Time to cool it
1 REFRIGERATORS are the epitome of clunky technology： solid， reliable and just
a little bit dull. They have not changed much over the past century， but then they have not needed to. They are based on a robust and effective idea--draw heat from the thing you want to cool by evaporating a liquid next to it， and then dump that heat by pumping the vapour elsewhere and condensing it. This method of pumping heat from one place to another served mankind well when refrigerators' main jobs were preserving food and， as air conditioners， cooling buildings. Today's high-tech world， however， demands high-tech refrigeration. Heat pumps are no longer up to the job. The search is on for something to replace them.
2 One set of candidates are known as paraelectric materials. These act like batteries when they undergo a temperature change： attach electrodes to them and they generate a current. This effect is used in infra-red cameras. An array of tiny pieces of paraelectric material can sense the heat radiated by， for example， a person， and the pattern of the array's electrical outputs can then be used to construct an image. But until recently no one had bothered much with the inverse of this process. That inverse exists， however. Apply an appropriate current to a paraelectric material and it will cool down.
3 Someone who is looking at this inverse effect is Alex Mischenko， of Cambridge University. Using commercially available paraelectric film， he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded. That may be enough to change the phenomenon from a laboratory curiosity to something with commercial applications.
4 As to what those applications might be， Dr Mischenko is still a little hazy. He has， nevertheless， set up a company to pursue them. He foresees putting his discovery to use in more efficient domestic fridges and air conditioners. The real money， though， may be in cooling computers.
5 Gadgets containing microprocessors have been getting hotter for a long time. One consequence of Moore's Law， which describes the doubling of the number of
transistors on a chip every 18 months， is that the amount of heat produced doubles as well. In fact， it more than doubles， because besides increasing in number，the components are getting faster. Heat is released every time a logical operation is performed inside a microprocessor， so the faster the processor is， the more heat it generates. Doubling the frequency quadruples the heat output. And the frequency has doubled a lot. The first Pentium chips sold by Dr Moore's company，Intel， in 1993， ran at 60m cycles a second. The Pentium 4--the last "single-core" desktop processor--clocked up 3.2 billion cycles a second.
6 Disposing of this heat is a big obstruction to further miniaturisation and higher speeds. The innards of a desktop computer commonly hit 80℃. At 85℃， they stop working. Tweaking the processor's heat sinks (copper or aluminium boxes designed to radiate heat away) has reached its limit. So has tweaking the fans that circulate air over those heat sinks. And the idea of shifting from single-core processors to systems that divided processing power between first two， and then four， subunits， in order to spread the thermal load， also seems to have the end of the road in sight.
7 One way out of this may be a second curious physical phenomenon， the thermoelectric effect. Like paraelectric materials， this generates electricity from a heat source and produces cooling from an electrical source. Unlike paraelectrics， a significant body of researchers is already working on it.
8 The trick to a good thermoelectric material is a crystal structure in which electrons can flow freely， but the path of phonons--heat-carrying vibrations that are larger than electrons--is constantly interrupted. In practice， this trick is hard to pull off， and thermoelectric materials are thus less efficient than paraelectric ones (or， at least， than those examined by Dr Mischenko). Nevertheless，Rama Venkatasubramanian， of Nextreme Thermal Solutions in North Carolina， claims to have made thermoelectric refrigerators that can sit on the back of computer chips and cool hotspots by 10℃. Ali Shakouri， of the University of California， Santa Cruz， says his are even smaller--so small that they can go inside the chip.
9 The last word in computer cooling， though， may go to a system even less techy than a heat pump--a miniature version of a car radiator. Last year Apple launched a personal computer that is cooled by liquid that is pumped through little channels in the processor， and thence to a radiator， where it gives up its heat to the atmosphere. To improve on this， IBM's research laboratory in Zurich is experimenting with tiny jets that stir the liquid up and thus make sure all of it eventually touches the outside of the channel--the part where the heat exchange takes place. In the future， therefore， a combination of microchannels and either thermoelectrics or paraelectrics might cool computers. The old， as it were， hand in hand with the new.
