Part One Viewing, Understanding, and Speaking
Kevin: Hey, girl, come on. Good to see you.
Heather: How are you?
Kevin: What happened today?
Kevin: That's fine. So what do you want to order? You like the pepperoni, yeah? ... (to the waitress) OK. So two Greek islands, one egg torte and one chilled juice and milk. Thank you.
Heather: Do you realize that we've been together for two months now? Who would have thought that when we happened to sit next to each other in Asian History class it would lead to this!
Kevin: Yeah, and this is a real change for me.
Heather: Oh? You didn't date anyone steadily in high school?
Kevin: No, I didn't. I was too busy with sports. My high school was so small that any of us who liked to play and wanted to could be on almost all of the teams. I played football in the fall, basketball in the winter, and baseball in the spring.
Heather: But you're not playing football this fall.
Kevin: No, I'm going to try out for baseball in the spring. That's what I like the best. So, when a very interesting and intelligent girl happened to sit next to me in Asian History, I decided it was time to date some if she was interested too. (He smiles broadly.)
Heather: I'm glad you did. (She returns a smile.)
Kevin: Did you date much in high school?
Heather: Yes, I did. In fact, I had a steady boyfriend for almost two years.
Kevin: What happened to him?
Heather: During our senior year we both decided that since we were going to attend college in different parts of the country we should stop dating. I guess we realized that we were really quite different from each other. He wanted to get away from home, so he's in a large university out East. I wanted a small college near home, so here I am. Kevin: Lucky me! So were your parents happy with your steady boyfriend? Heather: They liked him OK, but I know they thought we spent too much time together. I think they were happy when we broke up. They really didn't say much though. They usually trust my judgment.
Kevin: Had you dated much before that?
Heather: A little, for school parties, movies etc., nothing serious. I usually spent more time with the girl friends. My parents didn't think I should date until I was sixteen.
Kevin: Yes, I think some kids do start dating too young these days. My sister, she is fourteen and thinks she has a boyfriend. My parents tell her she's really too young to date, but they think it's OK if she goes out in a group where he's included. Heather: I guess you were around guys most of the time with all of your sports activities, but you seem comfortable being with me.
Kevin: Well, I did date occasionally, but I didn't find anyone really interesting until now. (He smiles meaningfully.) Besides, I usually have to spend most of my money keeping my old car running.
Heather: Would it help if we go Dutch tonight?
Kevin: No, after all I invited you. Besides, I had a really good job at the gasoline station near my home last summer and was able to save up quite a bit for nights like this. So, it's my treat!
Heather: OK. That's nice of you.
Kevin: After we eat, are you willing to drive around the lake with me and just talk some more? Or would you rather go to a movie?
Heather: It's a beautiful night so let's go for a drive. I don't think we'd like the movies that are on anyway. They're all just too silly.
Kevin: Fine with me. Oh, here comes the pizza, so let's eat. (to the waitress) Thank you. Thank you.
Xiao Mei: You are late. You've never been late before. What happened to you today? Da Ming: Oh, Xiao Mei. It's so nice to see you. I can tell you that I would not be here at all if I hadn't jumped down from the second-floor window.
Xiao Mei: You jumped from the window? Tell me exactly what happened? Did you hurt yourself?
Da Ming: No, I am fine, I am fine. Mum shut me up in the room. She wants me to meet her friend's daughter, the girl I mentioned to you before. She is coming and I'm supposed to see her. Mum probably thinks I am still in my room.
Xiao Mei: Your mum wants you to make friends with her, then marry her, doesn't she?
Da Ming: Yes, I'm afraid so, but I'm interested only in you. I think about you all the time. I will never agree to meet any other girl. I would rather die than leave you. Xiao Mei: I love you too, Da Ming. I can't imagine what my life will be like without you.
Da Ming: But I don't have a cent. My family is poor and I'm penniless. I have nothing with me except for a poem I wrote for you.
Xiao Mei: You wrote a poem for me? How sweet!
Da Ming: Would you like me to read it to you?
Xiao Mei: Of course. Please.
Da Ming:It's called: “Love Is...”
Love is the greatest feeling;
Love is like a play;
Love is what I feel for you
Each and every day;
Love is like a smile;
Love is like a song;
Love is a great emotion
That keeps us going strong.
I love you with my heart,
My body and my soul.
I love the way I keep loving,
Like a love I can't control.
So remember when your eyes meet mine,
I love you with all my heart,
And I have poured my entire soul into you,
Right from the very start.
Do you like it, Xiao Mei?
Xiao Mei: Yes, I like it very much. I don't need anything else as long as you keep writing poems for me.
Da Ming: I will write you poems as long as I live.
Xiao Mei: Now we have nothing but each other...
Da Ming: But we have love. Isn't that enough?
Xiao Mei: As long as we have love we'll manage somehow.
Part Two Listening, Understanding, and Speaking
*Where do I begin to tell the story of how great love can be,
The sweet love story that is older than the sea,
The simple truth about the love she brings to me?
Where do I start?
With her first hello, she gave a meaning to this empty world of mine.
There'll never be another love another time.
She came into my life and made the living fine.
She fills my heart, she fills my heart,
With very special things, with angel's songs, with wild imaginings.
She fills my soul with so much love,
That anywhere I go, I'm never lonely
With her along, who could be lonely?
I reach for her hand, it's always there.
(Repeat the part marked with “*”.)
How long does it last?
Can love be measured by the hours in a day?
I have no answers now but this much I can say.
I know I need her till the stars all burn away,
And she'll be there.
Traditionally the heart is the part of the body where emotions come from. If you are a warm-hearted person, for example, you are kind and thoughtful towards others. If you have a heart of gold, you are a very generous person. But if you are heartless, you are cruel and unfeeling.
Of all the emotions, it is love that is the most associated with the heart. In love songs, all over the world, love almost always goes together with the heart. As the song from Titanic says, “You are here in my heart and my heart will go on and on. Love can touch us one time and last for a lifetime, and never let go till we're gone.”
Perhaps the role of the heart in love comes from what happens to it when you feel really attracted to someone. The strong feelings of attraction make your breathing speed up and your heart beat faster.
In past generations, the challenge of dating was different. Men and women wanted a partner who could fulfill their basic needs for security and survival. Women looked for a strong man who would be a good bread-winner; men searched for a nurturing woman to make a home. This practice that worked for thousands of years has suddenly changed.
The new challenge of dating is to find a partner who not only will be supportive of our physical needs for survival and security but will support our emotional and spiritual needs. Today we want more from our relationships. Millions of men and
women around the world are searching for a soul mate to experience lasting love, happiness, and romance.
It is no longer enough to just find someone who is willing to marry us, and we want partners who will love us more as they get to know us: We want to live happily ever after. To find and recognize partners who can fulfill our new needs for increased closeness, good communication, and a great love life, we need to update our dating skills.
Part Three More Listening
A Mother's Love
You can see it in her eyes—
in her gaze and in her sighs.
It is a mother's love.
You can feel it in her touch—
in her tender hugs and such.
It is a mother's love.
You can hear it in her words—
in her praises and bywords.
It is a mother's love.
She cares. She understands.
She lends an ear and holds our hands.
She gives us a mother's love.
My son's primary school celebrates Valentine's Day in a wonderful way. Each day throughout the month of February, the school honors each student in informal ceremonies. At the ceremony, classmates, teachers and parents get together to deliver compliments to that particular child. They believe that a child's emotional and social skills should be developed alongside their intellectual skills. Learning to acknowledge qualities and strengths in others—and receiving that acknowledgment gracefully—is a very important learning lesson.
I know I compliment my son frequently, and certainly try to make sure he knows he is loved. But I realize that I have never actually pointed out, one by one, specific qualities that make him unique and so special to me. And how infrequently we really point out what is special in others. Sure, we say “I love you” or “thanks” regularly, but when do we take the opportunity to really and truly examine what makes a person special? What is unique and different about them?
This year, the time was scheduled for my son to receive more than 40 compliments from his peers, teachers, parents, and himself. Each child had their day at the center of the circle, their friends coming up one by one to give a gift of powerful words. This year, my son heard that his thoughtfulness was appreciated, his ideas important, his expressions inspiring. He was also expected to write and deliver a compliment to each of his classmates.
In the end, I had to ask my husband to read my Valentine compliment to our son. I was simply crying too hard to get the words out. Witnessing the tenderness of school-age children saying what they thought was special about my little boy proved too much for me. But I was not alone. When I warned my son I might get emotional, he said, “That's OK. Lots of parents cry.” He was right.
This is what my husband read to our son on my behalf:
Your love of language and information has always amazed me. I love learning from you and with you. I admire how new words are so easily incorporated into your vocabulary. I think you are fresh and eager and loving.
I admire that relationships are important to you. I like to listen to the connections you make with past experiences. I think you are good at remembering.
I love how you are proud of yourself when you try something new. I feel proud, too.
I like how your whole body tells a story, and your expressions make me feel good. I am proud of your willingness to express your fears and appreciate the reminder that you will grow at the pace that suits you best. I love your jokes and your fondness for telling them over and over—so I will laugh. I think you are fun to be with.
I love that you are my son.
