Unit 1 Love
1.To require students think what makes a good heart.
2.To help students learn to express and remember the words.
3. To get the students communicate with each other bravely.
4.To guide the students to use some important words and useful expressions.
1.Students are able to get a clear picture of the text .
2.Students are required to master the new words and phrases in the passage.
3.Students should read some reading materials and do exercises after class .
https://www.sodocs.net/doc/6c13064180.html,municative method (交际法)
3.Functional and notional method(功能意念法)
4.The grammar-translation method
1. Preparation and analyses of the text A (2 hours)
2.Analyses of the text A and exercises (2 hours)
3.Analyses of the text B and Reading and exercises(2 hours)
4.Listening and speaking(1 hour)
Focuses and difficulties
https://www.sodocs.net/doc/6c13064180.html,prehension of text A.
2.Some words and phrases in the text
adjust bother complain content d espite embarrass envy occasion reluctant urge break out engage in set the pace subject…to
2. Grammatical Knowledge
1. Preparation (Period 1&2)
1.1 What is love? What kind of love impresses you most and why?
Love makes the world go round.
Love is what makes you smile when you’re tired.
Love is when you tell a guy you like his shirt, then he wears it every day.
Love is a universal and permanent topic. Whether it is a mother’s nurturing love fo r her child, a son’s loyal love for his father, the love between husband and wife, or the love between friends, love is a universal emotion that expresses itself in every culture. To love is to be human. To need love is also to be human. Children, for example, need loving care in order to be emotionally healthy.
Usually love is a deep feeling of fondness, affection and friendship that grows between two
people. Romantic love usually begins as passion and evolves with time to a more lasting sense of attachment. Many of the famous romantic love stories in various cultures end in the tragedies of death or betrayal. The loss of love is a favorite musical theme and the subject of countless stories, operas, songs, and ballads.
Love is actually more than the romantic emotion between a man and a woman; it has a wide sense of meaning. It may include our love for our family, love of our hometown, old school, former classmates, love of life, animals and nature and so on.
Love plays an important part in our life. It is love that gives us courage to overcome difficulties when we are in trouble, while the loss of love may make one broken-hearted. Suggested Examples:
Motherly love impresses me most, because she is always very kind to me, unlike my father who will scold me or slap me if I make mistakes or if I am naughty. My mother is an ordinary-looking woman, but in my eyes she is very beautiful. She is very hard-working and does almost all the housework. When I was working for the entrance examinations, she was very considerate and never let me do any housework. When I was hungry at night, she would fix a snack for me. She is a good cook. It’s a pity that I am not able to have what she cooks because I am far away from home now.
1.2 What is the difference between fatherly love and motherly love according to Enrich comments?
Erich Fromm’s Statements:
Motherly love by its nature is unconditional. Mother loves the newborn infant because it is her child, not because the child has fulfilled any specific condition, or lived up to any expectation. Fatherly love is conditional love. Its principle is “I love you because you fulfill my expectations, because you do your duty, because you are like me ”
It is true that motherly love is unconditional. I believe what I’ve got from my mother is the deepest love I’ve ever received. (When I was at home, mother took good care of me…/ celebrate my birthdays/ woke me up and prepared breakfast/ Now I am away from home, she calls me every two or three days…) It seems that my life is much more important than hers.
As for fatherly love, I am not sure if his love is conditional, but obviously it’s different from mother’s love. Father also loves me very much (care about education, future, not daily life; help in study and progress…) .
Can you tell the difference between them according to your personal experiences?
I think there’s something in his statements, although it is hard for me to identify whose love is fatherly and whose love is motherly in the case of my parents. Unlike most mothers in the world, my mother is strict, concerned with study and progress, angry when I cover up any of my wrongdoings…
On the other hand, my father has been very kind to me. He knows my needs, comforts me after my mother criticizes me, brings me toys, books, takes me to look around during holidays…I enjoy his company very much, feeling secure and relaxed. That is why I often think I have the best father in the world.
How do you feel when you walk on the street and see a disabled person?
I feel pity towards those who are disabled. I wonder how they can manage in their daily life and whether they have a job. I feel lucky that I am not disabled.
