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大学英语综合教程课文翻译

大学英语综合教程课文翻译

One Writer's Beginnings

1 I learned from the age of two or three that any room in our house, at any time of day, was there to read in, or to be read to. My mother read to me. She'd read to me in the big bedroom in the mornings, when we were in her rocker together, which ticked in rhythm as we rocked, as though we had a cricket accompanying the story. She'd read to me in the dining room on winter afternoons in front of the coal fire, with our cuckoo clock ending the story with "Cuckoo", and at night when I'd got in my own bed. I must have given her no peace. Sometimes she read to me in the kitchen while she sat churning, and the churning sobbed along with any story. It was my ambition to have her read to me while I churned; once she granted my wish, but she read off my story before I brought her butter. She was an expressive reader. When she was reading "Puss in Boots," for instance, it was impossible not to know that she distrusted all cats.

作家起步时

我从两三岁起就知道,家中随便在哪个房间里,白天无论在什么时间,都可以念书或听人念书。母亲念书给我听。上午她都在那间大卧室里给我念,两人一起坐在她那把摇椅里,我们摇晃时,椅子发出有节奏的滴答声,好像有只唧唧鸣叫的蟋蟀在伴着读故事。冬日午后,她常在餐厅里烧着煤炭的炉火前给我念,布谷鸟自鸣钟发出“咕咕”声时,故事便结束了;晚上我在自己床上睡下后她也给我念。想必我是不让她有一刻清静。有时她在厨房里一边坐着搅制黄油一边给我念,故事情节就随着搅制黄油发出的抽抽搭搭的声响不断展开。我的奢望是她念我来搅拌;有一次她满足了我的愿望,可是我要听的故事她念完了,她要的黄油我却还没弄好。她念起故事来富有表情。比如,她念《穿靴子的猫》时,你就没法不相信她对猫一概怀疑。

2 It had been startling and disappointing to me to find out that story books had been written by people, that books were not natural wonders, coming up of themselves like grass. Yet regardless of where they came from, I cannot remember a time when I was not in love with them —with the books themselves, cover and binding and the paper they were printed on, with their smell and their weight and with their possession in my arms, captured and carried off to myself. Still illiterate, I was ready for them, committed to all the reading I could give them.

当我得知故事书原来是人写出来的,书本原来不是什么大自然的奇迹,不像草那样自生自长时,真是又震惊又失望。不过,姑且不论书本从何而来,我不记得自己有什么时候不爱书——书本本身、封面、装订、印着文字的书页,还有油墨味、那种沉甸甸的感觉,以及把书抱在怀里时那种将我征服、令我陶醉的感觉。还没识字,我就想读书了,一心想读所

有的书。

3 Neither of my parents had come from homes that could afford to buy many books, but though it must have been something of a strain on his salary, as the youngest officer in a young insurance company, my father was all the while carefully selecting and ordering away for what he and Mother thought we children should grow up with. They bought first for the future .

我的父母都不是来自那种买得起许多书的家庭。然而,虽然买书准得花去他不少薪金,作为一家成立不久的保险公司最年轻的职员,父亲一直在精心挑选、不断订购他和母亲认为儿童成长应读的书。他们购书首先是为了我们的前程。

4 Besides the bookcase in the living room, which was always called "the library", there were the encyclopedia tables and dictionary stand under windows in our dining room. Here to help us grow up arguing around the dining room table were the Unabridged Webster, the Columbia Encyclopedia, Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia, the Lincoln Library of Information, and later the Book of Knowledge. In "the library", inside the bookcase were books I could soon begin on —and I did, reading them all alike and as they came, straight down their rows, top shelf to bottom. My mother read secondarily for information; she sank as a hedonist into novels. She read Dickens in the spirit in which she would have eloped with him. The novels of her girlhood that had stayed on in her imagination, besides those of Dickens and Scott and Robert Louis Stevenson, were Jane Eyre, Trilby, The Woman in White, Green Mansions, King Solomon's Mines.

除了客厅里有一向被称作“图书室”的书橱,餐厅的窗子下还有几张摆放百科全书的桌子和一个字典架。这里有伴随我们在餐桌旁争论着长大的《韦氏大词典》、《哥伦比亚百科全书》、《康普顿插图百科全书》、《林肯资料文库》,以及后来的《知识库》。“图书馆”书橱里的书没过多久我就能读了——我的确读了,全都读了,按着顺序,一排接着一排读,从最上面的书架一直读到最下面的书架。母亲读书最重要的不在获取信息。她是为了享受快乐而埋头读小说。她读狄更斯时的神情简直就像要跟他私奔似的。她少女时代读的小说印在了她心头的,除了狄更斯、司各特和罗伯特?路易斯?斯蒂文森等人的作品之外,还有《简?爱》、《切尔比》、《白衣女士》、《绿厦》和《所罗门王的矿藏》。

5 To both my parents I owe my early acquaintance with a beloved Mark Twain. There was a full set of Mark Twain and a short set of Ring Lardner in our bookcase, and those were the volumes that in time united us all, parents and children.

多亏了我的父母,我很早就接触了受人喜爱的马克?吐温。书橱里有一整套马克?吐温文集和一套不全的林?拉德纳作品集,这些书最终将父母

和孩子联结在一起。

6 Reading everything that stood before me was how I came upon a worn old book that had belonged to my father as a child. It was called Sanford and Merton. Is there anyone left who recognizes it, I wonder? It is the famous moral tale written by

Thomas Day in the 1780s, but of him no mention is made on the title page of this book; here it is Sanford and Merton in Words of One Syllable by Mary Godolphin. Here are the rich boy and the poor boy and Mr. Barlow, their teacher and interlocutor, in long discourses alternating with dramatic scenes —anger and rescue allotted to the rich and the poor respectively. It ends with not one but two morals, both engraved on rings: "Do what you ought, come what may," and "If we would be great, we must first learn to be good."