I am really grateful to this school for creating a learning environment. These exercises benefit the parents as well as the kids. That, to me, is a Valentine worth giving. Practice Four
I grew up in a family with six sisters. In my lifetime I have seen all of them abused by various men in their lives. Even my mother has the scars from two unsuccessful marriages.
When I was a teenager, my mother shared some insights into all of their failed relationships. She explained that they really weren't expecting to be treated as queens, but they did desire two things from the men in their lives: to be told frequently that they are loved and to be shown often that they are special. It was at that point that I decided I would be the sort of husband my mom and sisters had dreamed of but never had.
When I was dating my wife-to-be I remembered those two points my mother shared with me years earlier. I admit that I struggled trying to be able to express my love in words and in action. For most men, it isn't natural for us to be romantics. But then again, it isn't natural for us to be millionaires or sports superstars. It does take effort, practice and diligence. But the rewards are there.
Now we've been married for nine years. I really, truly, deeply love my wife and let her know it every day by what I say and what I do. Our friends and family members all admire us and want to know our secret.
Part Four Testing Yourself
Life was very different in the 1950s than it is today. Divorce was not common. Husbands went out to work to support the whole family. Most women didn't work and depended on their husbands' incomes for living. Children didn't come home after school to an empty house as many do today. Families did more things together. One
of the favorite family pastimes was a drive in the country. Gas was cheap. People had big cars, and the whole family could ride comfortably. Before TV became popular, people talked to each other more. Children didn't have as many toys, and they played more games together. On Saturdays the neighborhood theaters had special movies for children. The shows cost only 25 cents.
People stayed at one job for most of their lives. They didn't change jobs every year like they do today. They also lived in the same house for a long time. They didn't move as much.
Services were better in the 1950s. Doctors often came to a sick person's house, especially if you were “sick in bed”. Milkmen delivered fresh dairy products daily to homes. There were no self-service gas stations, and attendants used to wash your car windows and check your oil free of charge.
Hisham and I will have been married for twenty years this February. Everybody said it would not work. He is Jordanian, Muslim, and I am Italian, Catholic. We met in Florida twenty-two years ago. What we had in common was nothing except youth. He could barely speak the English language, and I thought Arabs were from India. Within a year I found out where Jordan was exactly and he could say “I love you” in broken English.
When we got married people actually placed bets at our small wedding in my family's dining room. They thought our relationship would not last a year. Hisham did not tell his parents he was married for almost five years. He felt that if he failed at school his family would blame the marriage. Of course everybody, from Arabs to Americans, thought he married me to get a green card. I knew he didn't.
I lived in his country for six years after graduation and had a son there. Through Hisham's eyes I saw the beauty of his culture and religion and the simple ways of his people. Being from New York and living in Amman, Jordan, I still had my Christmas tree each year, my Easter eggs and even a Halloween pumpkin in the window. I also took some of their ways—cooking, methods of mothering, socializing—and it enhanced my own character in the long run.
Throughout the years, I was not the Italian girl from New York, not the American married to the Arab; I was a beautiful blended person with two children and a man who loves me.
A man had two large pots for carrying water. One pot had a crack in it, while the other was perfect. At the end of the long walk from the stream to his house, the cracked pot arrived only half full. For two years the man had been delivering only one and a half pots full of water everyday to his house. Of course, the perfect pot was proud of itself. And the cracked pot felt ashamed and miserable because it was able to do only half of the work. After two years of failure, it spoke to the man one day.
“I am ashamed of myself, and I want to apologize to you. I have been able to deliver only half my load because of this crack in my side,” the pot said. The man felt sorry for it and said, “As we return to the house, I want you to look at the beautiful flowers along the path.” Indeed, as they went up the hi ll, the cracked pot saw the sun warming the beautiful flowers on the side of the path. But it still felt bad because half of the water had run away, and again it apologized.
Then the man said to the pot, “Did you see that there were flowers only on your side of the path, but not on the other pot's side? That's because I have always known about you and planted flower seeds on your side of the path, and every day you've watered them. For two years I have been able to pick these beautiful flowers to decorate the house. Without you, the house would not look so beautiful.”
Part One Viewing, Understanding, and Speaking
(The telephone rings in Julia's home, and she picks up the phone.)
Michael: Hello, this is Michael.
Julia: Hi, Michael. How are you?
Michael: I'm fine. I miss you a lot though.
Julia: Me, too. Can we get together again before you leave?
Michael: Yes, sure! That's why I called you.
Julia: Where should we meet?
Michael: Mm, how about in front of Wanghu Hotel? (Some people are talking loudly in Julia's home.) That's not far from your home.
Julia: Which hotel? I didn't hear you clearly.
Michael: Wanghu Hotel.
Julia: OK! What time?
Michael: Mm, how about 12:30, tomorrow afternoon?
Julia: OK, see you then.
Michael: OK. OK, see you then.
(In front of Wanghu Hotel, Michael is waiting. But Julia is waiting in front of Huanhu Hotel.)
Michael: (He Looks at his watch, talking to himself.) It's 1:35 now! What's wrong with her?
Julia: (She Looks at everywhere, hoping to see Michael, then talking to herself.) He's always late!
Michael: (He Looks at his watch again, talking to himself.) Maybe she doesn't want to see me again?
Julia: (She Looks at her watch, talking to herself.) It's almost 1:45 now! Where is he? Can it be that he is waiting at Wanghu Hotel? (Julia quickly rushes to Wanghu Hotel. There she sees Michael, who stands there waiting anxiously.)
(In front of Wanghu Hotel.)
Michael: Hi, Julia. You are so late. How come?
Julia: I'm late?! I'm not late! I was waiting somewhere else! Believe it or not, I was waiting in front of Huanhu Hotel!
Michael: Oh, my goodness! I've been waiting here for one hour. How come you went to Huanhu Hotel? I told you to come to Wanghu Hotel.
Julia: But it sounded like Huanhu Hotel to me! You should've pronounced it more clearly.
Michael: I'm sorry, but...but it never occurred to me you would have confused the two.
Julia: I wish I'd realized that sooner, so that I wouldn't have waited there for so long. You know what? When you called yesterday, my mom had a group of friends over. They were so noisy that I could hardly hear you.
Michael: That's why. Then how did you figure out that it might be here—Wanghu Hotel?
Julia: Did it ever occur to you that we might be waiting at two different hotels? Michael: I guess not. I thought you were delayed by traffic or something.
Julia: No! You don't think. Whenever we meet, we always have one problem or another.
Michael: But last Saturday was all right. We had no trouble whatsoever seeing each other.
Julia: It's always me who is waiting for you.
Michael: That's not true! Wasn't I waiting for you today? And do you still remember the day when we went boating? I waited for you for about half an hour!
Julia: If you don't want to wait for me, then wait for someone else.
Michael: Julia, it's not that. You know what I mean.
Julia: You just don't love me anymore.
Michael: Of course I do. That's why I'm here. If I didn't love you, I wouldn't have waited here for an hour.
Julia: But you n ever say “I love you” any more.
Michael: Do you think I have to repeat the same three words all the time? Actions speak louder than words.
Julia: But if you don't say it, how do I know?
Michael: Come on, Julia. Don't be childish. Are we speaking the same language? It seems to me you always get me wrong.
Julia: Well, if...if I hadn't realized what had happened we would still be waiting at two different places right now!
Michael: Are you saying I'm stupid? Then why did you fall in love with me, then? Julia: Because I am even more stupid than you are! (Both laugh.)
Michael: Now, let's forget it. Why don't we go for a walk in the park?
Julia: Sure! (They walk away hand in hand.)
Part Two Listening, Understanding, and Speaking
Mrs. Black was having a lot of trouble with her skin, so she went to her doctor. However he could not find anything wrong with her. So he sent her to the local hospital for some tests. The hospital, of course, sent the results of the tests directly to Mrs. Black's doctor. The next morning, he telephoned her to give her a list of the things that he thought she should not eat, as any of them might be the cause of her skin trouble.
Mrs. Black carefully wrote all the things down on a piece of paper, which she then left beside the telephone while she went out to a meeting.
When she got back home two hours later, she found her husband waiting for her. He had a big basket full of packages beside him, and when he saw her, he said, “Hello, dear. I have done all your shopping for you.”
“Done all my shopping?” she asked in surprise. “But how did you know what I wanted?”
“Well, when I got home, I found your shopping list beside the telephone,” answered her husband, “so I went down to the shops and bought everything you had written down.”
Of course, Mrs. Black had to tell him that he had bought all the things the doctor did not allow her to eat!
American and British people both speak English, of course, but sometimes it does not seem like the same language. In fact, there are some important differences between British and American English.
First of all, they sound very different. Often, Americans don't say all the letters in each word. For example, Americans may say “I dunno” instead of “I don't know”, or they may say “Whaddya say?” instead of “What do you say?”
Sound is not the only difference between British and American English. The two languages have different words and expressions for some things. For example, some words for clothing are different. Americans use t he word “sweater”, but the British say “jumper”. Americans wear “vests” over their shirts, but British people wear “vests” under their shirts. Americans talk about “pants” or “slacks”, but the British talk about “trousers”. The British chips are American F rench fries. A British chemist is an American drugstore. In Britain, if you are going to telephone friends, you “ring them up”. In America, you “give them a call”.
