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get by be good enough but not verygood 过得去

frustration the state or an instance of being frustrated挫折;令人失望


haul transport ,as with a truck,cart (用马车,卡车)搬运

improvement the act or an instance of improving or bing improved 改进


pursue strive to gainor accomplish努力去获得,追求

wicked evil or bad邪恶的;坏的

at that point an that very moment;right then就在那时

on balance with all thing considered总的来说

illustrate provide with visual features;larify by use of examples举例说明

digest a short account of written materials or data文摘;摘要

boundary sth.that indicates or fixs a limit or extent 边界;分界线

generate bring into existence,produce形成;产生


minor lesser or smaller in amount or improtance较少的;较小的

aside from except for,in addition to 除了

suspect belive to the true,likely or probable;怀疑



scale relative level or degree规模

on a small /large scale小规模地

resist keep from giving in to or enjoying抵制

profit an advantageous gain or return 利润(n&&v)

invest commit in order to gain a financial return投资

whip up make quickly快速做成

miss out on sth 未得到某物,在某事上不成功,失去(得益或享乐的)机会

get through come successfully to the end度过

workforce worker considered as a boy劳动力

dizzy make dizzy or confused使选晕(迷惑)

array an impressively large number一系列,大量

commute 每天乘车往返两地

mushroom grow or expand rapidly迅速增长

economic 经济学的;经济方面的

make sense have an understandable meaning;be sensible 有意义的

get along survive ,manage过得去

just about almost几乎

invole cause to part in;include by necessity


Slender 苗条的;细长的 close to the side/beside

confident 有信心的;确信的feeling or showing trust in oneself or one’s ability5 racial 种族的

slavery 受奴役的状态;奴隶制the state of being a slave or the practice of owning slaves

mission 特殊使命,任务 particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group

forge 建立,伪造create by means of much hard work

civil 公民的of or relating to the citizens of a country

be intent on(sth./doing sth) 热中于,坚决要做be eager and determined to do sth on the side 作为兼职;秘密地as an additional job or source of income/secretly capture 抓捕;捕获 capturing or being captured

conviction坚定的看法或信仰firm opinion or belief

impose 把……强加于place a officially on

as for 至于with regard to

transport 运输

disguise 伪装,假扮make look or sound different from normal / give a false appearance

abolish 废除 end the existence of

compel强迫,强求get or bring about by force / force

pass for 被当作appear like / be accepted or looks upon as

pusu sb around摆布 what to do in an impolite or threatening way

make the best of 充分利用 accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can

at risk有危险 in danger / threatened by the possibility of loss

fame 名声声望

trial 审判

arrest逮捕 seize with the authority of the law

legal合法的 allowed or done according to the law

peer 仔细看凝视 look closely or carefully / esp as if unable to see well

be tired of厌倦的 become bored with

oppose 反对 disagree with sth and try to prevent it from happening representation 代表 sth that represents

threat 恐吓威胁

motivate激起 provide with a motive for doing sth

urgent 紧迫的急迫的 needing immediate attention / action or decision


vulnerable exposed to danger or attack;unprotected易受攻击的;无防御的

hook up to connect or attach to with or as if with a hook 连接到

build in make(sth) as part of the structure使成为建筑物的一部分


barrier (n) thing that prevents progress or movement障碍

wander (vi) move about without a fixed purpose 漫游,闲逛,徘徊

terror (n) 恐怖

without/with not so much as 甚至连……都没……

be bathed in cover or envelop as if with liquid 沉浸于


civilize cause to improve from a primitive stage of human society to a more.

developmed one开化,使文明

reflection a thing bringing discredit or criticism; idea arising from thinking;

reflecting or being reflected有损声誉的事,思考;反映


outsmart (vt) 比……精明;智胜

universal. affecting or done by all people or things in the world or in a particular

group; applicable to all cases. 全体的;