Questions 1-5 Complete each of the following statements with the scientist or company name from the box below.
Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
D. Alex Mischenko
E. Ali Shakouri
F. Rama Venkatasubramanian
1. ...and his research group use paraelectric film available from the market to produce cooling.
2. ...sold microprocessors running at 60m cycles a second in 199
3. ...says that he has made refrigerators which can cool the hotspots of computer chips by 10℃.
4. ...claims to have made a refrigerator small enough to be built into a computer chip.
5. ...attempts to produce better cooling in personal computers by stirring up liquid with tiny jets to make sure maximum heat exchange.
Questions 6-9 Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage？
In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
6. Paraelectric materials can generate a current when electrodes are attached to them.
7. Dr. Mischenko has successfully applied his laboratory discovery to manufacturing more efficient referigerators.
8. Doubling the frequency of logical operations inside a microprocessor doubles the heat output.
9. IBM will achieve better computer cooling by combining microchannels with paraelectrics.
Question 10 Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in box 10 on your answer sheet.
10. Which method of disposing heat in computers may have a bright prospect？
A. Tweaking the processors？heat sinks.
B. Tweaking the fans that circulate air over the processor抯 heat sinks.
C. Shifting from single-core processors to systems of subunits.
D. None of the above.
Questions 11-14 Complete the notes below.
Choose one suitable word from the Reading Passage above for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.
Traditional refrigerators use...11...pumps to drop temperature. At present，scientists are searching for other methods to produce refrigeration， especially in computer microprocessors....12...materials have been tried to generate temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded. ...13...effect has also been adopted by many researchers to cool hotspots in computers. A miniature version of a car ...14... may also be a system to realize ideal computer cooling in the future.
Key and Explanations：
See Paragraph 3： ...Alex Mischenko， of Cambridge University. Using commercially available paraelectric film， he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops...
See Paragraph 5： The first Pentium chips sold by Dr Moore's company， Intel，in 1993， ran at 60m cycles a second.
See Paragraph 8： ...Rama Venkatasubramanian， of Nextreme Thermal Solutions in North Carolina， claims to have made thermoelectric refrigerators that can sit on the back of computer chips and cool hotspots by 10℃.
See Paragraph 8： Ali Shakouri， of the University of California， Santa Cruz，says his are even smaller梥o small that they can go inside the chip.
See Paragraph 9： To improve on this， IBM's research laboratory in Zurich is experimenting with tiny jets that stir the liquid up and thus make sure all of it eventually touches the outside of the channel--the part where the heat exchange takes place.
See Paragraph 2： ...paraelectric materials. These act like batteries when they undergo a temperature change： attach electrodes to them and they generate a current.
See Paragraph 3 (That may be enough to change the phenomenon from a laboratory curiosity to something with commercial applications. ) and Paragraph 4 (As to what those applications might be， Dr Mischenko is still a little hazy. He has，nevertheless， set up a company to pursue them. He foresees putting his discovery to use in more efficient domestic fridges？
See Paragraph 5： Heat is released every time a logical operation is performed inside a microprocessor， so the faster the processor is， the more heat it generates. Doubling the frequency quadruples the heat output.
9. NOT GIVEN
See Paragraph 9： In the future， therefore， a combination of microchannels and either thermoelectrics or paraelectrics might cool computers.
See Paragraph 6： Tweaking the processor's heat sinks ？has reached its limit. So has tweaking the fans that circulate air over those heat sinks. And the idea of shifting from single-core processors to systems？also seems to have the end of the road in sight.
See Paragraph 1： Today's high-tech world， however， demands high-tech refrigeration. Heat pumps are no longer up to the job. The search is on for something to replace them.
See Paragraph 3： Using commercially available paraelectric film， he and his colleagues have generated temperature drops five times bigger than any previously recorded.
See Paragraph 7： ...the thermoelectric effect. Like paraelectric materials，this generates electricity from a heat source and produces cooling from an electrical source. Unlike paraelectrics， a significant body of researchers is already working on it.