我一本接一本阅读摆在我面前的书,读着读着便发现一本又破又旧的书,是我父亲小时候的。书名是《桑福徳与默顿》。我不相信如今还有谁会记得这本书。那是托玛斯?戴在18世纪80年代撰写的一本著名的进行道德教育的故事书,可该书的扉页上并没有提及他;上面写的是《桑福徳与默顿简易本》,玛丽?戈多尔芬著。书中讲的是一个富孩子和一个穷孩子与他们老师巴洛先生之间的冗长的谈话,其间穿插着戏剧性场面——分别写了富孩子和穷孩子如何发火、如何获救。书末讲的道德寓意不是一条,而是两条,都印在环形图案里:“不管发生什么,该做的就去做”,还有“想做伟人,必须先学会做个好人”。

7 This book was lacking its front cover, the back held on by strips of pasted paper, now turned golden, in several layers, and the pages stained, flecked, and tattered around the edges; its garish illustrations had come unattached but were preserved, laid in. I had the feeling even in my heedless childhood that this was the only book my father as a little boy had had of his own. He had held onto it, and might have gone to sleep on its coverless face: he had lost his mother when he was seven. My father had never made any mention to his own children of the book, but he had brought it along with him from Ohio to our house and shelved it in our bookcase.

这本书没了封面,封底用几条纸片粘牢,有好几层,如今都泛黄了,书页上污迹斑斑,边角处都破碎了;书中花哨的插图脱了页,但都保存良好,夹在书里。即使在少不更事的童年,我就觉得那是我父亲小时候拥有的惟一一本书。他一直珍藏着这本书,或许还枕着这本没了封面的书睡觉:他7岁时就没了母亲。我父亲从来没跟自己的孩子提起过这本书,但他从俄亥俄一路把它带到我们的家,把它放进我们的书橱。

8 My mother had brought from West Virginia that set of Dickens: those books looked sad, too —they had been through fire and water before I was born, she told me

, and there they were, lined up —as I later realized, waiting for me.

母亲则从西弗吉尼亚带来了那套狄更斯:那套书看上去也惨不忍睹——她告诉我,我还没出生,这些书就历经水火之灾,可现在它们还是整齐地排列在那儿——后来我意识到,是等着我去读。

9 I was presented, from as early as I can remember, with books of my own, which appeared on my birthday and Christmas morning. Indeed, my parents could not give me books enough. They must have sacrificed to give me on my sixth or seventh birthday —it was after I became a reader for myself-the ten-volume set of Our Wonder World. These were beautifully made, heavy books I would lie down with on

the floor in front of the dining room hearth, and more often than the rest volume 5, Every Child's Story Book, was under my eyes. There were the fairy tales —Grimm, Andersen, the English, the French, "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves"; and there was Aesop and Reynard the Fox; there were the myths and legends, Robin Hood, King Arthur, and St. George and the Dragon, even the history of Joan of Arc; a whack of Pilgrim's Progress and a long piece of Gulliver. They all carried their classic illustrations. I located myself in these pages and could go straight to the stories and pictures I loved; very often "The Yellow Dwarf" was first choice, with Walter Crane's Yellow Dwarf in full color making his terrifying appearance flanked by turkeys. Now that volume is as worn and backless and hanging apart as my father's poor Sanford and Merton. One measure of my love for Our Wonder World was that for a long time I wondered if I would go through fire and water for it as my mother had done for Charles Dickens; and the only comfort was to think I could ask my mother to do it for me.

从记事起我就收到给自己的书了,那是在生日时,还有圣诞节早晨。我父母真的是送给我再多的书都嫌不够。在我6岁或7岁生日时——那是在我自己能读书之后——他们送我一套10卷本的《我们的神奇世界》,为此,准是作了不少牺牲。那套书真漂亮,厚厚的,我总是带着它躺在餐厅壁炉前的地板上,读得最多的是第5卷:《儿童故事》。那都是些童话故事——格林的、安徒生的、英国童话、法国童话,“阿里巴巴和四十大盗”;还有伊索寓言和列那狐的故事;还有神话和传奇故事,如罗宾汉、亚瑟王、圣乔治和龙,甚至还有历史故事圣女贞德;还有一部分《天路历程》,以及一长段《格列佛游记》。每篇故事都有精彩的插图。我早已让自己走进这些故事中去了,一翻就能翻到自己喜爱的故事和插图;《黄肤色小矮人》常常是我的首选,沃尔特?克莱恩绘的彩色插图中黄肤色小矮人看着令人害怕,他左右还有火鸡侍立。如今这册书已经跟父亲那本损坏的《桑福徳与默顿》一样

,又破又旧,最后几页掉了,书页散了。有很长一段时间,我一直想自己能不能像母亲为查尔斯?狄更斯做的那样,为《我们的神奇世界》这套书赴汤蹈火,从这一点也可想见我对这套书是多么珍爱;惟一令人安慰的是我相信我可让母亲为我这么做。

10 I believe I'm the only child I know of who grew up with this treasure in the house. I used to ask others, "Did you have Our Wonder World?" I'd have to tell them The Book of Knowledge could not hold a candle to it.

在所有认识的孩子们当中,我想自己是惟一有家藏宝库伴随着长大的孩子。过去我常常问别人:“你有《我们的神奇世界》吗?”我常常得跟人解释,《知识库》根本没法跟这套书比。

11 I live in gratitude to my parents for initiating me —as early as I begged for it, without keeping me waiting —into knowledge of the word, into reading and spelling, by way of the alphabet. They taught it to me at home in time for me to begin to read before starting to school.

我感激父母通过认识字母对我——早在我要求之时,而没有让我等待——进行

文字启蒙,教我阅读和拼写。他们在家里教我,我得以在上学前就开始了阅读。

12 Ever since I was first read to, then started reading to myself, there has never been

a line read that I didn't hear. As my eyes followed the sentence, a voice was saying it silently to me. It isn't my mother's voice, or the voice of any person I can identify, certainly not my own. It is human, but inward, and it is inwardly that I listen to it. It is to me the voice of the story or the poem itself. The cadence, whatever it is that asks you to believe, the feeling that resides in the printed word, reaches me through the reader-voice: I have supposed, but never found out, that this is the case with all readers —to read as listeners —and with all writers, to write as listeners. It may be part of the desire to write. The sound of what falls on the page begins the process of testing it for truth , for me. Whether I am right to trust so far I don't know. By now I don't know whether I could do either one, reading or writing, without the other.