共同的; 普遍的

threaten威胁; 恐吓; 扬言于

trap prevent(sb) from escaping from (somewhere,esp, a dangerous place) 使陷


depart die; go away; esp. on a journey. 死; 离开; 起程

advocate speak in favor of; support. 主张; 提倡

recommend make a favorable judgement of. 推荐

wrap hold (sb/sth) by putting your arms, legs,fingers etc. around them 包


count on rely on. 依靠; 指望;

in one’s favor to the advantage of sb. 对某人有利

atmosphere气氛 ; 大气

belief 信念; 相信

aggressive always ready to quarrel or attack; threatening. 爱挑衅的;好斗的;


confirm provide evidence for the truth of; establish the truth of 证实;确认

agile able to move quickly and easily. 敏捷的;灵活的

squeeze press (sth) firmly. 挤;挤塞

draw the line at sth/doing sth refuse to do or refuse to tolerate sth. 拒


on the line at risk. 冒险

take the plunge take a bold decisive step,esp. after thinking about it for some

time. (尤指经过一番思考后)采取断然行动


disarm vi.裁军;解除武装;放下武器vt. 使缴械;使息怒;解除武装;缓和


construct 修建,建造;构成;创立

loose not firmly fastened in place not restrained 松的,不受束缚,自由的approva believe that sb.or sth. is good or suitable;agree offically 赞同;同意,批准

mess sth.which looks dirty or untidy 脏乱状态

anniversary a data on which sth.special or important happened in a previous years 周年纪念日

impressive having a strong effect on sb...through size importance ect.给人以深刻的印象

Stimulate make interested and excited 使兴奋,刺激

imagination the ability to form pictures or ideas in your mind 想象力

shield protect ...from being harmed or damaged 保护,保卫

despite in spite of 尽管

retain keep or continue to have sth 保持,保有

triumph gain a victory or success after a difficult struggle 取得胜利或成功

resistance refusal to accept new ideas ,chances..抵制反抗

beyond doubt allowing no uncertainty 毫无疑问

in a row happening a number of times,one after another 连续地

not give/care a fig not be at all concerned about or interested in 对。。。毫不在乎

excel at be extremely good at 擅长 a strong liking 偏爱,偏好

strain make(a situation)more difficult ;stretct tightly by pulling使紧张,拉紧,绷紧

foundation a basic ideas,principle,ect,that sth,develops from 基础,基本原理remarkable worthy of attention ,striking非凡的


disarm allay the hostility or suspicious of 消除敌意或疑虑


concentration the ability to give all your attention 集中,专心

credit say that sb,or sth.is responsible for sth,good.把什么归于trifle a small amount of sth.少量。少许

unify bring together ;combine ,使成一体,使结合

Contribution sth that you give or do to help make sth successful 贡献

Consult ask the advice or opinion of 请教,想什么咨询

Complicated difficult to understand or deal with 难懂的,难解的

overcome defeat or succeed in controlling or deal with sth 战胜,克服,是不能自持

if anything if there is anything different ;on the contrary even 要说有什么区别的话,甚至正相反

(never)get anywhere/get nowhere not be successful 一事无成


Not amount to much不会有多大成就not seem important ,valuable,or successful


under way 航行中;工作中in motion or operation,having started and making progress undergo经过经历 go through experience

tradition 传统 of or in accordance with tradition

put away 放好 to a place where it is usually stored

get to sth./doing sth. 开始认真思考,做 begin to give serious attention to or deal with

and the rest 等等and so on

quest 寻求 the act of seeking or pursuing sth

reverse 反转 turn around to the opposite direction exchange the positions of turn over 考虑;思考 think abut consider

sincere 诚挚的 not pretending honest

gratitude 感激 being thankful thankfulness

statement 陈述 that is said formally and officially

appreciate感谢 an expression of gratitude understanding of the qualities or worth of sth

specific 明确的;relating to one thing ang not others

behalf 利益intresst benefit

on sb.'s behalfin the interests of sb as the representative of sb

on behalf of sb. 为了的利益;代表(某人)

instance 实例 a single fact expressing a general idea

diminish 变小;减少 make or become smaller or less

expose 暴露 leave uncovered make accessible to

be exposed to 暴露于;与……接触

be immersed in 沉浸在

assemble 集合;装配bring or call together into a group fit together the parts or pieces of


successive 连续的;

undermine;暗中破坏,逐渐损坏 gradually or insidiously make(sb or sth)less strong or effective