See Paragraph 9： The last word in computer cooling， though， may go to a system even less techy than a heat pump--a miniature version of a car radiator.
雅思阅读选择题解题技巧 雅思阅读选择题解题技巧这篇*系统地给大家讲解一下雅思阅读当中选择题这种题型的有关知识点，其中包括雅思阅读选择题的题型要求和特点，做题步骤和解题技巧。下面就和大家分享，来欣赏一下吧。 雅思阅读选择题解题技巧 雅思阅读选择题解题技巧为大家带来雅思阅读中最常见的 一种题型之一——选择题的解题方法和技巧的总结。选择题是我们非常熟悉也是雅思阅读的高频常客之一。虽说选择题无论随便乱选一个选项都有25%的正确率，如果掌握了正确的做题方法和步骤，就有机会达到100%正确率。 Multiple Choice(选择题) 题型要求 这是一个传统题型，大家都很熟悉。但就是这种大家都熟悉的题型，IELTS考试也要弄出新花样：四选一和多选多两种。 四选一，选项肯定是四个。即要求从A、B、C、D四项中选择一个最符合题意的选项。
多选多，选项肯定是五个或五个以上，而正确答案的数目肯定在两个以上。 哪个更难呢?很多同学会好不犹豫地说是多选多。实际上，多选多很容易，是一种简单题型。它具有以下几个特点： (1) 正确答案的数目是已知的。在题目的要求中会告诉你要选出几个选项。题目要求中常WHICH FOUR，WHICH THREE 等字样。 (2) 答案在原文中是集中出现的，对应原文中的例举。找着一个答案，其余几个就在它的前后不远处。 我们举一个中文阅读的例子来说明。*如下： 帕金森症是一种顽症。它是由大脑中缺乏一种叫多巴胺的化学物质引起的。(后面删减100字)很多名人深受其苦。比如，我们的改革的总设计师邓小平、拳王阿里、以故数学家陈景润等等。(后面删减100字) 题目是：以下哪三个人得过帕金森症? A. 邓小平 B. 里根 C. 拳王阿里
【雅思真经派读写互通理论】 长难句理解 经典句型背诵 剑8 1.1 The revolutionary aspect of this new timekeeper was neither the descending weight that provided its motive force nor the gear wheels (which had been around for at least 1,300 years) that transferred the power; it was the part called the escapement. 1.3 Some researchers say the results constitute compelling evidence that telepathy is genuine. Other parapsychologists believe that the field is on the brink of collapse, having tried to produce definitive scientific proof and failed. Sceptics and advocates alike do concur on one issue, however, that the most impressive evidence so far has come from the so-called ‘ganzfeld’ e xperiments, a German term that means ‘whole field’. 2.2 The Little Ice Age was far from a deep freeze, however; rather an irregular seesaw of rapid climatic shifts, few lasting more than a quarter-century, driven by complex and still little understood interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean. 2.3 While it is true that the olfactory powers of humans are nothing like as fine as those possessed by certain animals, they are still remarkably acute. 3.3 It follows from the above that sparing use of energy reserves should tend to extend life. 3.1 Discussion now centres on whether the route through the maze is communicated as a 'left-right' sequence of turns or as a 'compass bearing and distance' message. 3.3 Forests are one of the main elements of our natural heritage. The decline of Europe's forests over the last decade and a half has led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the serious imbalances which threaten them. 4.2 The MSC has established a set of criteria by which commercial fisheries can be judged. 4.3 It was found that children from the noisy schools had higher blood pressure and were more easily distracted than those who attended the quiet schools. Moreover, there was no evidence of adaptability to the noise. In fact, the longer the children had attended the noisy schools, the more distractible they became. 剑6 1.2 Theoretically, in the world of trade, shipping costs do not matter. Goods, once they have been
