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现代大学英语课文译文VI-5

现代大学英语课文译文VI-5
现代大学英语课文译文VI-5

现代大学英语课文译文VI-5

四、课文译文

“一”对“多”亚瑟·M·斯莱辛格

1.在这个新生国家渴望发展的时代,回眸美国从不发达国家开始的发展历程是很有教益的。

2.当然,每个国家都有各自的发展问题而且必须根据其各自的传统、能力和价值解决它们。美国的经验在很多方面是独特的。这个国家有着得天独厚的优势一主要是人口相对稀少而资源十分丰富。但是很明显,人口和资源之间有利的比例不是促进美国发展的惟一因素。如果真是这样的话,在人口与资源比例上更有优势的印第安人,在海外殖民者到来以前,早就应该把国家发展起来了。同样重要的还有这些殖民者在面临各种经济和社会环境的挑战时的精神。几个基本思想因素对于促进美洲大陆社会和经济迅速发展起到了至关重要的作用。

3.其中一个思想因素是对教育的深信不疑。对人的投入是社会资源分配的最基本方式,这种信念在美国殖民地最早期就存在。它源于对思想原则的信仰,而不是出于对经济利益的追求;它源于对人的尊严的笃信以及由此而产生的信念,即给人们提供机会去发展其最大的潜能是社会的责任。但与此同时,它帮助美国奠定了走向现代化的基本条件。

4.现代化的工业社会必须首先是知识的社会。经济历史学家把美国两个世纪发展期间2/3的经济增长归功于生产率的提高。当然,这种生产率的提高直接来源于国家对教育和研究的投入。J.K.高尔布莱斯曾经恰当地指出:“在智力提高上投入的每一美元或卢比所带来的国家收入,都大于将其投入到铁路、水坝、机器工具,或其他有形生产资料所能带来的国家收入。”这句话准确地叙述了美国的经验。

5.促进美国发展进程的另一个思想因素是对自治和代议制的追求。我们发现民主是使人的才智得到充分施展、人的能量得以充分发挥的最好方式。民主思想一方面确信人的自由的重要性和创新来自个人;另一方面是懂得合作的作用,这种合作包括义务的和自发的两种。

6.但所有因素当中最基本的,或许是对美国发展速度最重要的一个,是美国拒绝关于社会本质和经济规律的教条式的偏见。幸运的是美国不是一个观念性很强的国家。

7.在我看来,意识形态体系是指人们探索去理解、维护和改变世界时所遵循的系统的、固定的信条总和。意识形态体系与经验主义的斗争在人类历史上源远流长。在意识形态体系与经验主义的斗争史上,意识形态体系曾吸引了人类历史上一些聪明绝顶的人物——赛亚·贝林先生称之为“刺猬”即懂得一件大事的人,和“狐狸”即知道很多小事的人。

8.没有人能说美国始终如一地不受意识形态体系诱惑的影响,也就是不受以一种有序的、全面的、永恒的方式来确定国家目标的诱惑的影响。毕竟,美国人的思维方式深受加尔文派神学的影响,这种神学是有史以来人类创造的最崇高、最令人敬畏的分析体系之一,而如此形成的思维方式一定始终容易受到世俗意识形态体系的攻击。那些所谓“剌猬”贯穿于美国整个历史,他们企图赋予美国一个万能的信条,把美国精神转变成一系列必须遵循的主张,用一种或另一种最终规律来解释国家的传统。

9.然而,大多数美国人对抽象的理性主义和僵硬的先验理论持明智的不信任态度。我们的民族不相信一成不变的终极目标,而忠诚于发展中探求。在她处于最佳时期时,美国可以说超越了所有的意识形态体系。她不允许由于信仰教条的原因使现实被歪曲,使人们的实践受到束缚,使选择的范围变得十分狭小。这种对意识形态体系的怀疑是社会创造力的首要源泉。最重要的美国社会思想是经验主义、实践主义和实用主义。结果,美国最显著的特点是创新和尝试。

10.实用主义不再完全排斥抽象概念,就像意识形态体系不再完全排斥经验一样。当抽象概念与经验发生冲突、必须做出取舍时,区别就显现出来了。在这一点上,实用主义者拒

绝抽象概念,而意识形态主义者拒绝经验。共和国的早期历史阐释了这种差异。美国独立战争是在某些普遍价值指导下的实用主义的尝试。殖民者们为独立而战所根据的是英国的公民自由和代议制政府的理想;他们起义反抗英国人是用了英国的理由。美国独立的理想可以在伴随国家产生的权威文献当中找到表述:独立宣言、宪法以及权利法案。

11.保持理想与意识形态体系的差异是非常重要的。理想是指一个国家的长远目标以及它所追求的精神。意识形态体系是不同的,它更系统、更详尽、更全面、更教条。开国者托马斯·杰斐逊的事例证明了这种差异。杰斐逊既是理想的阐述者,又是意识形态体系的阐述者。作为理想的阐述者,他仍然是一个充满活力、富于创新的人——不仅活在美国人心中,我相信也活在所有主张人的尊严和自由的人心中。然而,作为一个意识形态主义者,他只是一个令人好奇的历史人物,他的思想过时而与今天的现实无关。作为一个意识形态主义者,比如说他相信农业是理想社会的惟一基础;小土地所有制是自由的根基;诚实的、品德高尚的耕种者是民主国家惟一可以信赖的公民;以农业为基础的经济是自我调节的,因此要求最小的政府;管得越少的政府越是好政府;另一方面,自由国家的最大敌人是都市化,工业、银行业、无土地的工人阶级和所有其他的我们现在所知道现代化过程中的特点,以及能指导国家发展的强大政府。这就是杰斐逊的意识形态体系,如果美国响应了这种思想,我们今天将是一个衰弱无能的国家。响应了他的理想而不是意识形态体系,美国成为了一个强大的现代化国家。