从最初听故事,到后来自己开始读书,从来没有一行读过的字我不闻其声。当我的目光扫过一个句子时,就会有个声音默念给我听。那不是母亲的声音,也不是我能辨认的某个人的声音,当然也不是我本人的声音。那是人的声音,但是内在的,我倾听的正是内心深处的声音。对我而言,那就是故事本身的声音,就是诗本身的声音。那抑扬顿挫的声音,不论它要你相信的是什么,那印刷文字中蕴含的情感,通过诵读者的声音传递给我:我一直猜想,却始终没能证实,所有的读者都如此——边读边听,所有的作者都如此——边写边听。那或许

是写作欲望的一部分。对我而言,落在纸页上的声音可帮助测试写下来的是否是实事真情。我不知道我相信到这个程度是否对头。如今我也不知道自己能不能做到只读不写,或只写不读。

13 My own words, when I am at work on a story, I hear too as they go, in the same voice that I hear when I read in books. When I write and the sound of it comes back to my ears, then I act to make my changes. I have always trusted this voice.

在写小说时,我也能听见文字落纸的声音,与我读书时听到的声音一样。我写着,那声音传入耳内,于是我闻声而动,加以修改。我一直信赖这一声音。

Let's Go Veggie!

1 If there was a single act that would improve your health, cut your risk of food-borne illnesses, and help preserve the environment and the welfare of millions of animals, would you do it?

咱们吃素吧!

如果有一件事,既能增进健康、减少患上食物引起的疾病的危险,又有助于保护环境、保护千万动物安全生存,你做不做?

2 The act I'm referring to is the choice you make every time you sit down to a meal.

我说的这件事就是每次坐下来就餐时挑选菜肴。

3 More than a million Canadians have already acted: They have chosen to not eat meat. And the pace of change has been dramatic.

一百多万加拿大人已经行动起来:他们决定不吃肉。变化速度之快令人惊叹。

4 Vegetarian food sales are showing unparalleled growth. Especially popular are meat-free burgers and hot dogs, and the plant-based cuisines of India, China, Mexico, Italy and Japan.

素食品的销售额大大增加,前所未有。尤受欢迎的是无肉汉堡包和热狗,以及以蔬为主的印度、中国、墨西哥、意大利和日本的菜肴。

5 Fuelling the shift toward vegetarianism have been the health recommendations of medical research. Study after study has uncovered the same basic truth: Plant foods lower your risk of chronic disease; animal foods increase it.

推动人们转向素食的是医学研究提出的关于如何增进健康的建议。一项又一项的研究都揭示了同样的基本事实:果蔬降低患慢性病的危险;肉类食品则增加这种危险。

6 The American Dietetic Association says: "Scientific data suggest positive relationships between a vegetarian diet and reduced risk for several chronic degenerative diseases."

美国饮食学协会指出,“科学资料表明,素食与降低多种慢性变性疾病的患病危险肯定有关系。”

7 This past fall, after reviewing 4,500 studies on diet and cancer, the World Cancer Research Fund flatly stated: "We've been running the human biological engine on the wrong fuel."

去年秋天,在检验了4500个饮食与癌症的研究报告之后,世界癌症研究基金会直截了当地指出:“我们一向利用不合适的养料

来维持人类生理引擎的运转。”

8 This "wrong fuel" has helped boost the cost of degenerative disease in Canada to an estimated $400 billion a year, according to Bruce Holub, a professor of nutritional science at the University of Guelph.

据威尔夫大学营养科学教授布鲁斯?霍拉勃称,这一“不合适的养料”致使加拿大每年用于治疗变性疾病的费用高达4000亿(加)元。

9 Animal foods have serious nutritional drawbacks: They are devoid of fiber, contain far too much saturated fat and cholesterol, and may even carry traces of hormones, steroids and antibiotics. It makes little difference whether you eat beef, pork, chicken or fish.

肉类食品存在严重的营养缺陷:它们不含纤维,含有过多的饱和脂肪和胆固醇,甚至可能含有微量的激素、类固醇和抗菌素。牛肉、猪肉、鸡肉或鱼肉都一样。

10 Animal foods are also gaining notoriety as breeding grounds for E. coli, campylobacter and other bacteria that cause illness. According to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, six out of ten chickens are infected with salmonella. It's like playing Russian roulette with your health.

肉类食品也是越来越广为人知的大肠杆菌、弯曲菌以及其他致病细菌的孳生地。

据加拿大食品检验机构称,十分之六的鸡染有沙门氏菌。吃肉无异于玩俄式轮盘赌,拿你的健康做赌资。

11 So why aren't governments doing anything about this? Unfortunately, they have bowed to pressure from powerful lobby groups such as the Beef Information Center, the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency and the Dairy Farmers of Canada. According to documents retrieved through the Freedom of Information Act, these groups forced changes to Canada's latest food guide before it was released in 1993.

既然如此,政府为什么不采取任何措施?很遗憾,政府屈服于强有力的院外活动集团的压力,如牛肉信息中心、加拿大禽蛋营销公司、加拿大乳牛场场主协会等。根据信息自由法案获得的有关文件记载,这些集团迫使加拿大最新食品指南在1993年公布前作出修改。

12 This should come as no surprise: Even a minor reduction in recommended intakes of animal protein could cost these industries billions of dollars a year.

这并不奇怪。即使建议动物蛋白质的摄入量减少一丁点儿都会给这些企业带来每年数十亿元的损失。

13 While health and food safety are compelling reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle, there are also larger issues to consider. Animal-based agriculture is one of the most environmentally destructive industries on the face of the Earth.

健康和食品安全是选择素食生活方式令人信服的理由,但此外还有更为重大的因素要考虑。以饲养动物为基础的农业是世界上对环境破坏最严重的产业之一。14 Think for a moment abo

ut the vast resources required to raise, feed, shelter, transport, process and package the 500 million Canadian farm animals slaughtered each year. Water and energy are used at every step of the way. Alberta Agriculture calculates that it takes 10 to 20 times more energy to produce meat than to produce grain.

想一想培育、饲养、建牲畜栏、运输、加工和包装加拿大每年宰杀的5亿头牲畜所需的巨大资源。其中的每一个环节都耗费水和能源。阿尔伯达农业署估计,生产肉耗费的能源比生产谷物多10-20倍。

15 Less than a quarter of our agricultural land is used to feed people directly. The rest is devoted to grazing and growing food for animals. Ecosystems of forest, wetland and grassland have been decimated to fuel the demand for land. Using so much land heightens topsoil loss, the use of harsh fertilizers and pesticides, and the need for irrigation water from dammed rivers. If people can shift away from meat, much of this land could be converted back to wilderness.