Next Year Marks the EU's 50th Anniversary of the Treaty A. After a period of introversion and stunned self-disbelief，continental European governments will recover their enthusiasm for pan-European institution-building in . Whether the European public will welcome a return to what voters in two countries had rejected so short a time before is another matter. B. There are several reasons for Europe’s recovering self-confidence. For years European economies had been lagging dismally behind America (to say nothing of Asia)， but in the large continental economies had one of their best years for a decade， briefly outstripping America in terms of growth. Since politics often reacts to economic change with a lag，’s improvement in economic growth will have its impact in ， though the recovery may be ebbing by then. C. The coming year also marks a particular point in a political cycle so regular that it almost seems to amount to a natural law. Every four or five years， European countries take a large stride towards further integration by signing a new treaty： the Maastricht treaty in 1992， the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997， the Treaty of Nice in . And in they were supposed to ratify a European constitution， laying the ground for yet more integration—until the calm rhythm was rudely shattered by French and Dutch voters. But the political impetus to sign something every four or five years has only been interrupted，not immobilised， by this setback. D. In the European Union marks the 50th anniversary of another treaty—the Treaty of Rome， its founding charter. Government leaders have already agreed to celebrate it ceremoniously， restating their commitment to “ever closer union” and the basic ideals of European unity. By itself， and in normal circumstances， the EU’s 50th-birthday greeting to itself would be fairly meaningless， a routine expression of European good fellowship. But it does not take a Machiavelli to spot that once governments have signed the declaration (and it seems unlikely anyone would be so uncollegiate as to veto
雅思阅读模拟试题:音乐 Background music may seem harmless, but it can have a powerful effect on those who hear it. Recorded background music first found its way into factories, shop and restaurants in the US. But it soon spread to other arts of the world. Now it is becoming increasingly difficult to go shopping or eat a meal without listening to music. To begin with, “ muzak ” (音乐广播网) was intended simply to create a soothing (安慰) atmosphere. Recently, however, it’s become big business –thanks in part to recent research. Dr. Ronald Milliman, an American marketing expert, has shown that music can boost sales or increase factory production by as much as a third. But, it has to be light music. A fast one has no effect at all on sales. Slow music can increase receipts by 38%. This is probably because shoppers slow down and have more opportunity to spot items they like to buy. Yet, slow music isn’t always answered. https://www.sodocs.net/doc/6117317569.html,liman found, for example, that in restaurants slow music meant customers took longer to eat their meals, which reduced overall sales. So restaurants owners might be well advised to play up-tempo music to keep the customers moving – unless of course, the resulting indigestion leads to complaints! ( )1. The reason why background