There are also some differences in grammar. For example, Americans almost always use the he lping verb “do” with the verb “have”. They might say, “Do you have an
extra pen?” The British often ask the question a different way. They might say, “Have you got an extra pen?”
These differences can be confusing when you are learning English. But when the same language is used in different places, it is understandable that it changes in each place.
(Mr. and Mrs. Jones are having a conversation one evening while Mrs. Jones happens to be looking at some of the textbooks her daughter, who is in the fifth grade, is using.)
Mrs. Jones: Listen to what this book says. It really makes me angry! When talking about the settling of the western part of the U.S., it says, “MEN by the thousands headed west.” Then on the very same page it says, “The aver age citizen in the United States is proud of HIS heritage.”
Mr. Jones: What's wrong with that? It's true. I don't understand why you are angry. Mrs. Jones: Why? Because women are left out!
Mr. Jones:Everyone knows when the author says “men” or “his” in those sentences that the author means to include women.
Mrs. Jones: I think you are wrong. When young people read these sentences, they simply do not form a mental image which includes females.
Mr. Jones: Mm. Do you have other examples?
Mrs. Jones: Yes I do! This book mentions “MAN-made improvements that have raised America's standard of living”. A child will not think that females as well as males have made contributions when reading this.
Mr. Jones: I still don't think it's very important.
Mrs. Jones: Of course you don't! You're a man. But don't you want our daughter and other little girls to have the idea that they can be important citizens in their country, just as other women have been in the past?
Mr. Jones: Well, I guess you're right. I hope not all textbooks are like that.
Part Three More Listening
Walking down the street, a dog saw an ad in an office window. “Help wanted. Must type 70 words a minute. Must be computer literate. Must be bilingual. An
The dog applied for the position, but he was quickly refused. “I can't hire a dog for this job,” the office manager said. But when the dog pointed to the line that read “An equal-opportunity employer”, the office manager sighed and asked, “Can you type?” Silently, the dog walked over to a typewriter and typed a letter without a mistake. “Can you operate a computer?” the manager inquired. The dog then sat down at a computer, wrote a program and ran it perfectly.
“Look, I still can't hire a dog for this position,” said the office manager. “You have fine skills, but I need someone who's bilingual. It says so right in the ad.”
The dog looked up at the manager and said, “Meow.”
There are about 5,000 languages in the world, and the one with the most number of speakers is Mandarin, with about 650,000,000 native speakers. English has around 350,000,000 native speakers.
One of the most common surnames in the world is Zhang: There are about
350,000,000. Smith is the most common English surname: There are around 80,000 in England and Wales and an estimated 2,382,509 in the United States.
The largest dictionary in the world is the Oxford English Dictionary, which has 20 volumes, 21,728 pages, 290,500 main entries, and around 59,000,000 words. It lists the definitions of around 615,000 words. The Webster's International Dictionary lists about 450,000 words.
The chemical name for a protein that has 1,913 letters is considered to be the longest word in English.
Ramon Romero is a seventeen-year-old boy from Bolivia. He speaks Spanish and a little bit of English.
Ramon lives in the United States now, in Little Rock, Arkansas, with the Hutchinsons. They are not his real family. His real family is back in Bolivia. They cannot come to America because they have jobs and duties in their country and aren't able to leave. However, they do want their son to have an American education and be fluent in English.
He misses his family and wishes to see them. It seems that no one understands his true feelings. It is difficult to listen to English all the time and then to express his thoughts in English. His American family is very nice to him and helps him in every way. In return, Ramon does little things to help the family. For instance, he takes the dog for a walk every morning and every evening.
When he comes back from the morning walk, he tells Mrs. Hutchinson about the weather. This tells her how to dress her four-year-old son. On Tuesday, Mrs. Hutchinson asks, “How is the weather today?”
Ramon answers, “It rain.”
“No, Ramon, in English we say, 'It's raining.'”
On Wednesday, it rains again.
“It's raining today,” reports Ramon.
On Thursday, it snows. On Friday, the sun finally shines. Ramon is very happy that he doesn't have to wear boots or carry an umbrella. He comes into the house with a big smile on his face.
“How's the weather today?” asks Mrs. Hutchinson.
“Oh, today I am very happy,” replies Ramon. “There is no weather.”
Nick: Hi, Dieter. OK?
Dieter: Oh, hi, Nick. Yes, I'm fine, except that I had a big problem ordering my drink.
I didn't think my English was so bad!
Nick: Your English is very good! What kind of problem?
Dieter: Well, look at this beer I've got here—this warm, brown, English beer—it wasn't what I wanted!
Nick: Why, what did you ask for?
Dieter: Well, I just asked for a small beer. Then the barman asked what type of beer and said lots of names that I didn't understand—and something about a pie or a pine. I didn't understand anything!
Nick: Oh, no! He probably said a pint! In English you don't ask for a big or a small beer. You ask for either a pint or a half. A pint's the big one.
Dieter: So this one I've got here is a half?
Nick: Yes, that's a half of bitter. Bitter's the name for that type of beer.
Dieter: Ah, that's what he said—bitter! Well, it's very different from the beer we drink in Germany, I must say.
Nick: Yes, I know. They call the German type of beer lager. So you have to ask for a half of lager, or a pint of lager.
Dieter: OK. I understand that now. My another problem was chips. I asked for a packet of chips, and the barman said something strange—that they don't have chips in the evening, only at lunchtime. What did he mean?
Nick: Yes, they have fish and chips, but I think you meant crisps. In England, chips are fried potatoes, you know, French fries. The ones you buy in a packet are crisps. Dieter: Well, in the end I didn't get anything to eat. So you see, I did everything wrong!
Part Four Testing Yourself
Learning to communicate in another language may be very difficult and frustrating at times, but it can also be one of the most rewarding experiences in your life. Being able to communicate in another language will open doors for you to experience a world of new people, places, and ideas. It will offer you a look at cultures from every part of the earth. And if you have the opportunity to live in another culture, the experience will show you many things—above all, about your own culture. It will reveal cultural similarities and differences that you have never noticed in the past. In addition, the experience can also show you a great deal about your own personal beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions. Within a short time in another culture, you will find that you begin to learn a great deal about yourself and your own country and culture. Section II
My wife and I visited her family in Mexico ten months after we were married. I had been working on my Spanish and was looking forward to practicing it. On our first evening there, the entire family held a party for us. I spent a lot of time entertaining the children, one of whom enjoyed explaining to me in great detail.
Later I said to my wife, “I really thought my Spanish had improved, but when I was talking with Rolando, no matter how hard I concentrated, I couldn't understand a thing he was saying.”
“No one can,” she replied, “he's still learning how to talk.” Section III
At an early age, little girls' conversation is less definite and expresses more doubts, while little boys use conversation to establish status with their listeners.
These differences continue into adult life. In public conversations, men talk more and interrupt other speakers more. In private conversations, men and women speak in equal amounts, although they say things in a different style. For women, private talking is a way to establish and test intimacy. For men, private talking is a way to explore the power structure of a relationship.
Teaching is one job which shows the differences between men's and women's ways of talking. When a man teaches a woman, he wants to show that he has more knowledge, and hence more power in conversation. He uses his language to show this. When a woman teaches another woman, however, she is more likely to take a sharing approach and to encourage her student to join in.
But it doesn't suggest that women are naturally more helpful. Actually, women feel they achieve power by being able to help others.
Part One Viewing, Understanding, and Speaking
Julia: Hello, Nancy.
Nancy: Hey, Julia, how are you doing?
Julia: Good to see you.
Nancy: Oh, it's so good to see you.
Julia: Are you doing OK?
Nancy: I'm doing all right. Come on in.
Julia: Thank you.
Julia: The taxi driver came right here.
Nancy: It's pretty easy to find.
Julia: Yeah, it's not too bad.
Nancy: Oh, come in.
Julia: Thank you.
Nancy: Come and have a seat.
Julia: Thank you. Your home is lovely.
Nancy: Oh, thank you. Thank you. These are my children.
Julia: (to kids) How are you?
Kids: Good. Thanks.
Nancy: Would you like something to drink?
Julia: I would, if you don't mind.
Nancy: Let me get something.
Julia: Thank you very much. ... (Nancy brings the drink.) Oh, thank you.
Nancy: Be careful. It's hot.
Nancy: You're welcome.
Julia: Smells good... Yeah, I like that.
Julia: It's wonderful to see you again. Tell me how you've been?
Nancy: Well, it's a long story. You would never believe how unlucky I've been. Julia: How come? You were considered to be the luckiest one in our class when we were college students. Do you remember you were the only one chosen to go to Germany for an exchange program?
Nancy: Yes. But that was about the end of my luck.
Julia: No, you had a boyfriend too... Eric, right? (Nancy nods her head.) He was so smart and handsome! You were the envy of all the girls because he fell in love with YOU. We always thought you were a perfect match. Did you marry him?
Nancy: Yes, I did. We had a few wonderful years, and then one day he had a terrible accident.
Julia: An accident?
Nancy: Yes, he was killed on his motorbike. A truck hit him. He was killed instantly. Julia: I'm so sorry to hear that. What bad luck!