用于直接为人们提供食物的土地还不到农业用地的四分之一。其余的都用来放牧和种饲料。森林、湿地和草原的生态系统遭受相当严重的破坏,以满足对土地的需求。土地的大量利用加剧了表土的流失,增加了会带来负面作用的化肥和杀虫剂的施用,增加了从筑有水坝的河流中引水灌溉的需求。如果人们能摒弃肉食,许多土地就能回复到未开垦状态。

16 The problem is that animals are inefficient at converting plants to edible flesh. It takes, for example, 8.4 kilograms of grain to produce one kilogram of pork, the U. S. government estimates.

问题在于,动物在把植物转化为可食用的肉类这方面的效率很低。举例来说,美国政府估测,生产1公斤猪肉需要耗费8.4 公斤的谷物。

17 After putting so many resources into animals, what do we get out? Manure —at

a rate of over 10,000 kilograms per second in Canada alone, according to the government. Environment Canada says cattle excrete 40 kilograms of manure for every kilogram of edible beef. A large egg factory can produce 50 to 100 tonnes of waste per week, the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture estimates.

我们把这么多资源耗费在动物身上,又得到什么回报呢?粪肥——据官方资料,仅加拿大,就以每秒10,000多公斤的速度排出。加拿大环境部称,牛每产1公斤可食牛肉需排出40公斤粪便。安大略省农业部估测,一家大型禽蛋工厂每星期可产出50-100吨禽粪。

18 And where does it go? In the 1992 Ontario Groundwater Survey, 43 per cent of tested wells were contaminated with agricultural run-off containing fecal coliform bacteria and nitrates. Earlier this month, charges were laid against a large Alberta feedlot operator for dumping 30 million litres of cattle manure into the Bow River, "killing everything in its

path," as a news story described it.

这些粪便都到哪儿去了?1992年安大略省地下水调查发现,43%的被测试水井都受到含有粪便大肠杆菌和硝酸盐等农业生产排出的废物的污染。本月初,阿尔伯达一家大型围栏肥育地经营者被指控将3千万升牛粪排入博河,“沿途生灵悉数被毁”,一则新闻这么报道。

19 And then there is methane, a primary contributing gas in global warming and ozone layer depletion. Excluding natural sources, 27 per cent of Canada's and 20 per cent of the world's methane comes from livestock.

此外还有沼气,那是促使全球气候变暖和臭氧层减少的主要气体。不把天然沼气资源包括在内,加拿大27%的沼气、全世界20%的沼气都来自牲畜。

20 John Robbins, author of the Pulitzer prize-nominated book Diet for a New America (Group West), said it best when he stated: "Eating lower on the food chain is perhaps the most potent single act we can take to halt the destruction of our environment and preserve our natural resources."

获普利策提名奖的《新美洲饮食》一书作者约翰?罗宾斯说得好:“食用食物链较低部分的食物或许是我们可用以阻止环境破坏、保护自然资源的最最有效的行动。”

21 Our environment also includes the animals killed for their meat. It has become an accepted fact that today's factory-farmed animals live short, miserable, unnatural lives.

我们的环境也包括为食其肉而被宰杀的动物。当今工厂化农场的牲畜寿命极短,过着悲惨的、不正常的生活,这已是公认的事实。

22 As part of my research at the University of Waterloo, I toured some of the country's largest "processing" plants. The experience has left me with recurring nightmares.

作为我在沃特卢大学研究工作的一部分,我参观过一些全国最大的“加工”厂。这个经历让我日后尽做噩梦。

23 I saw "stubborn" cows being beaten and squealing pigs chased around the killing floor with electric calipers.

我见到“固执”的牛被打、尖叫着的猪在屠宰室被人用电卡钳追逐。

24 I looked on in utter shock as a cow missed the stun gun and was hoisted fully conscious upside down by its hind leg and cut to pieces, thrashing until its last breath.

我万分震惊地目睹一头牛躲过了眩晕枪,结果被缚住后腿倒挂起来,惨遭活剐,一直挣扎到断气。

25 Noticing my shock, the foreman remarked: "Who cares? They're going to die anyway."

工头见我惊骇不已,便说:“管它呢!它们反正得死。”

26 Because it can cost hundreds of dollars per minute to stop the conveyor line, animal welfare comes second to profit. Over 150,000 animals are "processed" every hour of every working day in Canada, according to Agriculture Canada.

由于传送线停转一分钟就要损失好几百

元,家畜的利益就变得不如利润重要。据加拿大农业署称,在加拿大,每个工作日,每小时有150,000多头家畜被“加工”。

27 The picture gets uglier still. En route to slaughter, farm animals may legally spend anywhere from 36 to 72 hours without food, water or rest. They're not even afforded the "luxury" of temperature controlled trucks in extreme summer heat or sub-zero cold.

情况变得甚至更可怕。家畜在宰杀前的运输途中,法律允许在36-72小时内不给进食、进水,不让休息。即使在炎夏或零度以下的严冬,它们连乘温控卡车的“奢侈”也不让享受。

28 Agriculture Canada has estimated that more than 3 million Canadian farm animals die slow and painful deaths en route to slaughter each year.

加拿大农业署估计,加拿大每年有3百多万头家畜在宰杀前的运输途中痛苦地慢慢死去。

29 I've also visited typical Canadian farms. Gone are the days when piglets snorted and roosters strutted their way about the barnyard. Most of today's modernized farms have long, windowless sheds in which animals live like prisoners their entire lives. I have seen chickens crammed four to a cage, nursing pigs separated from their young by iron bars and veal calves confined to crates so narrow they couldn't turn around. Few of these animals ever experience sunlight or fresh air —and most of their natural urges are denied.

本人还参观过一些典型的加拿大农场。猪崽喷着鼻息、公鸡在粮仓的空场上昂首行走的日子已经一去不复返。而今大多数的现代化农场都有一个个狭长的、没有窗户的牲畜棚,牲畜一生关在棚里,如囚犯一般。我见到过四只鸡挤在一个笼里,喂奶的母猪与猪崽被铁条隔开,肉用小牛关在狭窄得转不过身来的板条箱里。这些牲畜几乎都终年不见阳光,呼吸不到新鲜空气——它们天生的欲望大都得不到满足。

30 Although it is difficult to face these harsh realities, it is even more difficult to ignore them. Three times a day, you make a decision that not only affects the quality of your life, but the rest of the living world. We hold in our knives and forks the power to change this world.