music is so popular is that ______. A. it can have a powerful effect on those who hear it B. it can help to create a soothing atmosphere C. it can boost sales or increase factory production everywhere D. it can make customers eat their meals quickly ( )2. Background music means ________. A. light music that customers enjoy most B. fast music that makes people move fast C. slow music that can make customers enjoy their meals D. the music you are listening to while you are doing something ( )3. Restaurant owners complain about background music because ______. A. it results in indigestion B. it increases their sales C. it keeps customers moving D. it decreases their sales ( )4. The word “ up-tempo music” probably means_____. A.slow music B.fast music C.light music D.classical music
选择题解题技巧 一分类：四选一(单选)，多选多, 主旨题 一单选题（得分题） 二顺序性：有序 三解题步骤 1.读题目和选项, 划定位词。 注意：1选项快看 2选项主要关注各项不同处(谓语就不同的话,主要关注谓语即可,宾语略看或不看. 另外,还要关注各项感情色彩的不同！！！) 2.复记题目和选项关键词 为毛? 因为若记得好，文中看到时能立马反映出，直选法，正确率高） (***小标题题,匹配题,选择三类看的内容多,不像填空判断摘要填空,只是一两句,所以要复记) 3.回原文定位考点。 4.比较原文与选项，确定答案. 注意：（**与原文用词太简单一致（尤其形容词动词）的要小心。 3. 正确选项多有同替。） 四直选法和排除法 直选法:看到与某选项含义接近的原文，直接选！(又快又准)，不关注剩余项的对错和理由（每题四个点，时间不够的！） 排除法: 都没把握，才用排除法(排除毫无关系和冲突的)（比较费时间），排除很不靠谱的，剩下的是只能是答案. 五注意事项： ●选择题里常有些好定位的题(如明定/根据第五段),挑出来先做,不要按正常顺序做. ●题目不好定位时，选项中常有名定如大写,数字,用选项内容定位 ●避免根据自己的认知自行选择, 尽量在原文在找到考点，正确率高 ●选择题特点是阅读量大，关键是读题读文快，并尽量读一遍就理解 ●若这组题目都无明定，都不好定位，读2，3题关键词,一起定位,效率高（其他题型也是）●选择题正确答案是与原文最接近的一个，即使其他三个也与原文有关。 ●注意选项中是否有both…and…或者all of the above ，若有很可能选它们（出现不多）●注意题干中是否有EXCEPT字样 例如：Many cities are included in this program EXCEPT________
雅思精讲阅读班精讲班第8讲讲义 Questions 25-28 说明：录音开始的2分钟内容已经在上一讲中讲过。。。 Questions 25-28 What is a dinosaur? A. Although the name dinosaur is derived from the Greek for “terrible lizard”, dinosaurs were not, in fact, lizards at all. Like lizards, dinosaurs are included in the class Reptilia, or reptiles, one of the five main classes of Vertebrata, animals with backbones. However, at the next level of classification, within reptiles, significant differences in the skeletal anatomy of lizards and dinosaurs have led scientists to place these groups of animals into two different superorders: Lepidosauria, or lepidosaurs, and Archosauria, or archosaurs. B. Classified as lepidosaurs are lizards and snakes and their prehistoric ancestors. Included among the archosaurs, or “ruling reptiles”, are prehistoric and modern crocodiles, and the now extinct thecondonts, pterosaurs and dinosaurs. Paleontologists believe that both dinosaurs and crocodiles evolved, in the later years of the Triassic Period (c. 248-208 million years ago), from creatures called pseudosuchian thecodonts. Lizards, snakes and different types of thecondont are believed to have evolved earlier in the Triassic Period from reptiles known as eosuchians. C. The most important skeletal differences between dinosaurs and other archosaurs are in the bones of the skull, pelvis and limbs. Dinosaur skulls are found in a great range of shapes and sizes, reflecting the different eating habits and lifestyles of a large and varied group of animals that dominated life on Earth for an extraordinary 165 million years. However, unlike the skulls of any other known animals, the skulls of dinosaurs had two long bones known as vomers. These bones extended on either side of the head, from the front of the snout to the level of the holes in the skull known as the antorbital fenestra, situated in front of the dinosaur’s orbits or eyesockets. D. All dinosaurs, whether large or small, quadrupedal or bipedal, fleet-footed or