weep 流泪; shed cry because of

go about 表现;忙于;着手 behave keep busy doing sth

in secret 秘密地; secretly

quote 引用;引述 repeat or copy the words of another

accord 给予 cause to conform grant

round up 使集合在一起 cause to gather in one place

part with 放弃 give up possession of

long for 渴望 have an intense desire for sth/to do sth

in part 在某种程度上 to a certain extent

gesture 手势姿态 movement of a part of the body /a hand or the head/action performed to convey one’s feelings or intentions

inevitable不可避免的必然发生的 that cannot be avoided that is sure to happen consistency 前后一致 quality of being consistent

negative 消极的表示否定或拒绝lacking in constructive or helpful

qualities//expressing denial or refusal


reach of没找到

on average 按平均值通常

entry 写进清单日记账本等 item written in a list /a diary/ an account book concrete明确的 existing as sth real or solid

enhance提高增强 increase(the good qualities of sb/sth)

considerate体贴的考虑周到 thoughtful of the rights and feelings of others marked by careful thought


bushy growing thickly;thick and rough密生的;丛生的

joint held or done by two or more persons together共同的;共有的

Whistle 哨子

nonsense foolish talk,ideas,behavior废话

Endure continue in existence,last;suffer(sth.painful or uncomfortable) patiently 持续;忍受,忍耐

sin offence against God,religion or good morals罪孽;罪过

Collapse 晕倒;倒塌

Wade walk with an effort 费力的走,涉或蹬

Sedate 给(某人)使用镇静剂

Conscious 神志清醒的,意识到

Encouragement 鼓励,刺激

cling to 紧紧抓住

in a whisper 低声地

turn loose allow (sth.) to be free of control 放手,放纵

cut short interrupt 中止,打断

pull out remove (sth.)by pulling 抽出;拔出

take no notice of pay no attention (to sb./sth.) 不注意(某人/某事物);不理会scarcely not quite;almost not几乎没有;几乎不

subtract take(a number,quantity)away form减去;扣除

backward with the back or end first倒着

fancy sth.imagined;unfounded opinion or belief 幻想;胡思乱想

cling hold tight;resist separation抓紧;抱紧

acute (of diseases)coming quickly to the critical stage;severe急性的;严重的Regain recover;get(sth.)back again after losing it 恢复;重新获得

Enable 使能够,使可能

Partial of or forming the part;not complete 部分的;不完全的

Toughen 使坚韧,强硬

Sympathy feelings of pity and sorrow for sb.else’s misfortune

look the part have an appearance for a particular job,role,or position看上去很像

to excess to an extreme degree过度

wear away (of time)pass gradually;(cause to) become thin or damaged by constant


大学英语自学教程复习资料 第一部分Text A & 第二部分Text B 第一部分Text A 【课文译文】 怎样成为一名成功的语言学习者 决策是从可供挑选的行动方案中作出选择,目的在于确定并实现组织机构的目标或目的。之所以要决策是因为存在问题,或是目标或目的不对,或某种东西妨碍目标或目的实现。 因此,决策过程对于管理人员非常重要。管理者所做的一切几乎都与决策有关,事实上,有人甚至认为管理过程就是决策过程。虽然决策者不能预测未来,但他们的许多决策要求他们必须考虑未来可能会发生的情况。管理者必须对未来的事情作出最佳的猜测,并使偶然性尽可能少地发生。但因为总是存在着未知情况,所以决策往往伴随着风险。有时失误的决策带来的后果不很严重,但有时就会不堪设想。 选择就是从多种选项中进行取舍,没有选择,就没有决策。决策本身就是一个选择的过程,许多决策有着很广的选择范围。例如,学生为了实现自己获得学位的目标,可能会从多门课程中进行选择,对于管理者来说,每一个决策都受到政策、程序、法律、惯例等方面的制约,这些制约存在于一个组织的各个部门里。 选项就是可供选择的种种可行的行动方案。没有选项,就没有选择,因而也就没有决策。如果看不到任何选项,这意味着还没有对问题进行彻底的研究。例如,管理者有时会用“非此即彼”的方式处理问题,这是他们简化问题的方法。这种简化问题的习惯常常使他们看不到其他的选项。 在管理这个层次上,制定决策包括:识别选项和缩小选项范围,其范围小到微乎其微,大到近乎无限。 决策者必须有某种方法来断定几种选项中的最佳选项,即哪个选项最有利于实现其组织的目标。组织的目标是指该组织努力完成或达到的目标或现状。由于个人(或组织)对于怎样实现其目标的方式都有不同的见解,最佳的选择就在于决策者了。常常是一个组织的下属部门做出的决策对自己有利,而对上一级的部门来说,就不是较佳选择了。这种增加部门的局部利益而减少其他部门的局部利益所作出的权衡,叫做局部优化。例如,市场营销经理为增加广告预算可能会讲得头头是道,但从更大的布局来看,增加优化产品的研究经费也许对组织更有利。