面对这种严峻的现实固然困难,置之不理更是难上加难。一日三次,你要做出不仅影响自身生活质量、更是事关整个有生命世界的决定。我们手里的餐刀餐叉拥有改变这个世界的力量。

31 Consider the words of Albert Einstein: "Nothing will benefit human health and increase the chances for survival of life on Earth as the Evolution to a vegetarian diet."

让我们想一想阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦的话吧:“没有什么比转向素食更有益于人类健康,更能增加世间万物的生存机会。”

32 Bon appetite.

祝君胃口好。

The Truth About Lying

1. I've been wanting to write on

a subject that intrigues and challenges me: the subject of lying. I've found it very difficult to do. Everyone I've talked to has a quite intense and personal but often rather intolerant point of view about what we can —and can never never —tell lies about. I've finally reached the conclusion that I can't present any ultimate conclusions, for too many people would promptly disagree. Instead, I'd like to present a series of moral puzzles, all concerned with lying. I'll tell you what I think about them. Do you agree?

关于说谎的真相

朱迪斯?维奥斯特

我一直想写一个令我深感兴趣的话题:关于说谎的问题。我觉得这个题目很难写。所有我交谈过的人都对什么事情可以说谎——什么事情绝对不可以说谎——持有强烈的、常常不容别人分说的个人意见。最后我得出结论,我不能下任何定论,因为这样做就会有太多的人立即反对。我想我还是提出若干都与说谎有关的道义上的难题吧。我将向读者阐明我对这些难题的个人看法。你们觉得对吗?Social Lies

2. Most of the people I've talked with say that they find social lying acceptable

and necessary. They think it's the civilized way for folks to behave. Without these little white lies, they say, our relationships would be short and brutish and nasty. It's arrogant, they say, to insist on being so incorruptible and so brave that you cause other people unnecessary embarrassment or pain by compulsively assailing them with your honesty. I basically agree. What about you?

社交性谎言

和我交谈过的大多数人都说,他们认为旨在促进社会交际的谎言是可以接受的,也是必要的。他们认为这是一种文明的行为。他们说,要不是这类无关紧要的谎言,人与人之间的关系就会变得粗野不快,无法持久。他们说,如果你要做到十二分正直、十二分无畏,不由自主地用你的诚实使他人陷入不必要的窘境或痛苦之中,这只能说你是傲慢自大。对此,我基本赞同。你呢?

3. Will you say to people, when it simply isn't true, "I like your new hairdo," "You're looking much better," "it's so nice to see you," "I had a wonderful time"?

你会不会跟人说:“我喜欢你的新发型,”“你气色好多了,”“见到你真高兴,”“我玩得很尽兴,”而实际上根本不是这么回事儿?

4. Will you praise hideous presents and homely kids?

你会不会对令人憎厌的礼物,或相貌平平的孩子称赞有加?

5. Will you decline invitations with "We're busy that night —so sorry we can't come," when the truth is you'd rather stay home than dine with the So-and-sos?

你婉辞邀请时会不会说“那天晚上我们正好没空——真对不起,我们不能来,”而实际上你是宁肯呆在家里也不想跟某某夫妇一起进餐?

6. And even though, as I do, you

may prefer the polite evasion of "You really cooked up a storm "instead of "The soup" —which tastes like warmed-over coffee —"is wonderful," will you, if you must, proclaim it wonderful?

虽然像我那样,你也想用“太丰盛了”这种委婉的托辞,而不是盛赞“那汤味道好极了”(其实味同重新热过的咖啡),但如果你必须赞美那汤,你会说它鲜美吗?

7. There's one man I know who absolutely refuses to tell social lies. "I can't play that game," he says; "I'm simply not made that way." And his answer to the argument that saying nice things to someone doesn't cost anything is, "Yes, it does —it destroys your credibility." Now, he won't, unsolicited, offer his views on the painting you just bought, but you don't ask his frank opinion unless you want frank, and his silence at those moments when the rest of us liars are muttering, "Isn't it lovely?" is, for the most part, eloquent enough. My friend does not indulge in what he calls "flattery, false praise and mellifluous comments." When others tell fibs he will not go along. He says that social lying

is lying, that little white lies are still lies. And he feels that telling lies is morally wrong. What about you?

我认识一个人,他完全拒绝说这类社交性谎言。“我不会那一套,”他说,“我生来就不会那一套。”讲到对人家说几句好听的话并不失去什么,他的回答是:“不对,当然有损失——那会损害你的诚信度。”因此你不问他,他不会对你刚买来的画发表意见,但除非你想听老实话,否则你也不会去问他的真实想法。当我们这些说谎者轻声称赞着“多美啊”的时候,他的沉默往往是极能说明问题的。我的这位朋友从来不讲他所说的“奉承话、虚假的赞美话和动听话”。别人说些无伤大雅的谎言,他则不。他说社交性谎言还是谎言,无关紧要的小小谎言还是谎言。他认为说谎不合道德。你呢?

Peace-Keeping Lies

8. Many people tell peace-keeping lies: lies designed to avoid irritation or argument, lies designed to shelter the liar from possible blame or pain; lies (or so it is rationalized) designed to keep trouble at bay without hurting anyone.

息事宁人的谎言

不少人为了息事宁人而说谎:那种意在避免生气或争吵的谎言,意在使说谎者免受可能的责备或烦恼的谎言;意在(或据认为理应)不伤害他人而又能帮助避免麻烦的谎言。

9. I tell these lies at times, and yet I always feel they're wrong. I understand why we tell them, but still they feel wrong. And whenever I lie so that someone won't disapprove of me or think less of me or holler at me, I feel I'm a bit of a coward, I feel I'm dodging responsibility, I feel...guilty. What about you?

我有时也说这种谎,不过我总觉得不该说。我知道为什么要说这种谎,但说这种谎终究

不对。每当我为了不让别人讨厌自己、看轻自己、或冲着自己嚷嚷而说谎时,我总觉得自己有点像个懦夫,觉得自己是在逃避责任,觉得……愧疚。你呢?

