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煤矿安全管理 论文

煤矿安全管理论文

煤矿安全管理是当今煤矿企业管理改革的必由之路,加强安全管理可以有效提高煤矿企业安全生产管理水平,达到高产、优质和安全的效果。认真学习并执行有关的法律法规,以保证做到“安全第一,预防为主,综合治理”的方针。并建设完善安全避险“六大系统”的目标。

煤矿安全;管理;学习;执行;方针 :

1、我国煤矿安全现状分析我国95%的煤矿是地下作业,煤层赋存条件复杂多变,瓦斯煤尘爆炸、煤与瓦斯突出、冲击地压和顶板灾害事故频繁发生。特别是近十多年来,开采深度和强度的加大导致开采条件更趋复杂,重大动力灾害呈现日益加剧的趋势。

2、煤矿安全生产管理中存在的问题及原因分析造成我国煤矿安全状况差的原因,除我国煤矿地质条件复杂、自然灾害严重、装备不良、科技水平低等因素外,在煤矿安全管理方面。

存在以下几个方面的原因:

2.1现行煤矿安全监察体系、监察方式不能从政府层面实施有效监管,大量煤

矿事故被隐瞒,难以确保煤矿安全生产。我国煤炭工业安全监管的基本机构是国家煤矿安全监察局及其下属的各省(自治区、直辖市)的煤矿安全监察局, 各级working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of

normalization, long-term, and truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

监察局的人员编制属中央垂直管理。煤矿安全监管实行国家煤矿安全监察局与所在省(自治区、直辖市) 政府双重领导、以国家煤矿安全监察局为主的管理体制,强化了代表国家的自上而下的煤矿安全监察体系。这种体系构架与发达国家成熟的煤矿安全监察体系基本相似,也为煤矿安全监察工作走上法制化、规范化、专业化轨道奠定了体制保障。在这一体系下,我国煤矿安全生产状况也出现了很大改观。但目前我国煤矿安全事故仍然不断出现,而且呈现乡镇煤矿最高, 国有地方煤矿次之, 国有重点煤矿最低的特点,煤矿安全生产形势依然严峻。现有的监察、监

督方式仍有许多方面的不足:(1)在现行煤矿安全监察体系下,要完成国家对煤矿安全生产的监察任务,目前煤矿安全监察机构人员配置远远不够。(2)目前的监察方式无法实现危险源的动态系统监控(3)现有的垂直安全监察体系导致大量煤矿事故被隐瞒不报

2.2煤矿开采生产技术落后,特别是安全管理技术落后。在煤炭开采技术方

面,虽然国有重点煤矿与世界煤炭开采技术差距不是很大,甚至一些技术走在世界前列,但是我们的综合技术是有差距的。尤其重要的是,在我国数量庞大的乡镇煤矿中,有1/3甚至更多的煤炭是依靠落后工艺方式生产出来的。这不仅造成资源严重浪费,而且加大从业人员劳动强度,造成更多的安全隐患。在煤矿经营管理上,以美国为working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the

county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

代表的发达国家的煤矿管理模式先进、高效,这缘于美国管理层面的基本技术、管理方法是成熟的。激烈的市场竞争、多元化的企业结构、高新技术的广泛应用、法治的传统,使美国煤炭企业形成独特的管理模式、管理风格和企业文化,机3 构精干,权力分散,生产经营以成本管理为核心,安全管理实行严格的逐级负责制,把安全贯彻到一切工作中。而纵观中国煤矿安全生产管理,个体、集体煤矿基本停留在人民公社时期的生产队管理上,国有重点煤矿大部分还在延续上世纪八十年代总承包制,可以说层层承包是大部分煤矿的选择。由于受煤炭经济长期不景气影响,在国内能赶上美国煤矿管理的煤炭企业很少。 2.3煤矿生产过程缺乏对人的因素的重视,加剧了煤矿事故的发生机率。国内外大量的调查统计表明,由人的不安全行为而导致的事故占事故总数的70 %以上。美国工程师海因里希经过大量的研究,认为存在着88?10?2 规律,即在100 起事故中,有88 起纯属人为引起的,有10 起是人和物的不安全状态造成的,只有2 起是人难以预防的,即所谓“天灾”。同样,煤炭行业80 %以上的事故都是由于现场管理不善和职工违章造成的。我国国有煤矿从业人员每天工作时间大都在10—14小时之间,其它煤矿的从业人员工作时间还会更长。长期超时从事高强度的劳作,势必会降低从业人员的风险意识,加大了误操作的概率,增加了事故机率。通过对我国煤矿安全生产现状及存在

问题working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

的分析,我们可以看出开展(1)煤矿安全措施的人性化研究;(2)煤矿安全生产

设备的可用性研究;(3)煤矿生产重大灾害的预防(警)管理支撑体系研究,开发相关安全管理技术与方法,刻不容缓。4 3、实现煤矿安全生产的建议

3.1应用信息技术,对危险源进行远程、实时监测和预警,改变目前对危险源

的单纯的人工监察方式在煤矿开采现场,使用传感技术,对危险源进行实时的动态数据采集,将数据结果通过INTERNET网络传输到国家局、省局和办事处,在国家局、省局和办事处安装运行远程终端软件,可以对各煤炭企业的危险源进行远程实时监控,并实现自动预警。