视频互动讲义四 课次: 英语二第4次视频互动教学 时间: 月日周三19:30-21:00 主题: 第七、八单元重点回顾,语法讲解,实战演练 主讲: 高伟老师 同学们,大家好!经过前三次的洗礼,你们对英语二教材中的重点知识点的回顾应该有一种感觉:在学习完精讲课件、背过教材中的单词和词组后,应该通过我的讲义对教材有一个更为深层的认识,似乎考点到处密布,要求我们掌握的东西越来越多。请大家冷静,不要烦躁----想通过英语二并非易事,但也绝非不可能。我们只要有信心,有毅力,我想任何考试都不是不可战胜的。 解惑: turn down:关小,拒绝 turn in:上缴,交出 turn into:变成 turn off/on:关掉/接通,打开 turn out:制造,生产,结果是 turn over:移交,翻过来 turn to:变成,借助于 turn up:出现,发生。 near与nearly:前者更多使用的是介词,表示“在附近,近”,后者更多为副词用法,表示“几乎,差不多”。另外,关注一下nearby。 devise与device:前者是动词,表示“想出,设计出”,后者名词,表示“办法,装置”。 drop与fall:两个都是动词,前者表示“失手落下”,后者表示“跌到,落下”。 decline表示“婉拒”,refuse表示“拒绝”,口气更为强烈。 一、第七单元重点内容的回顾

Text A 1.find----finding(s):注意词性转换。 2.★be concerned with/about(As far as I’m concerned):注意词组的固定用法。 3.★attach importance(oneself)to:注意词组的固定用法。 4.generally speaking:注意固定用法。 5.★in terms of:注意与by means of区别。 6.★carry out:注意词组搭配,同时注意与carry有关的所有词组。 7.★desire----★desirable----desired:注意词性转换并注意虚拟语气的使用。 8. ★take to:注意词组搭配,有关与take搭配的词组。 9.enjoy----enjoyment:注意词性转换。 10.★in a (great)variety of:注意词组固定搭配。 11.★It is...belief that:注意belief(fact, suggestion, doubt…)后面从句的连接词that。 12.put to good use:注意词组搭配。 13. impart… to:注意词组搭配。 14. it can be argued that…:注意句型,翻译常考。 15.relevant to:注意词组搭配。 16.leader----leadership:注意词性的转换。 17. set… as objective:注意词组搭配。 18.the attainment of a balanced development of the person:注意中文翻译的准确性。 Text B 1.★get through:注意有关get词组应记牢。 2.look ahead to:注意词组搭配。 3.★run out(of):注意词组含义及搭配。 4.allocate for(to):注意词组含义。 5.★adjust(to)----adjustment(to):注意词性的转换。