12.幸运的是,杰斐逊喜欢他的理想胜过他的意识形态体系。如果发生冲突,他选择怎样对百姓有利而不是怎样符合理论条条。说实在的,杰斐逊一生在意识形态体系上所做的努力与他的性格是相矛盾的。他的性格特征基本上是灵活的、从经验出发的。真正的杰斐逊不是意识形态体系的杰斐逊,而是那个曾经指出“一代人不能把他们关于公共政策和人类命运的主张强加给下一代人”的杰斐逊。

13.对意识形态体系的忠诚错在哪呢?问题是这样的,意识形态体系不是现实的描绘,它来自现实的模式,设计的模式把现实中的模式创造者(意识形态主义者)认为至关重要的某些明显特征区分出来。也就是说,意识形态体系是来自现实的抽象概念。抽象观念或模式本身并没有错。事实上,没有它们,我们就不可能进行讨论。意识形态体系的谬误是忘记了意识形态体系是对现实的抽象概念,而把这种抽象概念本身当成了现实。

14.简而言之,意识形态主义者不断发生的错误是他们混淆了自己整齐的模式与广阔的、汹涌的、不可预见的人类实践的现实之间的区别。这种混淆至少有两方面恶果:让意识形态体系的信仰者犯宿命论历史观的错误;误导他们对公共政策的具体选择。

15.让我们思考一下意识形态主义者的历史观。他们主张历史的秘密是可以被了解的,根据清晰的、绝对的、能解释过去和预测未来的社会信条。意识形态体系因此预先假定了一个封闭的世界,它的历史是确定的,它的原则是一成不变的,它的价值和目标是可以从社会信条体系中推理出来的,而这个理论体系的本质掌握在永无谬误的圣人手中。在关于“一”和“多”的古老的哲学争论中,意识形态主义者支持“一”。他们坚信世界作为一个整体是可以被认知的,一个单一的观点是:丰富的、永不停顿的人类生活可以简化为一个单一抽象的解释系统。

16.美国的传统发现了这种关于人类历史的观点是矛盾的、虚假的。美国传统把世界看成“多”,而不是“一”。威廉·詹姆士的作品以及被詹姆士称作“激进经验主义”的对待哲学问题的方法,最好地表达了这种经验主义的本能,即着重事实而不是推理,看重行动而不是教条。詹姆士反对认为单一的解释就能解答历史上所有的问题这样的信念,反对认为所有政治和社会问题都能在那些圣典的结论部分找到答案的主张,反对对历史宿命论的解释,反对封闭的世界。他支持被他称为“未完成的世界”…一一个以成长、多样性、不确定性、神秘、偶然性为特征的世界——一个自由的人们可以找到部分真理,而不是某个凡人独自掌握

了绝对真理的世界;一个社会的进步不是依赖单一的学说,而是依靠自由思想不受约束的交流的世界。

17.因此意识形态体系和实用主义的历史观是完全不同的。就如同他们处理公共政策的方法完全不同一样。意识形态主义者错把模式当现实,总是误导关于公共决策的可能性和结果。20世纪的历史就是意识形态体系使人类多方面误人歧途的记录。

18.让我们看一个当代的例子。例如是选择公有制还是选择私有制,在发展中国家占据了如此多的政治经济讨论,现在已经很清楚了,它不是宗教的原则。它不是一个由绝对论者意见决定的道德问题,也不能被那些认为公有制是邪恶的右派,或那些认为私有制可耻的左派来决定。它不是理论能回答的问题,只能通过经验和试验来解决。我甚至建议在思想界和学术界的讨论中摒弃某些用滥了的词语。这些词语不再有清晰的含义。这些词语只能使头脑发热,而不会给人以智慧的光芒。他们是煽动的言辞,而不是分析的话语。

19.随着混合社会的发明,实用主义战胜了绝对论。由此,世界明白了混合经济提供了把社会控制和个人自由有机结合的手段。但意识形态体系就像毒品’:不管实践怎样揭露它,对它的渴望依然存在。这种渴望无疑会永远存在,只要还有人渴望找到一种无所不包并能解释一切的意识形态体系。真的,只要政治哲学的形成仍受到追根求源这种冲动支配。

20.我们曾经提到过,最古老的问题是“一”与“多”关系的问题。我们可以确定无疑地说,我们这个时代的根本矛盾恰恰是那些想要把世界简化为“一”的人与那些认为世界是“多”的人之间的冲突——那些相信世界会朝着一个方向进化、经过单一预先设定好的路线、奔着单一预设的结局的人与那些相信人类的未来就像过去一样,根据多样化的传统、价值、目标继续朝着多个方向、奔向多种结局的人之间的冲突。简而言之,它是在教条主义和实用主义、理论社会和试验社会之间的选择。

21.意识形态主义者害怕思想的流动,甚至在他们自己思想体系内的不正常的流动。他们确信他们独占真理。因此他们总是觉得屠杀异端者是在拯救世界。他们的追求仍然是根据他们的意识形态体系改造世界。他们的目标是按照确定可靠的理论,建造一个铁板一块的世界——绝对的权力必然导致权力的滥用。

22.自由人的目标与此大相径庭。自由人掌握许多具体的真理,但他们认为没有一个凡人能够掌握绝对真理。他们宗教和理性的传统致使他们怀疑那些声称永无谬误的人。他们认为对于一个人来说,没有比把自己当作神更荒唐的了。他们承认人的智力是有限的,人的心灵是脆弱的,人类在判断力上是各具特色的。他们懂得人类奋斗是存在缺憾的,但仍然奋斗不息。

(马艳红译,陈莺审校)

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