmit


knowledge, and sustain culture. Indeed, language is vital to think itself.

传承文化。事实上,对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。[Contrary to popular belief], language | does not simply mirror reality but

also helps to create our sense of reality [by giving meaning to events].




Good speakers have respect for language and know how it works. Words are the tools of a speaker’s craft. They have special uses, just like the tools of any other profession. As a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use language accurately, clearly,vividly,and appropriately.


Using language accurately is as vital to a speaker as using numbers accurately to a accountant. Never use a word unless you are sure of its meaning. If you are not sure, look up the word in the dictionary. As you prepare your speeches, ask yourself constantly, “What do I really want to say? What do I really mean?”Choose words that are precise and accurate.


Using language clearly allows lix;=steners to grasp your meaning immediately. You can ensure this [by using familiar words (that are known to the average person and require no specialized background); by choosing concrete words in preference to more abstract ones, and by eliminating verbal clutter].


Using language vividly helps bring your speech to life. One way (to make your speech vivid)|is through imagery,or the creation of word pictures. You can develop imagery by using concrete language, simile, and metaphor. Simile is an explicit comparison between things (that are essentially different yet have something in common); it always contains the words “like”or “as”. Metaphor is an implicit

comparison between things that are different yet have something in common; it does not contain the words “like”or “as”.


明喻是指在本质上有区别但仍然有相同点的事物之间做一个明确的比较,一般句中会含有“像”或“似”。隐喻则是一种隐藏的比较,不会出现like 和as 这些连接词。

Another way to make your speeches vivid is by exploiting the rhythm of language. Four devices for creating rhythm are parallelism, repetition, alliteration, and antithesis. Parallelism is the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences. Repetition is the use of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences. Alliteration comes from repeating the initial constant sounds of close or adjoining words. Antithesis is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.


Using language appropriately means adapting to the particular occasion, audience, and topic at hand. It also means developing your own language style instead of trying to copy someone else’s. If your language is appropriate in all respects, your speech is much more likely to succeed.


Good speeches are not composed of hot air and unfounded assertions. They need strong supporting materials to bolster the speaker’s point of view.In fact, the skillful use of supporting materials often makes the difference between a good speech and a poor one.The three basic types of supporting materials are examples,statistics and testimony.


In the course of a speech you may use brief examples—specific instances referred to in passing—and sometimes you may want to give several brief examples in a row to create a stronger impression. Extended examples—often called illustrations, narrations, or anecdotes—are longer and more detailed.Hypothetical examples describe imagery situations and can be quite effective for relating ideas to the audience. All three kinds of examples help to clarify ideas, to reinforce ideas, or to personalize ideas. To be more effective, though, they should be vivid and richly



Statistics can be extremely helpful in conveying your message, [as long as you use them sparingly and explain them so they are meaningful to your audience.] Above all, you should understand your statistics and use them fairly. Numbers can easily be manipulated and distorted. Make sure {that your figures are representative of {what they claim to measure},that you use statistical measures correctly, and that you take statistics only from reliable sources.}


Testimony is especially helpful for student speakers, because they are seldom recognized as expects on their speech topics. Citing the views of people(who are experts)is a good way to make your ideas more credible. When you include testimony in a speech, you can either quote someone verbatim or paraphrase their words. As with statistics, there are guidelines for using testimony.Be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately and to cite qualified unbiased sources. If the source is not generally known to your audience, be certain to establish his or her credentials.


The impact of a speech is strongly affected by how the speech is delivered. You cannot make a speech without having something to say. But having something to say is not enough.You must also know how to say it.Good delivery does not call attention to itself.It conveys the speaker’s ideas clearly, interestingly, and [without distracting the audience].


There are four basic methods of delivering a speech: reading verbatim from a manuscript, reciting a memorized text, speaking with PowerPoint, and speaking extemporaneously, or impromptu. The last of these—speaking extemporaneously—is the method (you probably will use for classroom speeches and for most speeches

outside the classroom). When speaking extemporaneously, you will have only a brief set of notes or a speaking outline. Speaking with PowerPoint is widely used now and very effective indeed.


Certainly there are other factors you should consider, such as personal appearance, bodily action, gestures, eye contact, volume, pauses and so on. By paying enough attention to what is mentioned above, you may present an effective speech.


Unit 2 Energy in Transition


The era of cheap and convenient sources of energy is coming to an end. A transition to more expensive but less polluting sources must now be managed.


John P. Holdren

Understanding this transition requires a look at the two-sided connection between energy and human well-being. Energy contributes positively to well-being by providing such consumer services as heating and lighting as well as serving as a necessary input to economic production. But the costs of energy -including not only the money and other resources devoted to obtaining and exploiting it but also environmental and sociopolitical impacts -detract from well-being.


For most of human history, the dominant concerns about energy have centered on the benefit side of the energy -well-being equation. Inadequacy of energy resources or (more often) of the technologies and organizations for harvesting, converting, and distributing those resources has meant insufficient energy benefits and hence inconvenience, deprivation and constraint s on growth. The 1970’s, then, represented a turning point. After decades of constancy or decline in monetary costs -and of relegation of environmental and sociopolitical costs to secondary status -energy was seen to be getting costlier in all respects. It began to be plausible that excessive energy costs could pose threats on a par with those of insufficient supply. It also became possible to think that expanding some forms of energy supply could create costs exceeding the benefits.