大学英语综合教程1词汇表 ○1○1○1○1○1○1 New Words and Expressions off and on from time to time; sometimes 断断续续地;有时possibility n. 可能(性) take hold become established 生根,确立 bore vt. make (sb.) become tired and lose interest 使(人)厌烦associate vt. join or connect together; bring in the mind 使联系起来;使联想 assignment n. a piece of work that is given to a particular person(分配的)工作,任务,作业 turn out produce 编写;生产,制造 agony▲ n. very great pain or suffering of mind or body (身心的)极度痛苦 assign vt. give as a share or duty 分配,分派 anticipate vt. expect 预期,期望 tedious a. boring and lasting for a long time 乏味的;冗长的reputation n. 名声;名誉 inability n. lack of power, skill or ability 无能,无力 inspire vt. fill (sb.) with confidence, eagerness, etc. 激励,鼓舞formal a. (too) serious and careful in manner and behavior; based on correct or accepted rules 刻板的,拘谨的;正式的,正规的 rigid a. (often disapproving) fixed in behavior, views or methods; strict 一成不变的;严格的 hopelessly ad. very much; without hope 十分,极度;绝望地excessively ad. 过分地 out of date old-fashioned 过时的 prim a. (usu. disapproving) (of a person) too formal or correct in behavior and showing a dislike of anything rude; neat 古板的,拘谨的;循规蹈矩的;整洁的 primly ad. severe a. completely plain; causing very great pain, difficulty, worry, etc. 朴素的;严重的,剧烈的 necktie n. tie 领带 jaw n. 颌,颚 comic▲ a. 滑稽的;喜剧的 n. 连环漫画(册) antique n. 古物,古玩 tackle vt. try to deal with 处理,应付 essay n. 散文,小品文;论说文 distribute vt. divide and give out among people, places, etc. 分发,分配,分送 finally ad. at last 最终,终于 face up to be brave enough to accept or deal with 勇敢地接受或对付scan v. look through quickly 浏览,粗略地看 spaghetti n. 意大利式细面条 title n. a name given to a book, film, etc. 标题,题目 vt. give a name to 给…加标题,加题目于 extraordinary a. very unusual or strange 不同寻常的;奇特的 sequence n. 一连串相关的事物;次序,顺序 image n. a picture formed in the mind 形象;印象;(图)像 adult n. a fully grown person or animal 成年人;成年动物 humor n. 心情;幽默,诙谐 recall vt. bring back to the mind; remember 回想起,回忆起 argument n. 论据,论点;争论 1


大学英语自学教程(上) 01-A. How to be a successful language learner? “Learning a language is easy, even a child can do it!” Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a language is a very difficult task. They need hundreds of hours of study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every adult language learner. Language learning is different from other kinds of learning. Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find it difficult to succeed in language learning. Conversely, some people who are successful language learners find it difficult to succeed in other fields. Language teachers often offer advice to language learners: “Read as much as you can in the new language.”“Practice speaking the language every day. ”“Live with people who speak the language.”“Don’t translate-try to think in the new language.”“Learn as a child would learn; play with the language.” But what does a successful language learner do? Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways. First of all, successful language learners are independent learners. They do not depend on the book or the teacher; they discover their own way to learn the language. Instead of waiting for the teacher to explain, they try to find the patterns and the rules for themselves. They are good guessers who look for clues and form their own conclusions. When they guess wrong, they guess again. They try to learn from their mistakes. Successful language learning is active learning. Therefore, successful learners do not wait for a chance to use the language; they look for such a chance. They find people who speak the language and they ask these people to correct them when they make a mistake. They will try anything to communicate. They are not afraid to repeat what they hear or to say


One way of summarizing the American position is to state that we value originality and independence more than the Chinese do. The contrast between our two cultures can also be seen in terms of the fears we both harbor. Chinese teachers are fearful that if skills are not acquired early, they may never be acquired; there is, on the other hand, no comparable hurry to promote creativity. American educators fear that unless creativity has been acquired early, it may never emerge; on the other hand, skills can be picked up later. However, I do not want to overstate my case. There is enormous creativity to be found in Chinese scientific, technological and artistic innovations past and present. And there is a danger of exaggerating creative breakthroughs in the West. When any innovation is examined closely, its reliance on previous achievements is all too apparent (the "standing on the shoulders of giants" phenomenon). But assuming that the contrast I have developed is valid, and that the fostering of skills and creativity are both worthwhile goals, the important question becomes this: Can we gather, from the Chinese and American extremes, a superior way to approach education, perhaps striking a better balance between the poles of creativity and basic skills?