Nancy: He left me with two children. (she points to the two children who are playing together.) One was five, one was three. I had quit my job as a programmer to stay at home and care for them. I had no choice but to look for a job to be able to support us. Julia: You were good at computer programming. I wouldn't think that you would have any difficulty in finding a job in that field.
Nancy: You might not believe it, no one wanted to hire a single mother with two children. I was five years out of touch with current programming, latest technology. And the jobs that I did find didn't pay very well.
Julia: What a pity! How did you make a living then?
Nancy: I had to settle as a secretary in a small firm. And the job is dull, the pay is low, and I don't really get along well with my colleagues.
Julia: So, I...I see why you may be feeling unlucky.
Nancy: Well, I thought things would be getting better last year when I found a boyfriend. He liked the kids and the kids liked him. He would be an ideal husband and so we were going to get married last Christmas. On our wedding day, the church building burned down. So we put off the wedding.
Julia: Why didn't you just hold the wedding in a different location?
Nancy: Well, we thought that maybe it was a sign that we weren't meant to be together. Looking back at my recent life, it's been a total failure. I just... even now, things don't seem right. I was so lucky in my first 28 years of life, and now luck seems to have abandoned me. I'm an unlucky person most of the time.
Julia: Oh, you keep complaining about your unhappy life. And,... and recently it's not been so good, but nobody is lucky all the time, and there have been good things in your life also.
Nancy: You have to admit, though, that some people are luckier than others. Nobody can succeed without having a little bit of luck.
Julia: You are no less lucky than many others in this world. Whether you're lucky or not depends on how you think about life. You've been thinking too much about the unpleasant things in your life. But if you would look at things from another point of view, things would probably look a lot different.
Nancy: But how? I can find nothing, nothing lucky in my life happening right now. Julia: Mm, just look at your children. They are so cute and happy! You have to consider them your assets. And you've done a good job with them.
Nancy: Yes! I'm proud of them. To tell the truth, I really do enjoy watching them grow up. Ah, it means everything to me. I really think I am lucky to be a mother to them. Thanks for listening and talking with me. It's been nice talking to you and...and seeing you once more. I see that I really have had a good share of good luck.
Julia: It seems to me you have much to be thankful for. I hope the next time I see you, you'll be feeling like your life is much more successful.
Part Two Listening, Understanding, and Speaking
Wilma Rudolph was the 20th of 22 children in her family. She was born earlier than expected and almost died at birth. When she was 4 years old, she got scarlet fever. One of her legs became paralyzed. At age 9, she began to learn to walk without help. By 12 she could walk very well. Doctors said it was a miracle. That same year she decided to become a runner. She entered a race and came in last. For the next few years every race she entered she came in last. Everyone told her to quit, but she kept on running. One day she actually won a race. And then another. From then on she won every race she entered. Eventually this little girl, who was told she would never walk again, went on to win 3 Olympic gold medals.
I believe I Can Fly
I used to think that I could not go on
And life was nothing but an awful song
But now I know the meaning of true love
I'm leaning on the everlasting arms
*If I can see it
Then I can do it
If I just believe it
There's nothing to it
I believe I can fly
I believe I can touch the sky
I think about it every night and day
Spread my wings and fly away
I believe I can soar
I see me running through that open door
I believe I can fly
I believe I can fly
I believe I can fly
See I was on the verge of breaking down
Sometimes silence can seem so loud
There are miracles in life I must achieve
But first I know it starts inside of me
(Repeat the part marked with “*”.)
'Cause I believe in me
(Repeat the part marked with “*”.)
If I just spread my wings
I can fly
I can fly
I can fly
If I just spread my wings
I can fly
A woman came out of her house and saw three old men with long white beards sitting in her front ya rd. She did not recognize them. She said, “I don't think I know you, but you must be hungry. Please come in and have something to eat.” “Is the man of the house home?” they asked. “No,” she said, “He's out.” “Then we cannot get in,” they replied.
In the e vening when her husband came home, she told him what had happened. “Go tell them I am home and invite them in!” The woman went out and invited the men in. “We do not go into a house together,” they replied. “Why is that?” she asked. One of the old men expl ained, “His name is Wealth,” pointing to one of his friends, and said pointing to another one, “He is Success, and I am Love.” Then he added, “Now go in and discuss with your husband which one of us you want in your home.” The woman went in and told her husband what was said. Her husband was overjoyed. “Wealth. Let him come and fill our home with wealth!” His wife disagreed, “My dear, why don't we invite Success?” Their daughter-in-law was listening from the other corner of the house. She jumped in with he r own suggestion, “Would it not be better to invite Love? Our home will then be filled with love!” “Let us listen to our daughter-in-law's advice,” said the husband to his wife. “Go out and invite Love to be our guest.”
The woman went out and asked three old men, “Which one of you is Love? Please come in and be our guest.” Love got up and started walking towards the house. The
other two also got up and followed him. Surprised, the lady asked Wealth and Success, “I only invited Love. Why are you coming in?”The old men replied together, “If you had invited Wealth or Success, the other two of us would have stayed out, but since you invited Love, wherever he goes, we go with him. Wherever there is love, there is also wealth and success!”
Part Three More Listening
At the Small College National Wrestling Tournaments, John Talbott of Simpson College won the first place in the 158-pound weight division by defeating four opponents in a row. The unusual thing about this announcement is that John Talbott is missing the lower part of both of his legs! He lost his lower legs just below the knees in an accident when he was nine years old. According to his coach he is the most hard-working wrestler on his team, and he has developed great strength in his upper body and arms by weight training. In addition, John Talbott simply will not accept that his handicap will keep him from doing anything he wants to do in life.
(At a dormitory lounge on a college campus. Two students, John, a biology major, and Mary, an English major, are sharing a morning newspaper.)
John: Did you see this article about Jane Goodall?
Mary: No, but I've heard of the name. I don't remember why she's famous.
John: Well, she's probably the world's top authority on the behavior of chimpanzees and gorillas. She has written several books, published many articles, and lectured all over the world about her studies.
Mary: How did she begin her work in this area?
John: That's quite a story. The article says that she was a timid twenty-six-year old person without a university education when she got the courage to call Louis Leakey, the famous anthropologist at the Museum of Natural History in Kenya. She had been working as a waitress, saving her money, and hoping for a chance to study animals. Mary: What happened next?
John: Leakey offered her a job as his assistant in 1960. She paid her own expenses
for a year, and Leakey then helped her find the money to continue her research and finally finish a university degree in anthropology. Her studies have continued since then, changing our ideas about these animals who are man's closest relatives.
Mary: What is the newspaper writing about her now?
John:She is doing a new TV show next month on “The Animal Planet” where she will tell about her most recent studies in Africa.
Mary: I'd like to see that even though I'm not a biologist.
In the United States, Norman Rockwell is the best-known artist who ever lived. He painted average people, but also recorded major events, such as Lindbergh's flight across the Atlantic in 1927 and Neil Armstrong stepping on the moon many years later. Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson also sat for portraits which he painted.
Rockwell was born in New York in 1894. When a schoolboy, he wanted to compete
in athletics, but was unsuccessful. He was poorly coordinated, had to wear corrective shoes, and also wore very thick glasses. However, he discovered one thing he could do very well. He could draw. From an early age he used his drawing skills to entertain his school friends.
He quit high school to attend art school and finally went to Paris to study modern French painting. He did not do well with this, but he did discover that he really liked
to paint people. He returned to the U.S., studied with leading magazine illustrators of the time, and became successful at painting people.
In 1916, he painted a cover for the popular weekly magazine, The Saturday Evening Post. By 1919 he was its chief cover artist. The American public loved the way he recorded ordinary people and events on the magazine covers. He did so for over 45 years.
Bob: Hi, Mary, what did you find this time?
Mary: Do you remember in our Music Appreciation class we studied music by Ludwig van Beethoven? I found a CD with some of his best-known symphonies. Carol:Oh yes, I think that “Ode to Joy” in his Ninth Symphony is one of the happiest and most joyful pieces of music ever written!
Bob: I agree, but Beethoven had many unhappy times during his life.
Mary: He seemed “born to win” as a musician. He first studied with his father who was a singer and organist in Bonn, Germany. He published his first music at the age
of twelve in 1782, played in private concerts, and had his first public concert in 1795. Carol: But, even though he was a brilliant pianist, it was his original music which he was best known for. I also remember that in 1802 he began to lose his hearing. Was that the end of his music career?
Bob: No, but he became bitter and unhappy after that, and his music, though excellent, was a struggle for him.
Mary:We were told that he could “hear the music in his mind” even though he could not hear the actual music. Despite the many personal disappointments he suffered, he became known as the greatest musician of his time.
Part Four Testing Yourself
Is winning everything? Ask kids and the answer is probably “No”. Ask adults and the answer is probably “Yes”. And it is adults who control sports for young people—with terrible results for many kids.
Twenty million children between the ages of eight and sixteen play organized sports outside school. Their experiences are sometimes very bad. Why? Because of the adults, often their parents, who watch the games.
Children's sports are organized like professional sports. Children play baseball and football. They wear all the equipment that professional athletes wear. They have almost everything that adult players have. And many people come to watch their games, especially the families of the players, their parents, grandparents, brothers and sisters.