The crucial question at the beginning of the 1990’s is whether the trend that began in the 1970’s will prove to be temporary or permanent. Is the era of cheap energy really over, or will a combination of new resources, new technology and changing geopolitics bring it back? One key determinant of the answer is the staggering scale of energy demand brought forth by 100 years of unprecedented population growth, coupled with an equally remarkable growth in per capita demand of industrial energy forms. It entailed the use of dirty coal as well as clean; undersea oil as well as terrestrial; deep gas as well as shallow; mediocre hydroelectric sites as well as good ones; and deforestation as well as sustainable fuelwood harvesting.


Except for the huge pool of oil underlying the Middle East, the cheapest oil and gas are already gone. Even if a few more giant oil fields are discovered, they will make little difference against consumption on today’s scal e. Oil and gas will have to come increasingly, for most countries, from deeper in the earth and from imports whose reliability and affordability cannot be guaranteed.


There are a variety of other energy resources that are more abundant than oil and gas. Coal, solar energy, and fission and fusion fuels are the most important ones. But they all require elaborate and expensive transformation into electricity or liquid fuels in order to meet society’s needs. None has very good prospects for delivering large quantities of electricity at costs comparable to those of the cheap coal-fired and hydropower plants of the 1960’s. It app ears, then, that expensive energy is a permanent condition, even without allowing for its environmental costs.


过技术复杂、成本昂贵的转化过程。同20世纪60 年代成本低廉的燃煤火电站和水力发电站相比,仅从成本考虑,以上各种资源用于大规模发电的可能性极小。因此,即使不考虑能源开采的环境成本,能源价格居高不下已成无可改变的定局。The capacity of the environment to absorb the effluents and other impacts of energy technologies is itself a finite resource. The finitude is manifested in two basic types of environmental costs. External costs are those imposed by environmental disruptions on society but not reflected in the monetary accounts of the buyers and sellers of the energy. “Internalized costs” are increases in monetary costs imposed by measures, such as pollution-control devices, aimed at reducing the external costs.

6.环境吸纳由于能源利用而产生的废弃物和其他影响的能力本身也是有限度的,表现在两方面的环境成本上。所谓“外延成本”即由于环境遭到破坏对社会造成的影响,但尚未反映到能源买卖双方的交易价格上;所谓“内涵成本”即为降低外延成本而采取的各种措施(如污染防治措施)所引起的货币成本的增长。 Both types of environmental costs have been rising for several reasons. First, the declining quality of fuel deposits and energy-conversion sites to which society must now turn means more material must be moved or processed, bigger facilities must be constructed and longer distances must be traversed. Second, the growing magnitude

of effluents f rom energy systems has led to saturation of the environment’s capacity to absorb such effluents without disruption. Third, the monetary costs of controlling pollution tend to increase with the percentage of pollutants removed.


Despite these expenditures, the remaining uninternalized environmental costs have been substantial and in many cases are growing. Those of greatest concern are the risk of death or disease as a result of emissions or accidents at energy facilities and the impact of energy supplied on the global ecosystem and on international relations.


The impacts of energy technologies on public health and safety are difficult to pin down with much confidence. In the case of air pollution from fossil fuels, in which the dominant threat to public health is thought to be particulates formed from sulfur dioxide emissions, a consensus on the number of deaths caused by exposure has proved impossible. Widely differing estimates result from different assumptions about fuel compositions, air pollution control technology, power-plant sitting in relation to population distribution, meteorological conditions affecting sulfate formation, and, above all, the relation between sulfate concentrations and disease.



Large uncertainties also apply to the health and safety impacts of nuclear fission. In this case, differing estimates result in part from differences among sites and reactor types, in part from uncertainties about emissions from fuel-cycle steps that are not yet fully operational (especially fuel reprocessing and management of uranium-mill tailings) and in part from different assumptions about the effects of exposure to

low-dose radiation. The biggest uncertainties, however, relate to the probabilities and consequences of large accidents at reactors, at reprocessing plants and in the transport of wastes.


Altogether, the ranges of estimated hazards to public health from both coal-fired and nuclear-power plants are so wide as to extend from negligible to substantial in comparison with other risks to the population. There is little basis, in these ranges, for preferring one of these energy sources over the other. For both, the very size of the uncertainty is itself a significant liability.


Often neglected, but no less important, is the public health menace from traditional fuels widely used for cooking and water heating in the developing world. Perhaps 80 percent of global exposure to particulate air pollution occurs indoors in developing countries, where the smoke from primitive stoves is heavily laden with dangerous hydrocarbons. A disproportionate share of this burden is borne, moreover, by women (who do the cooking) and small children (who indoors with their mothers).


The ecological threats posed by energy supply are even harder to quantify than the threats to human health and safety from effluents and accidents. Nevertheless, enough is known to suggest they portend even larger damage to human well-being. This damage potential arises from the combination of two circumstances.


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