大学英语自学教程(上册) unit 23 非言语交际

大学英语自学教程(上册) unit 23 非言语交际 23-A. Non-verbal Communication If anyone asked you what were the main means of communication between people, what would you say? That isn’t a catch question. The answer is simple and obvious. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words. Speakers and listeners-oral communication, and writers and readers-written communication. And you’d be quite right. There is, however, another form of communication which we all use most of the time, usually without knowing it. This is sometimes called body language. Its more technical name is non-verbal communication. Non-verbal, because it does not involve the use of words. NVC for short. When someone is saying something with which he agrees, the average European will smile and nod approval. On the other hand, if you disagree with what they are saying, you may frown and shake your head. In this way you signal your reactions, and communicate them to the speaker without saying a word. I referred a moment ago to "the average European”, because body language is very much tied to culture, and in order not to misunderstand, or not to be misunderstood, you must realize this. A smiling Chinese, for instance, may not be approving but somewhat embarrassed. Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions. Body language, or NVC signals, are sometimes categorized into five kinds: 1.body and facial gestures; 2.eye contact; 3.body contact or "proximity"; 4.clothing and physical appearance; and 5.the quality of speech. I expect you understood all those, except perhaps "proximity." This simply means "closeness". In some cultures-and I am sure this is a cultural feature and not an individual one-it is quite normal for people to stand close together, or to more or less thrust their face into yours when they are talking to you. In other cultures, this is disliked; Americans, for instance, talk about invasion of their space. Some signals are probably common to all of us. If a public speaker (like a professor, for example) is all the time fiddling with a pencil, or with his glasses, while he is talking to you, he is telling you quite clearly that he is nervous. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signaling that he is lacking in confidence. If you start wriggling in your chairs, looking secretly at your watches or yawning behind your hands, I shall soon get the message that I’m boring you. And so on. I'm sure you could make a whole list of such signals-and it might be fun if you did. All the signals I have mentioned so far can be controlled. If you are aware that you are doing these things, you can stop. You can even learn to give false signals. Most public speakers are in fact nervous, but a good speaker learns to hide this by giving off signals of confidence. Other kinds of NVC are not so easy to control. Eye contact, for instance. Unless you are confessing intense love, you hardly ever look into someone else’s eyes for very long. If you try it, you’ll find they will soon away, probably in embarrassment.


Unit 1 霾,烟雾haze 大麻marijuana (被视为某个经济实体的)国家economy (大学的)校园campus (美国)州长governor 持不同政见的;持不同政见者dissident 主张变革的人liberal 冲突;激烈的争吵clash (国家的)统治集团,当权派;建立,确立establishment 强烈的情感passion 感情强烈的;激昂的passionate (强烈的)抗议;异议protest 结盟;联盟alliance 发动;发起(军事袭击、公众调查等)launch 激进主义,行动主义resignation 成为…的特征characterize 首要的,最重要的prime 职业,工作employment 胜算,成功可能性;(尤指好事发生)可能性prospect (值得关注的)问题;议题issue 机会opportunity 费解的;无名的,默默无闻的obscure 无上幸福的bliss 性别gender 殖民主义colonialism 词义;定义definition 工业的,产业的industrial 颠覆;使下台overthrow (统治或法律)残酷的,严苛的repressive 造反;反抗rebel 反复得喊,反复的唱chant 毁灭,摧毁destruction 请愿书petition 手镯,臂镯bracelet 哲学philosophy 自信的表现或做某事;断言,宣称assert 怀旧的,念旧的nostalgic (情感的)共鸣,反响resonance 时代,纪元era 巨大的,重大的profound 权利,控制,支配;抓牢,紧握grip

[自学考试] 《大学英语自学教程》(上册)课后习题答案

《大学英语自学教程》(上册)课后习题答案 Unit 1 Text A Exercises for the Text I. 1.d 2.a 3.c 4.d 5.d II. 1.task 2.intelligent 3.research 4.clue 5.conclusion 6.repeat https://www.sodocs.net/doc/5e10526682.html,municate 8.purpose 9.probably 10.outline III. 1.Instead of 2.therefore 3.more...than 4.even 5.First of all 6.because 7.on the other hand 8.finally 9.looking for 10.Conversely IV. 1.Research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways. https://www.sodocs.net/doc/5e10526682.html,nguage learning is active learning.Therefore,successful learners should look for e very chance to use the language. https://www.sodocs.net/doc/5e10526682.html,nguage learning should be active,independent and purposeful. 4.Learning a language is different from learning maths. 5.The teacher often imparts successfull language learning experiences to us. Vocabulary Exercises I. 1.a.success b.successful c.successfully 2.a.indepence b.depend c.dependent 3.a.covered b.uncover c.discovered 4.a.purposeful b .purposefully c.purpose II. 1.inexact 2.technique 3.outlined https://www.sodocs.net/doc/5e10526682.html,municate 5.regularly