Because the children's games are like adult, professional games, their parents want adult, professional competition. When a child drops a ball, his father becomes angry. When a child doesn't run fast, his mother might shout, “Run faster! Run faster!”
And the child? With an angry father and a shouting mother, this is not a happy time. Unhappy and nervous, the child wants to stop playing. The game is not fun now. But he or she can't stop, because the competition is not finished.
(Three students, Sarah, Tom and Jen, are sitting in the student center having a coke. They have been discussing the 100th anniversary of flight.)
Sarah: I'm tired of hearing so much about what winners the Wright brothers were with their first plane flight.
Tom: Why do you say that, Sarah?
Sarah: I have always thought the female pilot Amelia Earhart as even more of a winner.
Jen: I admire her too but she failed to fly around the world in 1937.
Tom: She crashed into the Pacific Ocean, didn't she?
Sarah: No one ever knows for sure, but that probably is what happened.
Tom: Then how is she a winner?
Sarah: She was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean alone. She did this in 1932 in a small plane.
Jen: That's true.
Sarah: Until then, many people said that a woman wasn't strong enough mentally or physically to make such a trip alone. Well, not only did she do it, but she also made the trip faster than anyone had before.
Jen: Good for her!
Sarah: Then in 1935 she flew alone from Hawaii to California, the very first person
to be successful in making the trip.
Tom: But, as I said before, she failed to fly around the world.
Sarah: I don't think Amelia would think that she had really failed.
Sarah: S he had written a letter to her husband in which she said, “I am quite aware of the dangers. I want to do it because I want to do it. Women must try to do things as men have tried. When they fail, their failure must be but a challenge to others.”
Jen: And you are saying that she has challenged others.
Michael Joseph Jackson was born on August 29, 1958, in Gary, Indiana. He was the seventh child of Joseph and Catherine Jackson. Joseph, a steel-mill worker, encouraged his three sons, Sigmund, Toriano, and Jermaine, to practice the guitar and write songs. This trio performed at nightclubs and talent shows.
Young Michael loved to imitate his brothers' dancing and singing. His parents were often amused to find him imitating a song and his brothers' dance steps. As he grew older, they found that he had a natural talent for singing.
He sang his first solo in front of his entire school, the song “Climb Every Mountain”, which was a popular number from the musical The Sound of Music.
By the early 1960s, Joseph decided that Michael and his elder brother, Marlon, should join their older siblings and form a group. The result was “Jackson Five”. This group performed in nightclubs and talent shows. Despite his young age of six, Michael soon distinguished himself as a singer and dancer of unusual ability.
Part One Viewing, Understanding, and Speaking
(It's now 6:05 in the afternoon. Mr. and Mrs. Strong are in the waiting room of an airport. Mr. Strong is reading a newspaper. Mrs. Strong is sitting there idly. Mr. and Mrs. Green approach them.)
Mrs. Green: Excuse me, is this seat taken?
Mrs. Strong: No, it's not taken. Have a seat.
(Mr. and Mrs. Green sit down next to Mr. and Mrs. Strong.)
Mrs. Strong: My name is Strong, Molly Strong. Pleased to meet you.
Mrs. Green: I'm Doris Green. How do you do?
Mrs. Strong: Where are you going?
Mrs. Green: We're going to Copenhagen for our son's wedding. It's tomorrow morning.
Mrs. Strong: Oh, congratulations! That's nice. You must be very excited.
Mrs. Green: You bet! I can hardly believe my little Jackie has grown up and is getting married. (She looks at her watch.) Now it's 6:05 and the flight will take off in 50 minutes. Just imagine in nine hours I'll see Jack and my new daughter-in-law, Alice! I expect they'll come and pick us up at the airport. What about you? Where are you going?
Mrs. Strong: We are going to New York by TWA Flight 1070. Our daughter recently had a baby. My first grandchild.
Mrs. Green: You must be thrilled.
Mrs. Strong: Yeah, I can't wait to see my dear grandson. This is him, Nick. (She takes out a picture of Nick and shows it to Mrs. Green.)
Mrs. Green: (She looks closely at the photo.) He's lovely!
(Suddenly, a voice comes out through a loudspeaker.)
(Loudspeaker: Attention, please. AA Flight 644 to Copenhagen will be delayed. Attention, please.
AA Flight 644 to Copenhagen will be delayed.)
Mrs. Green: Oh, my goodness! What's up? It seems the flight to Copenhagen won't be on time. I'd better go and call Jackie about the delay.
Mr. Green: (He looks up from the newspaper.) No hurry. It doesn't say how long the flight will be delayed. Let's wait and see.
Mrs. Green: Well, OK, let's wait a while.
Mrs. Strong: Don't worry. I'm sure things will turn out fine in the end.
(Just at that time, another voice comes out through a loudspeaker.) (Loudspeaker: Attention, please. TWA Flight 1070 to New York is overdue because of mechanical problems. It's stopping in Chicago for maintenance. We'll keep you informed when we know more.)
Mrs. Strong: Oh, no! Our flight is delayed as well.
Mr. Strong: (He looks up from the newspaper.) Take it easy. It says the flight is overdue because of mechanical problems. I believe the mechanics will solve the problems soon.
Mrs. Strong: OK.
(As time goes by, Mr. and Mrs. Green become more and more anxious. Mr. Green can't read the newspaper any more. He walks back and forth in the waiting room. Mrs. Strong is comforting Mrs. Green.)
Mrs. Green: I can't wait any more. It's 7:15. We've been waiting for over an hour, but there's been no further information. What on earth is happening?
Mr. Green: Who knows! It could be bad weather, mechanical problems, a bomb threat, whatever.
Mrs. Strong: Why don't you go to the Information Desk and ask them about the causes of the delay?
Mr. Green: That's not a bad idea. Let's go there now.
(Mr. and Mrs. Green leave for the Information Desk.)
Mrs. Strong: (to Mr. Strong) I'll go and buy some magazines.
Mr. Strong: Go ahead. I'll be here waiting for you.
Mrs. Strong: OK.
(Mrs. Strong stands up and goes around the airport. Mr. Strong continues reading the newspaper. Several minutes later, Mrs. Strong comes back with some magazines in her right hand.)
Mr. Strong: What did you get?
Mrs. Strong:Cosmo, Life and Good Housekeeping. Any further news about our flight yet?
Mr. Strong: Nothing, up to now.
(Loudspeaker: Attention, please. TWA Flight 1070 to New York is overdue because of a door problem. The mechanics expect that the door will be repaired in 30 minutes. We'll keep you advised as we know more.)
Mr. Strong: Well, it seems we have lots of time. Why not go and get a bite to eat? Mrs. Strong: Good idea. Let's go to the coffee shop.
(Mr. and Mrs. Green arrive at the Information Desk.)
Mr. Green: Excuse me, can you tell me why AA Flight 644 to Copenhagen is delayed?
Agent: I'm sorry, sir. We don't have any further information about that.
Mr. Green: Then how long will it be delayed?
Agent: Sorry, sir. We really don't know. You'll just have to wait. We'll inform you through the loudspeaker as soon as possible.
Mrs. Green: (She says angrily.) We've been waiting for ages and there's been no further information about the delay. How long will we have to wait? We are going to our son's wedding. We can't miss it.
Agent: I understand how you feel, madam. We'll try to find out the causes as soon as possible.
(Mr. and Mrs. Green go back to the waiting room of the airport. They become increasingly impatient.)
Mrs. Green: Isn't it annoying? Nobody is telling us anything.
Mr. Green: That's the limit! I can't bear it any longer. Let's go and find seating on an airline that flies to Copenhagen.
Mrs. Green: Why not? We're not getting any help from this airline.
(Mr. and Mrs. Green leave the waiting room angrily.)
(Mr. and Mrs. Strong are sitting leisurely at the coffee shop. Light music is on, and they feel very comfortable.)
Mrs. Strong: (She looks at her watch.) Oh, time is flying. It's 7:30. Hurry up. The flight will be announced soon.
Mr. Strong: Take your time. We're in no great rush. We can hear the announcement here if there is one.
(Loudspeaker: Attention, please. TWA Flight 1070 to New York is overdue because of mechanical problems. We are sorry to announce that the problems are more complex than initially expected. Those who are without luggage and need to leave right away can take TWA Flight 1120 at Gate 6. TWA Flight 1120 will leave from Gate 6 at 7:45.)
Mr. Strong: (He smiles.) See? Let's go to take TWA Flight 1120.
Mrs. Strong: Good.
Part Two Listening, Understanding, and Speaking
A potato farmer was sent to prison just at the time when he should have been digging the ground for planting the new crop of potatoes. He knew that his wife would not be strong enough to do the digging by herself, but she could manage to do the planting; and he also knew that he did not have any friends or neighbors who would be willing
to do the digging for him. So he wrote a letter to his wife which said, “Please do not dig the potato field. I hid the money and the gun there.”
Ten days later he got a letter from his wife. It said, “I think somebody is reading your letters before they go out of the prison. Some policemen arrived here two days ago and dug up the whole potato field. What shall I do now?”
The prisoner wrote back at once, “Plant the potatoes, of course.”