Selling Digital Music without Copy-protection Makes Sense A. It was uncharacteristically low-key for the industry’s greatest showman. But the essay published this week by Steve Jobs， the boss of Apple，on his firm’s website under the unassuming title “Thoughts on Music” has nonetheless provoked a vigorous debate about the future of digital music，which Apple dominates with its iPod music-player and iTunes music-store. At issue is “digital rights management” (DRM)—the technology guarding downloaded music against theft. Since there is no common standard for DRM， it also has the side-effect that songs purchased for one type of music-player may not work on another. Apple’s DRM system， called FairPlay， is the most widespread. So it came as a surprise when Mr. Jobs called for DRM for digital music to be abolished. B. This is a change of tack for Apple. It has come under fire from European regulators who claim that its refusal to license FairPlay to other firms has “locked in” customers. Since music from the iTunes store cannot be played on non-iPod music-players (at least not without a lot of fiddling)， any iTunes buyer will be deterred from switching to a device made by a rival firm， such as Sony or Microsoft. When French lawmakers drafted a bill last year compelling Apple to open up FairPlay to rivals， the company warned of “state-sponsored piracy”. Only DRM， it implied， could keep the pirates at bay. C. This week Mr. Jobs gave another explanation for his former defence of DRM： the record companies made him do it. They would make their music available to the iTunes store only if Apple agreed to protect it using DRM. They can still withdraw their catalogues if the DRM system is compromised. Apple cannot license FairPlay to others， says Mr Jobs， because it would depend on them to produce security fixes promptly. All DRM does is restrict consumer choice and provide a barrier to entry， says Mr Jobs； without it there would be far more stores and players， and far more innovation. So， he suggests， why not do away with DRM and sell music unprotected？“This is
2019年雅思阅读模拟试题：流程图题(1) BAKELITE The birth of modern plastics In 1907, Leo Hendrick Baekeland, a Belgian scientist working in New York, discovered and patented a revolutionary new synthetic material. His invention, which he named 'Bakelite,’was of enormous technological importance, and effectively launched the modern plastics industry. The term 'plastic' comes from the Greek plassein, meaning 'to mould'. Some plastics are derived from natural sources, some are semi-synthetic (the result of chemical action on a natural substance), and some are entirely synthetic, that is, chemically engineered from the constituents of coal or oil. Some are 'thermoplastic', which means that, like candlewax, they melt when heated and can then be reshaped. Others