BOOK2课文译文 UNIT1 TextA 中国式的学习风格 1987年春,我和妻子埃伦带着我们18个月的儿子本杰明在繁忙的中国东部城市南京住了一个月,同时考察中国幼儿园和小学的艺术教育情况。然而,我和埃伦获得的有关中美教育观念差异的最难忘的体验并非来自课堂,而是来自我们在南京期间寓居的金陵饭店堂。 我们的房门钥匙系在一块标有房间号的大塑料板上。酒店鼓励客人外出时留下钥匙,可以交给服务员,也可以从一个槽口塞入钥匙箱。由于口子狭小,你得留神将钥匙放准位置才塞得进去。 本杰明爱拿着钥匙走来走去,边走边用力摇晃着。他还喜欢试着把钥匙往槽口里塞。由于他还年幼,不太明白得把钥匙放准位置才成,因此总塞不进去。本杰明一点也不在意。他从钥匙声响中得到的乐趣大概跟他偶尔把钥匙成功地塞进槽口而获得的乐趣一样多。 我和埃伦都满不在乎,任由本杰明拿着钥匙在钥匙箱槽口鼓捣。他的探索行为似乎并无任何害处。但我很快就观察到一个有趣的现象。饭店里任何一个中国工作人员若在近旁,都会走过来看着本杰明,见他初试失败,便都会试图帮忙。他们会轻轻握牢本杰明的手,直接将它引向钥匙槽口,进行必要的重新定位,并帮他把钥匙插入槽口。然后那位“老师”会有所期待地对着我和埃伦微笑,似乎等着我们说声谢谢——偶尔他会微微皱眉,似乎觉得我俩没有尽到当父母的责任。 我很快意识到,这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关:考察儿童早期教育(尤其是艺术教育)的方式,揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此,不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。 两种不同的学习方式

我的中国同行,除了少数几个人外,对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是走近槽口的最终目的,既然孩子还很年幼,还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的动作,让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢?他很有可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当然不是所希望的结果。为什么不教他怎么做呢?他会高兴,他还能早些学会做这件事,进而去学做更复杂的事,如开门,或索要钥匙——这两件事到时候同样可以(也应该)示范给他看。 我俩颇为同情地听着这一番道理,解释道,首先,我们并不在意本杰明能不能把钥匙塞进钥匙的槽口。他玩得开心,而且在探索,这两点才是我们真正看重的。但关键在于,在这个过程中,我们试图让本杰明懂得,一个人是能够很好地自行解决问题的。这种自力更生的精神是美国中产阶级最重要的一条育儿观。如果我们向孩子演示该如何做某件事——把钥匙塞进钥匙槽口也好,画只鸡或是弥补某种错误行为也好——那他就不太可能自行想方设法去完成这件事。从更广泛的意义上说,他就不太可能——如美国人那样——将人生视为一系列 的情境,在这些情境中,一个人必须学会独立思考,学会独立解决问题,进而学会发现需要创造性地加以解决的新问题。 把着手教 回想起来,当时我就清楚地意识到,这件事正是体现了问题的关键之所在——而且不仅仅是一种意义上的关键之所在。这件事表明了我们两国在教育和艺术实践上的重要差异。 那些善意的中国旁观者前来帮助本杰明时,他们不是简单地像我可能会做的那样笨拙地或是犹犹豫豫地把他的手往下推。相反,他们极其熟练地、轻轻地把他引向所要到达的确切方向。 我逐渐认识到,这些中国人不是简单地以一种陈旧的方式塑造、引导本杰明的行为:他们是在恪守中国传统,把着手教,教得本杰明自己会愉快地要求再来一次。


大学英语自学教程电子版教材上册大学英语自学教程(上) 01-A. How to be a successful language learner? ―Learning a language is easy, even a child can do it!‖ Most adults who are learning a second language would disagree with this statement. For them, learning a language is a very difficult task. They need hundreds of hours of study and practice, and even this will not guarantee success for every adult language learner. Language learning is different from other kinds of learning. Some people who are very intelligent and successful in their fields find it difficult to succeed in language learning. Conversely, some people who are successful language learners find it difficult to succeed in other fields. Language teachers often offer advice to language learners: “Read as much as you can in the new language.”“ Practice speaking the language every day. ”“Live with people who speak the language.”“Don‘t translate-try to think in the new language.”“ Learn as a child would learn; play with the language.” But what does a successful language learner do? Language learning research shows that successful language learners are similar in many ways.