10. Do you, when you're late for a date because you overslept, say that you're late because you got caught in a traffic jam?

你由于睡过头赴约会迟到了,会不会说是因为碰上堵车才晚到的?

11. Do you, when you forget to call a friend, say that you called several times but the line was busy?

你忘了给朋友打电话,会不会谎称打过好几次,可电话老占线?

12. Do you, when you didn't remember that it was your father's birthday, say that his present must be delayed in the mail?

你忘了父亲的生日,会不会说寄给他的礼物准是给耽搁了?

13. And when you're planning a weekend in New York City and you're not in the mood to visit your mother, who lives there, do you conceal —with a lie, if you must —the fact that you'll be in New York? Or do you have the courage —or is it the cruelty? —to say, "I'll be in New York, but sorry —I

don't plan on seeing you"?

你打算去纽约市度周末,但又不想去看望住在那里的母亲,你会——必要的话用谎言——隐瞒你将到纽约的事实,还是会勇敢地——或者说狠心地——说:“我要来纽约,可是抱歉,我不打算来看望你”?

14. (Dave and his wife Elaine have two quite different points of view on this very subject. He calls her a coward. She says she's being wise. He says she must assert her right to visit New York sometimes and not see her mother. To which she always patiently replies: "Why should we have useless fights? My mother's too old to change. We get along much better when I lie to her.") (戴夫和妻子伊莱恩正是在这个问题上有两种颇不相同的观点。他称她为懦夫。她说自己处理这事是明智的。他说她应该维护自己有的时候去纽约但不去看望母亲的权利。对此她总是耐心地回答说:“我们何必无谓地争吵呢?我母亲年纪大了,不会改了。我对她说个谎,我们相处得就更好。”)

15. Finally, do you keep the peace by telling your husband lies on the subject of money? Do you reduce what you really paid for your shoes? And in general do you find yourself ready, willing and able to lie to him when you make absurd mistakes or lose or break things?

最后一点,你会不会在钱的问题上对丈夫说谎,以求太平?你会不会少报买鞋子的钱?你出了什么荒唐的错误或丢失了物品打碎了器皿时是不是常常想对他撒谎,而且会对他撒谎?

16. "I used to have a romantic idea that part of intimacy was confessing every dumb thing that you did to your husband. But after a couple of years of that," says Laura, "have I changed my mind!"

“过去我往往不切实际地以为亲密

关系的一个组成部分就是把自己做的每件蠢事都如实告诉丈夫。可这么过了几年之后,”劳拉说,“我就改了主意!”

17. And having changed her mind, she finds herself telling peacekeeping lies. And yes,

I tell them too. What about you?

改主意后,她在不知不觉中说谎话求太平了。没错,我也说这种谎。你呢?Protective Lies

18. Protective lies are lies folks tell —often quite serious lies —because they're convinced that the truth would be too damaging. They lie because they feel there are certain human values that supersede the wrong of having lied. They lie, not for personal gain, but because they believe it's for the good of the person they're lying to. They lie to those they love, to those who trust them most of all, on the grounds that breaking this trust is justified.

保护性谎言

保护性谎言就是因为人们认为事实真相危害性太大而说的谎言,这类谎言通常事关重大。他们说谎,因为他们认为,人的某些价值观念压倒了说谎这一错误行为本身。他们说谎不是为个人私利,而是因为他们相信,那是为他们对之说谎的人

好。他们对自己所爱的人撒谎,对最信任自己的人撒谎,就是因为他们认为这样做是有正当理由的。

19. They may lie to their children on money or marital matters.

他们会在金钱或婚姻问题上对子女说谎。

20. They may lie to the dying about the state of their health.

他们会对垂死者隐瞒真实病情。

21. They may lie to their closest friend because the truth about her talents or son or psyche would be —or so they insist —utterly devastating.

他们会对密友说谎,因为关于其才能、其爱子或其精神状态的实话会——不妨说他们坚持这么认为——使其身心受到极大伤害。

22. I sometimes tell such lies, but I'm aware that it's quite presumptuous to claim I know what's best for others to know. That's called playing God . That's called manipulation and control. And we never can be sure, once we start to juggle lies, just where they'll land, exactly where they'll roll.

有时我也说这种谎,可我明白,声称自己懂得什么事他人应该知道,这未免太自以为是了。这无异于充当上帝。这无异于操纵和控制他人。而我们一旦开始玩起谎言戏法,就再也无法知道谎言何时会收场,究竟会滑向何方。

23. And furthermore, we may find ourselves lying in order to back up the lies that are backing up the lie we initially told.

而且,我们会不知不觉地为了圆先前说的谎言而说谎。

24. And furthermore —let's be honest —if conditions were reversed, we certainly wouldn't want anyone lying to us.

而且——我们不妨直说——如果情形倒过来,我们当然不愿意别人对自己说谎。

25. Yet, having said all that, I

still believe that there are times when protective lies must nonetheless be told. What about you?

不过,话虽如此,我还是觉得有时保护性谎言还非说不可。你呢?

Trust-Keeping Lies

26. Another group of lies are trust-keeping lies, lies that involve triangulation, with A (that's you) telling lies to B on behalf of C (whose trust you'd promised to keep). Most people concede that once you've agreed not to betray a friend's confidence, you can't betray it, even if you must lie. But I've talked with people who don't want you telling them anything that they might be called on to lie about.

信守承诺的谎言

另一类谎言是信守承诺的谎言,涉及三方的谎言,即A(你)为了C(你答应为其信守承诺者)而对B说谎。大多数人承认,一旦你答应不背叛朋友的信任,你就不能背叛,哪怕你必须说谎。但我与之交谈过的人中也有人不想听那些他们也许得为之说谎的事。

27. "I don't tell lies for myself," says Fran, "and I don't want to have to tell them for other people." Which means, she agrees, that if

her best friend is having an affair, she absolutely doesn't want to know about it. “我不为自己说谎,”弗兰说,“我也不愿为别人说谎。”她承认,这就意味着如果她最好的朋友有风流韵事的话,她绝对不想知道。

28. "Are you saying," her best friend asks, "that you'd betray me?"

“你是说,”她最好的朋友问,“你会出卖我?”

29. Fran is very pained but very adamant. "I wouldn't want to betray you, so…don't tell me anything about it."

弗兰心里很为难,但态度十分坚决。“我不想出卖你,所以……别跟我说这事。”

30. Fran's best friend is shocked. What about you?

弗兰最好的朋友深感震惊。你呢?