are 'thermosetting'： like eggs, they cannot revert to their original viscous state, and their shape is thus fixed for ever. Bakelite had the distinction of being the first totally synthetic thermosetting plastic. The history of today's plastics begins with the discovery of a series of semi-synthetic thermoplastic materials in the mid-nineteenth century. The impetus behind the development of these early plastics was generated by a number of factors—immense technological progress in the domain of chemistry, coupled with wider cultural changes, and the pragmatic need to find acceptable substitutes for dwindling supplies of 'luxury' materials such as tortoiseshell and ivory.
雅思考试阅读部分全解析 无论是A类还是G类, 雅思的阅读与国内\国际现今流行的各种重大考试有很大的区别。其广泛的选材范围、多样的出题形式、艰涩的段落和句法结构、冗长的篇幅和无处不在的生词对于考生的语言实力和解题技巧提出了严峻的考验。但是，回顾这么多年的考试历程，雅思并没有跳出语言测试的樊篱。换言之，雅思就是在有限的时间里测试考生的语言实力和应试技巧。 一、概述 I．文章的篇幅 长篇幅是雅思阅读文章的突出特点。每段文章至少700字以上，7、8个段落也算正常。 阅读目的就是为理解服务，应试型阅读就是为解题服务。雅思阅读中的题目虽然貌似复杂，其实归结起来无外乎主旨题与细节理解题。而解题的过程实际上是略读、扫读和细读这三大技巧的综合。雅思考试的阅读很有限，一个小时读三篇文章，每篇文章的阅读和解题时间非常短暂。因此，我们要坚持两点论和重点论相结合的原则，使用略读的技巧在短时间内抓住文章的中心思想、段落大意和长句的要旨。然后，仔细阅读文章之后的题目，并从中找出关键词或词组，同时迅速扫读，确定题目答案在原文中所对应的大致范围。然后对相关语段进行仔细阅读。这样，可以避免或减少对文章中干扰信息的阅读，从而节省时间，提高阅读效率。 II．文章的选材范围 剑桥大学考试委员会秉承剑桥大学的作风，奉行高等教育的精英主义理念，反复强调非专业原则和国际化两条原则，体现考试的公平和公正、严肃和全面的特点，所选的文章大多源于世界主流媒体，如Economist , Financial Times，Guardian；政府各部门的社会发展报告，联合国机构的年度报告；某些著名的协会杂志(带有官方色彩)，如Info；英国及欧洲的专业杂志如Arts Management，Arts Education等；70%的自然科学文章选自National Geographic, New Scientist, Science, Popular立场Science和Nature杂志；80%的重大事件（非政治经济），重大发明都选自美国国家地理杂志（National Geographic） 雅思是一种语言考试，不是专业测试。因此，为了让不同政治经济体制，不同肤色，不同文化背景的人能平等参与，法律及专业性较强的医学，生物学，哲学，文学，艺术等的文章已经不再作为其考查范围。以下几个方面的内容经常作为考点出现：世界范围的就业状况；世界范围内的教育状况，经济发展的问题，
雅思阅读选择题四种解题技巧 雅思阅读选择题总会用各个选项来迷惑人，下面教育优选来为大家分享雅思阅读选择题的解题技巧 1. 如果一个选项合乎题意，还要看其它选项中是否有both…and、all of theabove 的字样。 我们举一个中文阅读的例子： 原文：如果你随便停车，要罚你款，还要把你的车拖走。 题目：如果你随便停车，将： A. 被罚款 B. 你的车被拖走 C. 没事儿 D. both被罚款and你的车被拖走答案：D 如果选项中有一个是all of the above，它是正确选项的可能性很大。Both…and是正确选项比all of the above小一些。总之，如果一个选项合乎题意，不要马上选。看一眼其余选项中是否有both…and，all of theabove的字样。 2. 注意题干中是否有not，except的字样。 题干中有这些词时，通常是将它们大写并使用黑体，特别醒目。如果不注意看，必然答错题。
如前面的关于帕金森症的中文阅读文章，可能出一道四选一的题目： 题目：下面的人得过帕金森症EXCEPT A. 邓小平 B. 里根 C. 拳王阿里 D. 陈景润答案：B 3. 干扰选项的特点 做选择题的过程就是与干扰选项做斗争的过程。清楚干扰选项的特点，就能做到百战百胜。干扰选项特征如下： A. 无 选项中所讲的内容在原文中根本不存在，或找不到语言依据。要注意，答题的唯一依据是原文，不能凭借自己的知识或主观想象。 B. 反 与原文相矛盾的选项。这时要注意题干或原文中是否有NOT、EXECPT等词，也要注意反义词。 C. 满 含有“绝对意义”的词汇如must、always、all、will的选项，一般为错误选项。选项中含有“相对意义”的词汇如can、may、sometimes、some、not always，一般为正确答案。也就是说，越是模棱两可、含含糊糊，越可能是正确答案，因为它适用的范围更广。这条规律的适用性很强，实践证明它的准确率在90%以上。 D. 偏 似是而非，与原句部分相似的选项。这是不太容易排除的。
2019年11月4日雅思阅读机经真题答案及解析 一、考试概述： 本次考试的文章两篇新题一篇旧题，第一篇描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现，研究了古代人的生存方式，第二篇是讲了利用心理学对课堂行为实行研究，第三篇是讲非语言交流的，人类除了用语言交流，其他手势、行为等的非语言形式也很重要 二、具体题目分析 Passage 1： 题目：Human Remain in Green Sahara 题型：判断题4 +简答题3+填空题6 新旧水准：旧题 文章大意：描述了两个科学家在撒哈拉的发现，研究古代人的生存方式。 参考文章： Human Remain in Green Sahara A On October 13,2,000, a small team of paleontologists led by Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago clambered out of three battered Land Rovers, filled their water bottles, and scattered on foot across the toffee-colored sands of the Tenere desert in northern Niger. The Tenere，on the southern flank of the Sahara, easily ranks among the most desolate landscapes on Earth. The Tuareg，turbaned nomads who for centuries have ruled this barren realm, refer to it as a