The manager of a large office building received many complaints about the lift service in the building. He hired a group of engineers to study the situation. They suggested two solutions:
1. adding more lifts of the same type;
2. replacing the lifts with faster ones.
The manager decided that both suggestions were too expensive. So he asked a psychologist to study the problem. The psychologist noticed that many people felt angry and impatient because they thought they had to wait too long for the lifts. However, the psychologist found that they had to wait only a relatively short time. It occurred to him that the reason they felt angry and impatient was that they had nothing to do while they were waiting for the lifts. He suggested a simple, inexpensive solution to the manager. This was adopted and complaints stopped immediately. The solution was to place a large mirror next to the lifts.
Part Three More Listening
After just a few years of marriage, filled with constant arguments, a young man and his wife decided the only way to save their marriage was to try therapy. They had been at each other's throats for some time and felt that this was their last resort. When they arrived at the therapist's office, the therapist jumped right in and opened the floor for discussion, “What seems to be the problem?” Immediately, the husband held his long face down without anything to say. On the other hand, the wife began describing all the wrongs within their marriage.
After 5—10—15 minutes of listening to the wife, the therapist went over to her, picked her up by her shoulders, kissed her for several minutes, and sat her back down. Afterwards, the wife sat there—speechless.
He looked over at the husband who was staring in disbelief at what had happened. The therapist spoke to the husband, “Your wife NEEDS that at least twice a week!” The husband scratched his head and replied, “I can have her here on Tuesdays and Thursdays.”
Not everyone in the world requires the same amount of living space. The amount of space a person needs around him is a cultural preference, not an economic one. Knowing your own psychological space needs is important because they strongly influence your choices, including, for example, the number of bedrooms in the home. If you were brought up in a two-child family and both you and your sister or brother had your own bedrooms, then it's very likely that you will also provide separate bedrooms for your children. In America they train people to want their own private rooms by giving them their own rooms when they are babies. This is very rare in the world. In many cultures the baby sleeps in the same bed with his parents or in a crib near their bed.
The areas in the home where people meet also reveal a lot about psychological space needs. Some families cluster, and the size of their house has nothing to do with it. Others have separate little places where family members go to be alone.
新编大学英语教案(第二册)_U n i t2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s -CAL-FENGHAI-(2020YEAR-YICAI)_JINGBIAN
Unit Two Communication problems Teaching Objectives 1. Let the students have some ideas of the common ways we usually use in our daily life to communicate. 2. Make the students find the efficient ways to communicate with each other. 3. Let the students come up with the ways to avoid misunderstandings. Teaching allotment six academic hours Focus points 1.key words and phrases assume, conflict, convey, emphasis, ignore, misinterpret, react, verge, feel like, for effect, on the verge of, pull out, take----lightly 2.difficult sentences 1) When Martians and Venusians first got together, they encountered many of the problems with relationships we have today. 2) So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. 3) To fully express their feelings, women would tend to exaggerate the facts a little bit for effect and use various superlatives, metaphors, and generalizations. 3.grammar focus prefix “mis---”的不同意义 Related Information It is well-known that learning a second language is never easy, and, generally speaking, the older one is when one attempts a new language, the more difficult it becomes. This is at least partly due to what is known as language interference, meaning that the linguistic patterns of our first language interfere with those of the second because no two languages have exactly the same sounds and grammatical structures. The English language has a very large vocabulary because it has incorporated words from many other languages over the centuries. This is nowhere more apparent than in its color words. For example, there are many words that express the color “purple”, describing its different shades and hues: mauve, violet, lilac, or lavender. An interesting 2
Reading comprehension 1略 2 BDCAC AADBB Vocabulary 1. 1) A. entertaining B. entertainment C. entertained D. entertainer 2) A. recognizable B. recognized C. recognition 3) A. tempting B. temptation C. tempt 4) A. reasoned B. reasoning C. reasonable D. reason 5) A. analyzed B. analytical C. analyst D. analysis 6) A. valuable B. valuation C. valued/values D. values 7) A. humorist B. humor C. humorous D. humorless 8) A. understandable B. understanding C. understand D. misunderstood 2. 1) a sense of responsibility 2) a sense of safety/security 3) a sense of inferiority 4) a sense of superiority 5) a sense of rhythm 6) a sense of justice 7) a sense of shame 8) a sense of helplessness 9) a sense of direction 10) a sense of urgency 3. 1) Lively behavior is normal 2) Fast cars appeal to 3) diverse arguments 4) I asked my boss for clarification 5) sensitive to light 6) Mutual encouragement 7) made fun of him 8) persists in his opinion/viewpoint 9) to be the focus/center of attention 10) we buy our tickets in advance 4. 1）certain/sure 2) involved 3) end 4) behavior 5) disciplining 6) agreed 7) individually 8) first 9) response 10) question 11) attempt 12) voice 13) directly 14) followed 15) trouble Unit 2 便笺的力量 Reading comprehension 1略 2 FFTFTFTFTTFTFT Vocabulary 1. Creating Compound Words
新编大学英语3 第二版（课后翻译习题） Unite 1(P17) 1) 你应该适当花一点时间休息和锻炼。 (reasonable ) You should spend a reasonable amount of time relaxing and exercising. 2) 总的来说，孩子们比过去任何时候都更健康，受到了更好的教育。(in general) In general children are healthier and better educated than ever before. 3) 待适当的机会来临，他就能抓住。(come along) When the right opportunity comes along, he’ll take it. 4)每天他都留出点时间跟家里人在一起，享受生活。(set aside) Every day he sets aside some time to be with his family and enjoy life. 5) 我记得那些黑暗的街道以及同父亲手拉手走路的情景。(hand in hand) I remember those dark streets and walking hand in hand with my father. 6) 他最终辜负了父母的期望。(live up to) He finally failed to live up to his parents’ expectations. 7) 相比之下，我们的用油量最大幅度上升了。(in contrast) In contrast, our use of oil has increased enormously. 8) 经过努力，他成功地克服了自己的致命弱点。(overcome) He succeeded in his efforts to overcome his fatal weakness. Unite 3(P113) 1)由于紧急情况，这位医生几个小时内都是没有空。(because of) Because of an emergency, the doctor will not be available for several hours. 2) 税收将会如何影响低收入的人群？(affect) How will taxes affect people with low income? 3) 我母亲总是告诉我，从长远来看我会很高兴我没有放弃练钢琴。(in the long run)
Unit 1 Love Part 2 Reading-Centered Activities *Reading Comprehension 1. Para.1-4 C para.5-7 A para.8-11 B para.12-13 D 2. 1) They would stare at them. 2) He felt embarrassed/ashamed. 3) He never let on. 4) He usually walked there with the help of his son. 5) He was pulled on a child’s sleigh to the subway station. 6) He liked baseball, dances, and parties. 7) He asked them to sit down and fight with him. 8) He was proud of his son. 9) He missed him very much and was sorry for what he had thought about him. 10) He learned to have a good heart from his father. 3. 1) C 2) A 3) C 4) B 5) D 6) A 7) B 8) C 9) D 10) A 4. 1) the difficulty in coordinating the steps 2) whether a person has a good heart 3) a good heart 4) the baseball team 5) sat down to fight 6) what the son has achieved, i.e. serving in the Navy 7) sensed my reluctance to be seen with him during our walks 8) the reluctance to walk with him *Vocabulary 1. 1) urged 2) bother 3) embarrassed 4) adjusted 5) complain 6) kid 7) subject 8) saw to it that 9) coordinate 10) participate in 2. patient--patience enter--entrance Bitter--bitterness complain--complaint Fortunate--fortune envy--envious
Unit 7 The Joy of Travel Transformative Travel Twenty-five years ago I felt like a wreck. Although I was just 23, my life already seemed over. The future appeared as much like a wasteland as the emptiness I could see while looking back to the past. I felt lost, without choices, without hope. I was stuck in a job I hated and trapped in an engagement with a woman I didn't love. At the time, both commitments seemed like a good idea, but I suppose it was the fantasy of being a successful, married businessman that appealed to me far more than the reality. I decided to take a class just for the entertainment value. It happened to be an introductory counseling course, one that involved personal sharing in the group. We were challenged to make commitments publicly about things we would like to change in our lives, and in a moment of pure impulsiveness, I declared that by the next class meeting I was going to quit my job and end my engagement. A few days later I found myself unemployed and unattached, excited by the freedom, yet terrified about what to do next. I needed some kind of transition from my old life to a new one, a sort of ritual that would help me to transform myself from one person into another. So I did something just as impulsive as my previous actions: I booked a trip for a week in Aruba. In spite of what others might have thought, I was not running away from something but to something. I wanted a clean break, and I knew I needed to get away from my usual environment and influences so as to think clearly about where I was headed. Once settled into my room on the little island of Aruba, I began my process of self-change. I really could have been anywhere as long as nobody could reach me by phone and I had the peace and quiet to think about what I wanted to do. I spent the mornings going for long walks on the beach, the afternoons sitting under my favorite tree, reading books and listening to tapes. Probably most important of all, I forced myself to get out of my room and go to meet people. Ordinarily shy, I now decided that I was someone who was perfectly capable of having a conversation with anyone I chose. Since nobody knew the "real" me, the way I had always been, I felt free to be completely different. It took me almost a year to pay off that trip, but I am convinced that my single week in Aruba was worth three years in therapy. That trip started a number of processes that helped me to transform myself. This is how I did it: I created a mindset that made me ready for change. I expected that big things were
Unit 3 Gender Difference Gender Roles from a Cultural Perspective Over the past few decades, it has been proven innumerable times that the various types of behavior, emotions, and interests that constitute being masculine and feminine are patterned by both heredity and culture. In the process of growing up, each child learns hundreds of culturally patterned details of behavior that become incorporated into its gender identity. Some of this learning takes place directly. In other words, the child is told by others how to act in an appropriately feminine or masculine way. Other details of gender behavior are taught unconsciously, or indirectly, as the culture provides different images, aspirations, and adult models for girls and boys. Recently, for example, a study of American public schools showed that there is a cultural bias in education that favors boys over girls. According to the researchers, the bias is unintentional and unconscious, but it is there and it is influencing the lives of millions of schoolchildren every year. Doctors David and Myra Sadker videotaped classroom teachers in order to study gender-related bias in education. Their research showed that many teachers who thought they were nonsexist were amazed to see how biased they appeared on videotape. From nursery school to postgraduate courses, teachers were shown to call on males in class far more than on female students. This has a tremendous impact on the learning process for, in general, those students who become active classroom participants develop more positive attitudes and go on to higher achievement. As a matter of fact, in the late 1960s, when many of the best all-women's colleges in the northeastern United States opened their doors to male students, it was observed by professors and women students alike that the boys were "taking over" the classroom discussions and that active participation by women students had diminished noticeably. A similar subordination of female to male students has also been observed in law and medical school classrooms in recent years. 3 Research done by the Sadkers showed that sometimes teachers unknowingly prevented girls from participating as actively as boys in class by assigning them different tasks in accordance with stereotyped gender roles. For instance, one teacher conducting a science class with nursery school youngsters, continually had the little boys perform the scientific "experiment" while the girls were given the task of putting the materials away. Since hands-on work with classroom materials is a very important aspect of early education, the girls were thus being deprived of a vital learning experience that would affect their entire lives.