Yes. My aunt is deaf and dumb. She has been like this since her childhood. My grandmother said that she became deaf because of taking the wrong medicine. She is now more than fifty years old and she has never been married. She was very kind to me. In fact it was she who brought me up. She often felt it unfair because she couldn’t hear. But she is very intelligent, and she is good at sewing. She sometimes kidded me with gestures that she wanted to cut off her ears because they couldn’t work.
Sayings and Proverbs
If you have it [love], you don't need to have anything else. If you don't have it, it doesn't matter much what else you do have. —Sir James M. Barrie
Every man is a poet when he is in love.
Love me, love my dog.
Understand the major details of the text
1) How did the writer feel to be seen with his father when he was young? Why?
He felt embarrassed to be seen with his father, because his father was severely crippled and very short.
2) How and why does the son’s attitude change?
The son realized that it was his father who taught him many things such as how to have a good heart. He knew that having a good heart was more important than having a good appearance. Especially after his father died, he felt it more intensely that it was his father who guided him in his life.
4) Why do you think people start at the father and the son?
Generally speaking, people tend to stare at persons who are extremely unusual, say, the charmingly beautiful ones, the fairly ugly ones and the rather disabled ones. Since the father was short, severely crippled, and when they walked along the street, the father leaned on his son for balance, it is not strange for the father and the son to be the center of the attention.
5) What do you think a “good heart” is ?
To my knowledge, a “good heart” refers to the good nature of a person, which involves the aspects as follows: To begin with, he is kind with the people around him, thinking as much of others as of himself. Besides, he is honest in dealing with any affairs. He has a strong sense of what is right and wrong. And best of all, he is ready to help when someone is in trouble or in need of his help.
6) What is the difference between how the son felt about his father as a youth and how he feels many years later?
We can use two adjectives---shamed and sorry to illustrate the son’s feelings about his father in different phases of his life. When he was growing up, he was embarrassed/shamed to be seen with his father. He tended to judge the father by appearances or physical conditions and others’ staring. With the passage of time, especially after the father’s departure, however, he came to learn that his father had a good heart for him to lean on. Now he feels terribly sorry for his past feelings about his father, but there is no chance to make up for it.
7）What do you think makes a good heart
Useful Words and Phrases：kindness, endurance, hard-work, be satisfied with, patience, warm-heartedness
Sample: I think there are many things to make a good heart. They are: kindness to others,
endurance (忍耐力), hard-work, never hurting (伤害) others, being satisfied with life, patience, etc.
8）What did you learn from this article about the relationship between the father and the son Useful Words and Phrases：understand, disability, be proud of, be ashamed of, stare at, deep in one's heart, learn a lot
Sample: The father knew his disability (残疾) stood in the way between him and his son. That's why he said to his son: "You set the pace. I'll try to adjust to you." The son was young, so he was ashamed of his father because other people stared at them. But deep in their hearts they loved each other. The father was proud of his son, and the son learned a lot from his father.
9）How and why does the son's attitude change
Useful Words and Phrases ：realize, a good heart, a good appearance, feel intensely, guide one's life
Sample: The son realized that it was his father who taught him many things such as how to have a good heart. He knew that having a good heart was more important than having a good appearance. Especially after his father died, he felt it more intensely (强烈地) that it was his father who guided him in his life.
10）If you were the son, how would you feel towards the father
Useful Words and Phrases：Embarrassed, be proud of, bring up, disability, look down upon, let alone
Sample: If I were the son, I wouldn't be ashamed to be seen with him by others. I could be proud of my father no matter how he looked because it was he who gave me life and brought me up (抚养,教育). His disability was not his own choice. He was disabled, which was hard enough for him. How could the others look down upon him, let alone his son (更不用说,别说)
Complete the Sentences
Understand organization of the text
1) Main idea of the text.
How a crippled father helps his son keep balance through his act of deep caring.
(People usually communicate with words. However, an act of deep caring will also have a positive influence on us. It can even change our lives and lift our spirits. In Section A, we read a story that touches us deeply. It tells us how a crippled father helps his son keep balance through his act of deep caring. How even with personal problems, if we use our courage, our imaging ,and our giving nature, can choose to make others’ lives better. If we live our lives in this way, we will find the satisfaction and purpose that we seek.)