雅思阅读模拟试题精选 1. Washing， brushing and varnishing fossils — all standard conservation treatments used by many fossil hunters and museum curators alike —vastly reduces the chances of recovering ancient DNA. 2. Instead， excavators should be handling at least some of their bounty with gloves， and freezing samples as they are found， dirt and all， concludes a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences today. 3. Although many palaeontologists know anecdotally that this is the best way to up the odds of extracting good DNA， Eva-Maria Geigl of the Jacques Monod Institute in Paris， France， and her colleagues have now shown just how important conservation practices can be. This information， they say， needs to be hammered home among the
今天下午试讲的稿子。当然，十分钟讲了其中的一小部分。其实一直也是觉得自己无才成为雅思老师，但是年轻人嘛，我还是去了。给我电话的那个人力资源的人说---“我们如果觉得你适合，可以对你进行后期培训的”现在想想，面试过程被面试的D老师牵着走了。导致被其误导。不够自信。一大败笔。“姜还是老的辣”。（好久没用这句话了）:han2第一篇挫作，从一个考雅思的考生要升级到研究雅思的老师，我想我现在还没有那个资格和条件在这里说是一篇“作”吧，就当作我的第一篇家庭作业。希望对烤鸭们有所帮助。敬请批评指正。继续再接再厉。为了实现某个梦想。努力努力！ 雅思考试阅读理解T/F/NG题型初析 静至境 （一）雅思阅读A类阅读考试：时间1小时，由三篇独立的文章组成，（八种题型）每篇的文章长度在700--1200字,40题。其中至少有一篇文章为文科类型（与社会、经济等文科专业有关），另外两篇涉及理、工、农、医，一般与科技有关。 （二）该题型的重要性：先看一份题型统计表剑3剑4剑5T/F/NG534160（总题量：160题）08年雅思A类阅读考试的三巨头题型：Matching,T/F/NG,SummarP （三）如何考查？(五)考查点：a百分比附近b大写字母、斜体字、粗体字附近c例子：人物言辞、引经据典、数据1）数字考查数字精确度(年份、人数、份数)推断数字剑4T2Q17原文：Ina1983nationalhealthsurveP,1.9%ofpeoplesaidthePhadcontactedachiro practor,naturopath,osteopath,acupuncturistorherbalistinthetwoweekspri ortothesurveP.BP1990,thisfigurehadrisento2.6%ofthepopulation.题目:Between1983and1990thenumberofpatient’svisitingalternativetherap
雅思阅读summary填空题是雅思阅读题中常见题型, 在阅读考试中占较大的比重. 同时也是众多考生头痛的一种题型. 因为此题型不仅考查考生快速准确理解阅读文章的主旨能力, 也考查考生对定位,同义转化以及语义间逻辑关系的灵敏度. 总的来说, 雅思阅读summary填空题主要有两种形式: 一种是单词填空式, 这种形式主要针对文章全文或者部分段落写出的一篇摘要, 空出若干空格, 要求考生从文章中寻找相应的单词进行填空; 另一种是单词选择式, 就是在第一种形式的基础上, 额外提供了一个词库, 要求考生从词库中选词填空. 下面环球雅思的老师将详细讲解如何快速而有效的解答这两种形式的summary填空题. 单词填空式 解题策略 对于单词填空式题, 一般把握三个关键信息: 逻辑关系词, 语法属性, 定位. 首先, 观察空格前后是否有语义间有逻辑关系的连接词, 即逻辑关系词推断. 这类表示空格前后内容逻辑关系的连接词主要包括:
①表示因果关系的词, 如because, as, since, for, due to, thanks to, as a result of等. 在考试中, 在因果关系中除了一些连接词的衔接外, 还有一些表示因果关系的大词, 如trigger, breed, induce, engender, generate, be responsible for, affect, determine等, 这些词在语义中隐含了因果关系. 所以也是考生在解题中值得注意的. ②表示转折关系的词, 如but, however, while, yet, instead, rather, whereas等 ③表示让步关系的词, 如despite, in spite of, although等 ④表示并列关系的词, 如and, both…and…, neither…nor等 ⑤表示举例关系的词, 如such as, for example等 观察有无这类词的目的在于为了回原文定位时, 能缩小寻找范围, 使定位更加准确. 在文章阅读中, 题目中的某些单词会进行同义转换而变得面目全非，但是句意不会变，语义关系不会变，这是最可靠的定位依据。从而逻辑关系词对于考生在解题中把握语义间的内在关系起了关键作用. 如剑桥4 Test 2 Passage 1 Lost for words 一篇中的summary 题中This great variety of languages came about largely as a result of geographical ___Q1______. But in today’s world, factors such as government initiatives and ____Q2_____ are contributing to a huge decrease in the number of languages. One factor which may help to ensure that some endangered languages do not die out completely is people’s increasing appreciation of their ____Q3_____.