31. Do you believe you can have close friends if you're not prepared to receive their deepest secrets?

你是不是认为,如果你不愿意了解朋友最深的隐密,你仍会有好朋友?

32. Do you believe you must always lie for your friends?

你是不是认为你必须一直为朋友说谎?

33. Do you believe, if your friend tells a secret that turns out to be quite immoral or illegal, that once you've promised to keep it, you must keep it?

你是不是认为,如果朋友透露的一个秘密是违反道德或法律的,而一旦你答应保密,你就得真的保密?

34. And what if your friend were your boss —if you were perhaps one of the President's men —would you betray or lie for him over, say, Watergate?

如果你的朋友正好是你的上司——如果你恰好就是总统班底的人——比如说在水门事件这个问题上,你是背叛他还是为他说谎?

35. As you can see, these issues get terribly sticky.

可以想见这些问题非常棘手。

36. It's my belief that once we've promised to

keep a trust, we must tell lies to keep it. I also believe that we can't tell Watergate lies. And if these two statements strike you as quite contradictory, you're right —they're quite contradictory. But for now they're the best I can do. What about you?

我以为,一旦我们答应信守承诺,我们就是说谎也得信守承诺。同时我也认为,在水门事件这类事情上我们不能说谎。如果你觉得这两点自相矛盾,那你就对了——这两者的确自相矛盾。但目前我只能如此。你呢?

37. There are those who have no talent for lying.

有些人不擅说谎。

38. "Over the years, I tried to lie," a friend of mine explained, "but I always got found out and I always got punished. I guess I gave myself away because I feel guilty about any kind of lying. It looks as if I'm stuck with telling the truth."

“许多年来,我一直试图说谎,”一位朋友解释说,“可我总是露馅,总是为此受

罚。我想人家看出我说谎是因为我一说谎就觉得内疚。看来我只能说真话了。”

39. For those of us, however, who are good at telling lies, for those of us who lie and don't get caught, the question of whether or not to lie can be a hard and serious moral problem. I liked the remark of a friend of mine who said, "I'm willing to lie. But just as a last resort —the truth's always better."

可是,对我们这种擅于说谎的人来说,对我们这种说谎又不露馅的人来说,说谎还是不说谎会成为一个严肃的道德难题。我颇为赞同一位朋友的话,他说,“我愿意说谎。但只把这作为最后一手——真话总比谎话好。”

40. "Because," he explained, "though others may completely accept the lie I'm telling, I don't."

“因为,”他解释说,“哪怕别人对我的谎话完全信以为真,我自己可无法相信。”

41. I tend to feel that way too.

本人也有同感。

42. What about you?

你呢?

Take This Fish and Look at It

1 It was more than fifteen years ago that I entered the laboratory of Professor Agassiz, and told him I had enrolled my name in the Scientific School as a student of natural history . He asked me a few questions about my object in coming, my antecedents generally, the mode in which I afterwards proposed to use the knowledge I might acquire, and, finally, whether I wished to study any special branch. To the latter I replied that while I wished to be well grounded in all departments of zoology, I purposed to devote myself especially to insects.

把这条鱼拿去好好看看

塞缪尔?斯卡德

我是在15余年前进入阿加西兹教授的实验室的,告诉他我已在科学学院注册读博物学。他略略询问了我来此的目的、我大致的经历、以后准备如何运用所学知识,最后问我是否希望修习某一特别学科。对最后一个问题我回答说,我希望

自己在动物学各个领域都具有一定的基础,但特别想研究昆虫。

2 "When do you wish to begin?" he asked.

“你想什么时候开始呢?”他问。

3 "Now," I replied.

“就现在,”我回答说。

4 This seemed to please him, and with an energetic "Very well!" he reached from a shelf a huge jar of specimens in yellow alcohol. "Take this fish," he said, "and look at it; we call it a haemulon; by and by I will ask

what you have seen."

他听了显然挺高兴,劲头十足地说道“很好”,便从架子上取下一个黄色酒精里浸有标本的大罐。“把这条鱼拿去看看,”他说,“我们叫它石鲈。过一会儿我会问你都看到些什么。”

5 With that he left me, but in a moment returned with explicit instructions as to the care of the object entrusted to me.

说着他走了,但一会儿又回来跟我详细说明如何保管交给我的标本。

6 "No man is fit to be a naturalist," said he, "who does not know how to take care of specimens."

“一个人如果连怎样保护标本都不知道,”他说,“他就不配当博物学家。”

7 I was to keep the fish before me in a tin tray, and occasionally moisten the surface with alcohol from the jar, always taking care to replace the stopper tightly. Those were not the days of ground-glass stoppers and elegantly shaped exhibition jars; all the old students will recall the huge neckless glass bottles with their leaky, wax-besmeared corks, half eaten by insects, and begrimed with cellar dust. Entomology was a cleaner science than ichthyology, but the example of the Professor, who had unhesitatingly plunged to the bottom of the jar to produce the fish, was infectious; and though this alcohol had a "very ancient and fishlike smell,"

I really dared not show any aversion within these sacred precincts, and treated the alcohol as though it were pure water. Still I was conscious of a passing feeling of disappointment, for gazing at a fish did not commend itself to an ardent entomologist. My friends at home, too, were annoyed when they discovered that no amount of eau-de-Cologne would drown the perfume which haunted me like a shadow.