3.2 应用信息生物识别技术,建立煤矿入井人员安全监测管理信息系统,改变目前的事故报告体制,事故隐瞒不报现象在各种基于生物特征的身份识别技术中,虹膜识别具有精度高、对使用者侵犯性小、适用人群广等特点,而且由于没有传统意义上隐私权的担心,虹膜识别技术更容易获得用户的接受和青睐。目前在国际上虹膜技术已在各行各业以各种形式推广应用,也给使用者带来了看得见和看不见的种种社会效益和经济效益,而且这种趋势正在以较快速度递增。因此,通过建立煤矿入井人员检测生物识别技术系统,建立安全管理信息系统,能较好地解决入井人员上下井唯一的识别问题,并使煤矿事故监测可以做到漏报无隐瞒,有利于加大执法力度,规范执法行为。根据国家煤矿安全监察管理体working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and

truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change,

and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

制层次,通过INTERNET网络连接,在国家局、省局和办事处安装运行远程终

端软件,便可构成如附图所示的国家级煤炭生产人员安全监测多级管理网络系统。

3.3使煤矿安全检查方式从单纯的外部监察,转变为企业内在素5 质、观念和能力的提升,实现煤炭生产的本质安全(1)实行煤炭行业各类从业人员准入制。煤炭行业实现安全生产的关键在于人,实行煤炭行业各类从业人员的准入制,重点对煤炭行业一线从业人员进行基本技能、安全观念、最长工作时间、最低薪酬等进行核准监察,是实现煤炭行业生产本质安全的根本措施。 (2)应用先进技术改造落后生产方式,实现人、机和环境协调。随着煤炭科学技术的不断发展,我国综采设备性能得到相当程度的改善,其可靠性大大提高,然而综采设

备可靠性的提高却没有带来矿井产量、经济效益的同步增长,同种型号设备的生产效率与国外相比相差较大,这主要是影响采矿系统人、机、环境系统可靠性的另外两个重要因素——环境系统的可靠性和人的作业可靠性没有提高,从而影响到整个系统的可靠性。因此,改善工作面环境,提高人的作业可靠性对于提高整个综采系统的可靠性至关重要。另外从设备角度应加强对机器设备的设计管理,显示装置的信号适合人的心理、生理特征,以减少因信息传递混乱而引起的人为失误;控制装置要操作简便、省力;working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation,

the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

显示器、控制器的布局要合理;安全防护装置、人体防护用品要安全可靠;有缺陷的工具要及时修理或更换,实现本质安全生产。 (3) 引入新的健康和安全标识、指引体系,推广先进的PDCA管理方法,提高企业应对紧急事故的能力。通过贯彻持续改进的管理思想,使安全管理工作有章可循、通俗易懂、易于操作、切实执行,将被动管理过程标准化、规范化、程序6 化、人性化,充分调动全员积极性,主动参与安全管理过程,从而提升煤矿安全管理水平。(4) 在煤炭行业引入HSE(健康、安全、环保)管理体系。HSE是石油勘探开发论坛组织最早提出,将实施健康安全与环境管理的组织、职责、做法、程序、过程和资源等要素,通过先进科学系统的运行模式有机融合在一起,建成一个动态管理体系。在煤炭行业引入HSE的思想理论与方法,制定全国统一的《煤炭行业健康安全与环境管理体系》、《煤炭行业健康安全与环境管理规范》、《煤炭行业健康安全与环境管理实施程序编制指南》,在全行业加强HSE的理念和方法培训,逐步在各个煤矿企业推行HSE 标准认证,建立HSE动态管理体系,以人为本,持续改进,不断提升企业健康安全及环境管理能力,提高工人和管理人员应对安全问题和处理紧急事故的能力,促进煤炭产业协调可持续发展。

4、结语:安全生产模式研究是煤炭企业管理的重要组成部分,是实现煤矿安全生产的重要保障,也是一项复杂的系统working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead

department grab get right on the job really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and

truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role

工程。

working group, further rationalize the leadership mechanism, fully serviced with strong work force. A city group leader, deputy head of to effectively play the role of lead department grab get right on the job

really; lead department should conscientiously perform their duties with due diligence, lead to undertake the work. To pay close attention to the implementation of the system, and promoting the creation of normalization, long-term, and truly realize by concentrated assault to long-term management of change, and promote the Ming to create a standardized, scientific, institutionalized track, to ensure the achievement of the city to achieve tangible results. Quickly from a 2, accountability measures to be implemented. Through these years of work

in the city, with the standard and requirements of everyone is familiar with, the key is to cohesion grasping implementation. In July, city, a city to do a month to organize to carry out the assessment, inspection, every six months to carry out a city public satisfaction survey of the county of the special working group, the functional departments, the township streets must attach great importance to carry out the rectification rectification action to ensure that regulation, the standard one. The special working group to effectively play a role, according to create task requirements, establish a sound working mechanism, weekly summary report to hit the city, at least a month to convene a on-site supervision of scheduling; the special working group Long to play a good lead role