Unit 9 Music In-Class Reading Music to Your Gear 参考译文 音乐与开车 安迪·埃利斯 1 尽管音乐能使你胸中的怒气平息，但是开车时听音乐也会损害你的健康。近期研究表明，听声音很响的音乐会严重地影响司机的注意力，而且心理学家也提醒人们，不断地在车里放这种音乐是很危险的，尤其是处于车流中或在高速公路上开车时。 2 音乐有两个极端，任何一个极端都有可能带来危险。重金属音乐以其强烈的节奏会使人莽撞驾驶，而聆听处于另一个极端的优美的、令人舒心的音乐，会使司机过分放松，以至于丧失安全意识，陷入迷迷糊糊的欲睡状态。 3 英国汽车协会一直关注道路安全，它委托搞了一个项目，研究严重车祸与音乐之间的关系。这项研究发现，17至25年龄段的男人是最危险、最易产生车祸的群体。研究还发现，这个群体的人70%的开车时间都在听音乐。 4 快节奏或重金属音乐要是放得很响，会使人易怒好斗，开起车来就会冲劲十足，这种司机也就更容易去冒险。开车的速度受到了音乐的速度和节奏的控制。 5 在试验中，给那些自愿参加实验的司机听声音很响的音乐，他们说尽管他们不一定感到非要开快车，但的确发现自己换档更快了，加速也快了，刹车更急了。若是让这些司机听慢节奏的抒情曲，他们承认经常感到自己走神，他们在高速公路上长途开车时，至少有两位参试的司机发现自己不知不觉地在跨越车道标记。 6 这些自愿参试的司机（有些刚刚拿到驾驶执照）所发表的意见非常说明问题。十八岁的西蒙告诉英国汽车协会，“《走出地狱的蝙蝠》里的快节奏摇滚乐真会让人送命的。我发现自己不知不觉地越开越快。” 7 另一名自愿参试的司机一直在听ZZ Top乐队最流行的曲子，他说，“我一直在快速行驶，扯着嗓门唱歌，没有看见也没有听见那辆一直想超过我的消防车。” 8 还有些人说：“我陷入了深思”…… “人的感觉会变得麻木” …… “听不见别的汽车是个问题”，“我一直在随着音乐的节奏加快速度。” 9 一些慢节奏的背景音乐，如肖邦的音乐，会刺激人的大脑，使思维模式发生变化，激发阿尔法脑波，使人有一种舒服愉快的感觉。处于放松状态在大多数情况下对我们有好处，但开车时则不然。心理学家雪利?费希尔教授提醒人们说：“最大的危险是疲劳驾驶。有些音乐会使你无法集中注意力，甚至陷入轻度睡眠状态，那样就会造成可怕的惨祸。” 10 “问题的关键在于根据具体情况选择合适的音乐。刺激性的音乐适合在漫长、枯燥的道路上听，但是当交通状况糟糕时，或是交通拥挤时，这种音乐会分散你的注意力。” 11 然而，音乐也有其好的一面，正如英国汽车协会的心理学家罗伯特?韦斯特所指出的那样：“如果有些音乐影响我们安全行驶，那么反过来也是有道理的。
新编大学英语（第二版第三册）习题答案 新编大学英语（第三册）习题答案 新编大学英语（第二版）》由浙江大学编著，应惠兰主编，外语教学与研究出版社出版，刊出其习题答案是为了我三合在读大学生,同时欢迎关注三合的朋友们分享，更多内容请点击博客首页并在“搜博主文章”中按关键字搜索。 Unit 1 Personality V ocabulary (P16) 1. 1) self-conscious 2) self-confidence 3) self-esteem 4) self-destructive 5) self-worth 6) self-concept 7) Self-awareness 8) self-assurance/self-confidence 2. 1)B 2)I 3)L 4)A 5)H 6)D 7)E 8)N 9)J 10)M 11)C 12)F 13)G 14)K 3. 1) profound 2) jealousy 3) numerous 4) overweight 5) overcome 6) eventually 7) slim 8) compliments 9) diminish 10) reassurance 11) detrimental 12) isolated 13) self-esteem 14) accented 4. 1) reflected 2) concerned/worried 3) profound effect/influence 4) viewed/regarded 5)sensitive 6) respond/react 7)eliminated 8)overcome my fear 9) concentrate on 10) made no comment Translation (P17) 1) You should spend a reasonable amount of time relaxing and exercising. 2) In general children are healthier and better educated than ever before. 3) When the right opportunity comes along, he’ll take it. 4) Every day he sets aside some time to be with his family and enjoy life. 5) I remember those dark streets and walking hand in hand with my father. 6) He finally failed to live up to his parents’ expectations. 7) In contrast, our use of oil has increased enormously. 8) He succeeded in his efforts to overcome his fatal weakness. Part Four Writing and Translation (P46) 2. Translation Practice 1) It is believed that pessimism often leads to hopelessness, sickness and failure. 2) Optimism, by contrast, can make you happy, healthy and successful. 3) When you fail in something, profit from the failure as a learning experience. 4) Think about your strengths and build up self-confidence in front of problems or difficulties. 5) Don’t let negative thoughts hold you back. 6) Everyone has experienced failures and disappointments, so don’t blame yourself too much. Unit 2 Myths and Legends V ocabulary (P62) 1. 1) A. invitation B. invited C. inviting 2) A. prepare B. prepared C. preparation D. preparatory/preparation 3) A. discoveries B. discoverers C. discovered 4) A. approval B. approve C. approved D. approving E. disapprove 5) A. eloquent B. eloquence C. eloquently 6) A. faithful B. unfaithful/faithless C. faith d. faithfully
Unit 3 Born to Win Part 2 Reading-Centered Activities *Reading Comprehension 1.1) Introduction (Para.1) Each person has the potential to win in his own way. 2) The meaning of “winner” and “loser”(Para.2) A winter is one who responds genuinely by being trustworthy and responsive. A loser is one who fails to respond genuinely. 3) Few people are winners and losers all the time.(Para.3) 4) Winners (Para. 4-7) Characteristics of a winner: A. A winter is genuine. B. A winner is not afraid to do his own thinking and to use his own knowledge. C. A winner is flexible. D. A winner has a love for life. E. A winner cares about the world and its people. 5) Losers (Para. 8-10) Possible causes: Poor nutrition, cruelty, unhappy relationship, disease, continuing disappointments, and inadequate physical care. Characteristics of a loser: A. A loser lacks the ability to appropriately express himself through a full range of possible behavior. B. A loser has difficulty giving and receiving love. 2. 1) C 2) A 3) A 4) B 5) C *Vocabulary 1. 1) appreciate A.感激 B. 欣赏，赏识 2 ) capacity A. 容量，容积，容纳力 B. 能力，力量，才能