我得把放在一个锡盘里的鱼摆在面前,过一段时间用罐里的酒精润湿它的表面,每次都要记住把瓶塞塞紧。那个时候还没有毛玻璃瓶塞和外形精美的展示用瓶,过去的大学生都会记得那种硕大的无颈玻璃瓶,软木瓶塞全是洞孔,涂过蜡,被虫啃去一半,被地下室的灰尘弄得很脏。昆虫学这门科学比鱼类学干净,可教授没半点犹豫就伸手探入罐底捞出了鱼,他的榜样颇具感染力。尽管酒精散发着一种“陈腐的鱼腥味”,我却不敢在这神圣的场所流露出丝毫厌恶,只能把酒精当作纯净水对待。但我心头还是感到一丝失望,因为盯着看一条鱼实非一位满怀热情的昆虫学家之所

爱。回家后我的那些朋友也不怎么高兴,他们发现,用再多的科隆香水也驱不走幽灵般附在我身上的那股异味。

8 In ten minutes I had seen all that could be seen in that fish, and started in search of the Professor —who had, however, left the Museum; and when I returned, after lingering over some of the odd animals stored in the upper apartment, my specimen was dry all over. I dashed the fluid over the fish as if to resuscitate the beast from a fainting fit, and looked with anxiety for a return of the normal sloppy appearance. This little excitement over, nothing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion. Half an hour passed —an hour —another hour; the fish

began to look loathsome. I turned it over and around; looked it in the face —ghastly; from behind, beneath, above, sideways, at three-quarters' view —just as ghastly. I was in despair; at an early hour I concluded that lunch was necessary; so, with infinite relief, the fish was carefully replaced in the jar, and for an hour I was free.

才十分钟,我就把那条鱼能看的全都看了个遍,接着开始找教授,他却已经离开了博物馆。我在楼上存放着奇异动物的房间里转悠了一会儿,等我回去时,我的鱼标本全都干了。我急忙把酒精洒上去,就像是要把它从昏迷中救醒过来似的,急切地等着它回复到平时那湿漉漉的样子。一阵小小的兴奋过后就无事可干了,只好继续凝视着我那一言不发的伙伴。半个小时过去了,一个小时,又是一个小时。看着看着觉得那条鱼讨厌得很。我把鱼翻来翻去,瞧瞧头部——怪可怕的;再从后面看,从下面、上面、侧面看,再从展示面部四分之三的角度看——也是怪可怕的。我都绝望了。时间还早,可我觉得应该去吃午饭了,于是我如释重负地把鱼小心翼翼地放回到罐里,便去逍遥了一个小时。

9 On my return, I learned that Professor Agassiz had been at the Museum, but had gone, and would not return for several hours. My fellow-students were too busy to be disturbed by continued conversation. Slowly I drew forth that hideous fish, and with a feeling of desperation again looked at it. I might not use a magnifying-glass; instruments of all kinds were interdicted. My two hands, my two eyes, and the fish: it seemed a most limited field. I pushed my finger down its throat to feel how sharp the teeth were. I began to count the scales in the different rows, until I was convinced that was nonsense. At last a happy thought struck me —I would draw the fish; and with surprise I began to discover new features in the creature. Just then the Professor returned.

我回来后,得知阿加西兹教授回过博物馆,可又走了,要过几个小时才回来。我的那些同学都在忙着,不能一直跟他们谈话打搅他们。我慢吞吞地取出了那条面

目可憎的鱼,怀着绝望心情接着看。我不能用放大镜,任何器材都不许用。一双手,两只眼,还有这条鱼:这个观察场地也未免太狭小了。我把一根手指伸进它的喉部,试试它的牙齿有多锋利。我开始数一排排鱼鳞,一直数到自己也觉得荒唐。最后我想出了一个绝妙的主意——把鱼画下来。我惊讶地发现这家伙身上还真有不少新特征。就在这时教授回来了。

10 "That is right," said he; "a pencil is one of the best of eyes. I am glad to notice, too, that you keep your specimen wet, and your bottle corked." 对了,”他说,“笔的目光也是最敏锐的。而且,令人高兴的是,我还注意到你的标本没有干,瓶子也是塞住的。”

11 With these encouraging words, he added: "Well, what is it like?"

说了这番鼓励话之后,他接着问:“好了,看得怎么样了?”

12 He listened attentively to my brief rehearsal of the structure of parts whose names were still unknown to me: the fringed gill-arches and movable operculum; the pores of the head, fleshy lips and lidless eyes; the lateral line, the spinous fins and forked tail; the compressed and arched body. When I finished, he waited as if

expecting more, and then, with an air of disappointment:

他专注地听我简要叙述鱼体的结构,许多部位我还不知道叫什么:带边缘的鳃弓、活动鳃盖骨、头部细孔、肉质唇部、无睑眼;侧线、刺状鳍、叉状尾;扁曲身体。我讲完了,他仍等着,似乎还想听下去,接着带着失望的神情说:

13 "You have not looked very carefully; why," he continued more earnestly, "you haven't even seen one of the most conspicuous features of the animal, which is plainly before your eyes as the fish itself; look again, look again!" and he left me to my misery.

“你看得不够仔细。唉,”他满脸认真地接着说道,“你连这条鱼最明显的一项特征都没看出来,跟这条鱼一样,那特征就明摆在你的眼前。再看,再看!”说着他走了,留下我沮丧不已。

14 I was piqued; I was mortified. Still more of that wretched fish! But now I set myself to my task with a will, and discovered one new thing after another, until I saw how just the Professor's criticism had been. The afternoon passed quickly; and when, towards its close, the Professor inquired:

我怒从心生,我深感屈辱。还要看那条该死的鱼!不过,这次我看时憋了一股劲,于是发现了一个又一个新特征,到最后我明白教授的批评的确有道理。一个下午很快过去了。下午将尽时,教授问道:

15 "Do you see it yet?"

“发现了没有?”

16 "No," I replied, "I am certain I do not, but I see how little I saw before."

“还没有,”我回答说,“肯定还没有,可我看出了原先自己的确没观察到什么。”

17 "That is next best," said he, earnestly, "but I won't hear you now; put away your fish and go home; perhaps you will be ready with a better answer in the morning. I will examine you before you look at the fish."

“这是仅次于最好的结果了,”他认真地说,“不过现在我不打算听你讲。把鱼放好,然后就回家吧。说不定到了明天早上你会回答得更好。明天在你看鱼之前我再问你。”

18 This was disconcerting. Not only must I think of my fish all night, studying, without the object before me, what this unknown but most visible feature might be; but also, without reviewing my discoveries, I must give an exact account of them the next day.

I had a bad memory; so I walked home by Charles River in a distracted state, with my two perplexities.

这真是太为难人了。我不仅得整晚想着这条鱼,要在实物不在眼前的情况下仔细琢磨这一未知却又极其显著的特征是什么;而且,第二天要在无法回顾我所作发现的情况下对我所观察到的东西作一精确描述。我记性不好,因此我沿着查尔斯河走回家时心烦意乱,想着自己的两个难题。

19 The cordial greeting from the Professor the next morning was reassuring; here

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