2) Division of the text
Directions: The passage can be divided into four parts. You are given the paragraph numbers of each part and the main topics. Read through the story and find the right topic for each part. Para. 1~4 The father’s physical condition and how he managed to get to work
Main Idea : The son was embarrassed to be seen walking with his crippled father, but the father subjected himself to the shame and stress without bitterness and complaint.
Devices for developing it : Narration interspersed with comments(夹叙夹议) Narration: Para.5~7The son’s comment on the father’s personality.
Main Idea : The son now realizes that his father treated others with a good heart.
Devices for developing it : Narration interspersed with comment (夹叙夹议) Para.8~11The father’s attempt to experience things directly or indirectly.
Devices for developing it :Exemplification (举例法)
Para. 12~13The father’s influence on his son.
Main Idea : The father has gone many years, but the son feels regret for his reluctance and relies much more on his father for his balance of mind.
Devices for developing it : Induction through introspection(自省式归纳法)
Summary of the Passage
This story tells of the love between a father and a son, describing how the son changed his attitude towards his father. At first, the son was ashamed to be seen walking with his father who was short and crippled and needed the son’s help for keeping his balance. The father, however, had a strong will and, almost never missed a day for work whether he was sick or the weather was nasty, although his office was far from his home. Crippled as he was, the father tried to participate in some activities in some way. What surprised the son most was that the father would endure indignity and stress without complaint. Therefore, the son changed his attitude towards his father, from whom the son learned to heave a good heart. The son felt that it was not his father who needed his help for keeping his balance, instead, he himself needed his father’s aid for keeping his balance in life.
作者通过对父亲的行为描写突出了父亲的优秀品质,即父亲拥有一颗善良的心.通过描写儿子由年幼到长大成人的心理过程的转变,体现了父亲的善良之心对作者的影响以及作者的感激之情.文中体现作者态度的转变的词汇有:embarrassed, ashamed, unwanted attention, impatient →sorry, unworthy, regretted.作者对这个问题认识的转变说明他成熟了.过去父亲出门要他搀扶,因此是健康的他支撑着父亲.现在父亲已去世多年,他十分后悔过去对父亲的不理解,并深切体会:"when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another's good fortune, when I don't have a good heart", 支撑着他的正是父亲的美好心灵.
A Good Heart to Lean on (善心可依)
More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance.
lean on (Title) v. depend on someone or something for support and encouragement 依靠
Most college students lean on their parents for financial support. 大多数大学生依靠父母的经济援助。(Depend on for support and encouragement)
他们有困难时总寻求我们的支持。They always lean on us when they are in trouble.
They lean on each other for support. 他们相互依靠，相互支持。
Don't always lean on others for help.不要总是依赖别人的帮助.
lean v. be in a slopping position ; bend
She leaned out of the window looking for her son.
lean against/ on 依靠在某物上
The ladder is leaning against the wall.
lean on sb/sth for sth 依靠某人
The child leaned on his teacher for guidance.
More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance. (Subtitle)
more than I realized: beyond my realization 在句中为插入成分,解释整个句子.
经过艰苦的建设工作,这个城市之美无法用语言来描绘.After hard construction work, the
beauty of the city is more than words can describe.
to keep one's balance to keep steady, remain upright 保持平衡,站稳
Young people should always try to keep their balance in the long way to success.
在学习上,你不要偏科.You should keep the balance of your study.
 When I was growing up, I was embarrassed to be seen with my father. He was severely crippled and very short, and when we would walk together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare. I would inwardly squirm at the unwanted attention. If he ever noticed or was bothered, he never let on.随着我渐渐长大，当别人看见我和爸爸在一起，我会觉得很尴尬。他身材矮小，走起路来跛得很厉害。我们一起走时，他要把手搭在我的肩上才能保持平衡，人们就会盯着我们看。对这种不必要的注意我觉得非常难堪。
to be embarrassed to be seen with my father 让人看到我与父亲在一起时就感到难堪
eg. I always feel embarrassed to be made to give lectures in public.
embarrass v. cause mental discomfort or anxiety to 使窘迫；使焦急
embarrassment n. 窘迫；使人窘迫的事
embarrassing adj. 令人尴尬的（作表语时，主语常是事物）
embarrassed adj. 尴尬的（作表语时，主语常是人）
1) It is rather _______ that we still do not know how many species there are in the world today.