Unit 1 ●Part Two Reading centered activities Pre-reading Reading Comprehension 1.Understanding the structure of the passage Para.1-4 c para.5-7 a para.8-11 b para.12-13 d 2. 1) They would stare at them. 2) He felt embarrassed/ ashamed 3) He never let on. 4) He usually walked there with the help of his son 5) He was pulled on a child’s sleigh to the subway station 6) He like basketball, dances, and parties 7) He asked them to sit down and fight with him. 8) He was proud of his son 9) He missed him very much and was sorry for what he had thought about him. 10) He learned to have a good heart from his father. 3. 1) C 2) A 3) C 4) B 5) D 6) A7) B 8) C 9) D 10) A 4. Understanding the reference Words. 1)the difficulty in coordination the steps 2)whether a person has a good heart 3) a good heart 4)the baseball team 5)sat down to fight 6)what the son has achieved 7)sensed 8)the reluctance to walk with him ●Vocabulary 1. 1) urged 2) halted 3) bother 4) embarrassed 5) adjusted 6) complain 7) kid 8)engage 9)subject 10)saw to it that 11)coordinate 12)participate 2.Word-building patience
课内阅读参考译文及课后习题答案(Book 4) Unit 1 享受幽默—什么东西令人开怀？ 1 听了一个有趣的故事会发笑、很开心，古今中外都一样。这一现象或许同语言本身一样悠久。那么，到底是什么东西会使一个故事或笑话让人感到滑稽可笑的呢？ 2 我是第一次辨识出幽默便喜欢上它的人，因此我曾试图跟学生议论和探讨幽默。这些学生文化差异很大，有来自拉丁美洲的，也有来自中国的。我还认真地思考过一些滑稽有趣的故事。这么做完全是出于自己的喜好。 3 为什么听我讲完一个笑话后，班上有些学生会笑得前仰后合，而其他学生看上去就像刚听我读了天气预报一样呢？显然，有些人对幽默比别人更敏感。而且，我们也发现有的人很善于讲笑话，而有的人要想说一点有趣的事却要费好大的劲。我们都听人说过这样的话：“我喜欢笑话，但我讲不好，也总是记不住。”有些人比别人更有幽默感，就像有些人更具有音乐、数学之类的才能一样。一个真正风趣的人在任何场合都有笑话可讲，而且讲了一个笑话，就会从他记忆里引出一连串的笑话。一个缺乏幽默感的人不可能成为一群人中最受欢迎的人。一个真正有幽默感的人不仅受人喜爱，而且在任何聚会上也往往是人们注意的焦点。这么说是有道理的。 4 甚至有些动物也具有幽默感。我岳母从前经常来我们家，并能住上很长一段时间。通常她不喜欢狗，但却很喜欢布利茨恩—我们养过的一条拉布拉多母猎犬。而且，她们的这种喜欢是相互的。布利茨恩在很小的时候就常常戏弄外祖母，当外祖母坐在起居室里她最喜欢的那张舒适的椅子上时，布利茨恩就故意把她卧室里的一只拖鞋叼到起居室，并在外祖母刚好够不到的地方蹦来跳去，一直逗到外祖母忍不住站起来去拿那只拖鞋。外祖母从椅子上一起来，布利茨恩就迅速跳上那椅子，从它那闪亮的棕色眼睛里掠过一丝拉布拉多式的微笑，无疑是在说：“啊哈，你又上了我的当。” 5 典型的笑话或幽默故事由明显的三部分构成。第一部分是铺垫（即背景），接下来是主干部分（即故事情节），随后便是妙语（即一个出人意料或令人惊讶的结尾）。如果这个妙语含有一定的幽默成分，这个笑话便会很有趣。通常笑话都包含这三部分，而且每部分都必须交代清楚。如果讲故事或说笑话的人使用听众都熟悉的手势和语言，则有助于增强效果。 6 我们可以对幽默这种娱乐形式，进行分析，从而发现究竟是什么使一个有趣的故事或笑话令人发笑。举例来说，最常见的幽默有以下几种，包括了从最显而易见的幽默到比较微妙含蓄的幽默。 7 “滑稽剧”是最明显的幽默。它语言简单、直截了当，常常以取笑他人为乐。说笑打闹这种形式过去是、现在仍然是滑稽说笑演员和小丑的惯用技巧。它为不同年龄、不同文化背景的人们所喜爱。几乎本世纪的每个讲英语的滑稽说笑演员都曾以这样或那样的方式说过下面这则笑话。一位男士问另一位男士：“昨晚我看到的那位和你在一起的贵妇是谁？”那位男士回答道：“那可不是什么贵妇，那是我老婆。”这个笑话的幽默之处在于第二位男士说他的妻子不是一位贵妇，也就是说她不是一个高雅的女人。这个笑话并没有因为经常讲而变得不再那么好笑。由于这是一个经典笑话，观众都知道要说什么，而且因为大家对这个笑话很熟悉而更加珍爱它。 8 中国的相声是一种特殊的滑稽剧。相声中两名中国喜剧演员幽默地谈论诸如官僚主义者、家庭问题或其他一些有关个人的话题。相声随处都能听到，无论是在乡村的小舞台上，还是在北京最大的剧院里，抑或在广播、电视上。它显然是中国人家喻户晓的一种传统的幽默形式。 9 “俏皮话”不像滑稽剧那样浅显，它是因语言的误用或误解而引人发笑。我特别喜欢
Music to Your Gears Andy Ellis 1 尽管音乐能使心中的怒气平息，但是开车时听音乐也会损害你的健康。近期研究表明，听声音很响的音乐会严重地影响司机的注意力，而且心理学家也提醒人们，持续大音量地在车里放这种音乐是很危险的，尤其是处于车流中或是在高速公路上开车时。 2 音乐有两个极端，任何一个极端都有可能带来危险。重金属音乐以其强烈的节奏使人莽撞驾驶，而聆听处于另一个极端的优美而令人舒心的音乐会使司机过分放松，以至于超过安全限度，陷入迷糊状态。 3 英国汽车协会一直关注道路安全，它委托搞了一个项目，研究重大车祸与音乐之间的关系。这项研究发现，17至25年龄段的男性是最危险、最易产生车祸的群体。研究还发现，这个群体的人70％的开车时间都在听音乐。 4 快节奏或重金属音乐要是放得很响，会使人易怒好斗，开起车来冲劲十足。这种司机也就更容易去冒险。开车的速度受到了音乐的速度和节奏的控制。 5 在试验中，那些自愿参加实验的司机说，听了声音很响的音乐，他们说尽管他们不一定感到非要开快车，但的确发现自己换挡更快，加速更快，刹车也更急了若是让这些司机听慢节奏的抒情曲，他们承认自己经常走神。在一次高速公路长途驾驶过程中，至少有两位参加试验的司机发现自己在不知不觉中跨越了车道标志。 6 这些自愿参试的司机（有些刚刚拿到驾驶执照）所发表的意见非常说明问题18岁的西蒙告诉英国汽车协会：“《走出地狱的蝙蝠》里的快节奏摇滚乐有可能让人送命。我发现自己不知不觉地越开越快。” 7 另一名自愿参试的司机一直在听“ZZ顶级”乐队最流行的曲子。他说：“我一直在快速行驶，扯着嗓门唱歌，没有看见也没有听见那辆一直想超过我的消防车。” 8 还有些人说：“我陷入了深思……”，“人的感觉会变得麻木……”，“听不见别的汽车声是个问题”，“我一直在随着音乐的节奏加快速度。” 9 一些慢节奏的背景音乐，如肖邦的音乐，会刺激人的大脑，使思维模式发生变化，激发阿尔法脑波，使人有一种舒服愉快的感觉。处于放松状态在大多数时候对我们有好处，但开车时则不然。心理学家雪利·费希尔教授提醒人们说：“最大的危险是疲倦驾驶。有一些音乐会使你无法集中注意力，甚至陷入轻度睡眠状态，那样就会造成可怕的惨祸。” 10 “问题的关键在于根据具体情况选择合适的音乐。刺激性的音乐适合在漫长、枯燥的道路上听，但是当交通状况糟糕时，或是交通拥挤时，这种音乐会分散你的注意力。” 11 然而，音乐也有其好的一面，正如英国汽车协会的心理学家罗伯特·韦斯特所指出的那样：“如果说有些音乐影响我们安全行驶，那么反过来也是有道理的。精心选择的曲子有助于我们安全行驶，尤其是对高风险的群体而言。例如，要是我们能使年轻的男性驾车者听曼托瓦尼的音乐，他们很可能会把速度放慢。但可悲的是，我自认为没有能力说服他们许多人去这样做。” 12 除了一些音乐会影响行驶安全，我们的车里安装了高技术的音响系统这件事本身也是引起车祸的根源。近期一份有关交通与道路安全的报告表明，小交通事故中，有大约40％是由于人们更换磁带或光盘不看道路所引起的！ 13 无论我们对音乐的品位如何，无论我们的开车风格如何，看来安全行驶的习惯是我们一定要养成的。罗孚汽车公司、英国航空航天局、飞利浦公司及瑞典道路与交通研究所已通力合作生产出了一种汽车智能系统——简称为ARIADNE（实时智能驾驶助理）的精密电子防撞行驶报警装置。它利用雷达技术，一旦面临撞车危险，雷达会使车内的电话响起，警告司机注意。 14 如果汽车与前面的车辆之间的距离超出了安全刹车的范围，ARIADNE会通过加速器踏板发出震动以提醒司机放慢速度。随着两车之间的距离不断缩小，这种震荡会越来越强烈。要是司机