全新版大学英语综合教程4重点单词表 Unit 1 text A Alliance Campaign Conquest Crucial Decisive Declaration Desperate Efficient Engage Equip Heroic Instruct Invasion Launch Limp Minus Occupation Offensive Raw Reckon Region Render Resistance Siege Stroke(n.) Toll Underestimate Weaken At the cost of Be faced with Be/get bogged down Bide one’s time Bring to a halt Catch sb off guard Drag on Engage/be engaged in (doing) sth.In the case of Press on/ahead Reckon with Stand/get/be in the way Take a gamble Take its/a toll Thanks to Turn the tide (against) Text B Aboard Ambitious Boast Cancel Concern Contest Objective Obstacle Responsible Secure Stiff Withstand Call off Due to Hold out In case On the eve of Pay off Pin down Prior to Unit 2 text A Alert Apart Application Approximately Automate Bunch(v.) Calculate Computerize Correlate Decrease Detect Eliminate Expansion Frequency Harzard Incorporate Lane Lucrative Magnetic Monotonous Mount Orbit Prototype Remote Satellite Signal Steer Vapor Vibrate Be poised to (do) Get/be stuck in In the air Send out Start up Take control of Turn (sth.) into a reality Text B Accommodate Address(v.) Affordable


Globalization is sweeping aside national borders and changing relations between nations. What impact does this have on national identities and loyalties? Are they strengthened or weakened? The author investigates. 全球化正在扫除国界、改变国与国之间的关系。这对国家的认同和对国家的忠诚会带来什么影响呢?它们会得到加强还是削弱?作者对这些问题进行了探讨。 In Search of Davos ManPeter Gumbel 1. William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don't call him an American. For the past 16 of his 40 years he has lived outside the ., first in London and then, from 1996, in Moscow, where he runs his own investment firm. Browder now manages $ billion in assets. In 1998 he gave up his American passport to become a British citizen, since his life is now centered in Europe. "National identity makes no difference for me," he says. "I feel completely international. If you have four good friends and you like what you are doing, it doesn't matter where you are. That's globalization." 寻找达沃斯人 彼得·甘贝尔 威廉·布劳德出生于新泽西州的普林斯顿,在芝加哥长大,就读于加利福尼亚州的斯坦福大学。但别叫他美国人。他今年40岁,过去16年来一直生活在美国以外的地方,先是在伦敦,1996年后在莫斯科经营他自己的投资公司。布劳德如今掌管着价值16亿美元的资产。1998年,他放弃美国护照,成为英国公民,因为他现在的生活中心在欧洲。“国家认同对我来说不重要,”他说,“我觉得自己完全是个国际人。如果你有四个朋友,又喜欢你所做的事情,那么你在哪儿无关紧要。这就是全球化。” 2. Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization, but he views himself very differently. A former president of AT&T, Mandl, 61, was born in Austria and now runs a French technology company, which is doing more and more business in China. He reckons he spends about 90% of his time traveling on business. But despite all that globetrotting, Mandl who has been a . citizen for 45 years still identifies himself as an American. "I see myself as American without any hesitation. The fact that I spend a lot of time in other places doesn't change that," he says. 亚历克斯·曼德尔也是全球化的狂热信徒,但他对自己的看法与布劳德不同。61岁的曼德尔曾任美国电报电话公司总裁。他出生于奥地利,现在经营着一家法国技术公司,该公司在中国的业务与日俱增。他估计自己几乎90%的时间都花在出差上。然而,尽管曼德尔全球到处跑,已经做了45年美国公民的他还是认为自己是个美国人。“我毫不迟疑地把自己当作美国人。我在其他地方度过很多时间,但是这一事实不能改变我是美国人,”他说。 3. Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth. And not incidentally, both are Davos Men, members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, founded in 1971. This week, Browder and Mandl will join more than 2,200 executives, politicians, academics, journalists, writers and a handful of Hollywood stars for five days of networking, parties and endless earnest discussions about everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications of nanotechnology. Yet this year, perhaps more than ever, a hot topic at Davos is Davos itself. Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and