A) misleading B) embarrassing
C) boring D) demanding
2) The lady who had invite us heard me telling my wife that the dinner was terrible so I was _______.
A) confused B) nervous
C) shameful D) embarrassed
a person unable to use properly one or more of his limbs, esp. the legs.跛子；四肢有残疾的人
crippled adj. 跛的；拐的；伤残的
He was severely crippled and very short, and when we would walk together, his hand on my arm for balance, people would stare.
and when we would walk together中would的用法比较特殊。句中would 不是表示过去将来的助动词,而表示过去某段时间里经常发生的动作(used to).一般would用作will的过去式，但在这儿它表示总是或经常发生的事情。例如：
We used to work in the same office and we would often have coffee together.
I would be ashamed of the unwanted attention. (Line 4)
let on 泄露let on ( about sth): reveal a secret
Don’t let on about my words.
He knew where the boy was hiding but he didn’t let on.
 It was difficult to coordinate our steps -- his halting, mine impatient -- and because of that, we didn't say much as we went along. But as we started out, he always said, "You set the pace. I will try to adjust to you. "
coordinate v. make various things work effectively as a whole 协调名词形式:coordination Such excellent swimmers as Ian Thrope of Australia and Luo Xuejuan of China are capable
of coordinating their movements in swimming very well. 诸如澳大利亚的索普和中国的罗雪娟这样的优秀运动员能够很好地协调自己在游泳时的动作.
She’s a beautiful dancer: all her movements are perfectly coordinated.她是位出色的舞蹈家，她所有的动作都非常协调。(vt. 使协调)
如果我们协调努力，就能击败敌人。If we coordinate our efforts, we should be able to defeat the enemy.
impatient adj. annoyed because you have had to wait too long for something 急躁的；不耐烦的
be impatient with sb. 对某人不耐烦
be impatient of sth 不能容忍某事
be impatient for 急切
be impatient to do 急切
I am impatient of the sight. 我不能容忍这种情景。
I am impatient for the sight 我急欲看到这种情景。
start out 出发
to set the pace 定好步
eg. If we let the fastest runner set the pace, the others will fall behind. 如果让跑的最快的人领跑,其他人都会跟不上的.
adjust adjust to : to change so that it fits or works better
adjust (oneself) to sth. 使（自己）适合；适应
adjust to sth. 适应于某事
You can adjust the color on the TV by turning this knob.你可以转动这个旋钮来调整电视的颜色。（v. make regular）
对大一学生来说，学会适应大学生活是很重要的。It’s very important for freshmen to learn to adjust to college life. (v. adapt to)
We should adjust expenses to income.我们应该量入为出.
vt./vi. change slightly, especially in order to make it more effective or more suitable 调整Adjusting themselves to the new environment as soon as possible is so significant an ability for today's college students.尽快使自己适应新的环境对于当今的大学生来说非常重要.
 Our usual walk was to or from the subway, which was how he got to work. He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office
even if others could not. A matter of pride.
He went to work sick, and despite nasty weather. He almost never missed a day, and would make it to the office even if others could not. It was a matter of pride for him. (L8)
(1). He went to work sick句中的sick为形容词，做主语he的补足语，表示其现状、状态。sick: adj. 作主语的补语, 强调一种伴随状态.
She gazed at him speechless for a moment and left the office.
All the people watched the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games happy and excited.
e. g. He went to bed hungry last night. 他昨晚饿着肚子睡觉.
Don’t marry young. 不要早婚。
The wallet was found empty. 钱包被发现时已经是空空如也了。
(2) … would make it to the office中to make it (to) means “to arrive somewhere in time or to succeed”(到达了某处或做成了某事情). e. g.
You can make it if you hurry.
After years as an unsuccessful businessman, he has finally made it.
despite prep. in spite of 尽管
尽管天气不好,我们的假期仍过得很愉快.Despite the bad weather we enjoyed our holiday.
He persisted in his conduct, despite his friends’ repeated warnings.他不顾朋友们的一再警告，仍然一意孤行。（prep. in spite of）
make it ①to arrive somewhere in time for sth.
②to be successful in a particular activity
They got up late. They made it to the classroom, though. 他们起晚了。尽管如此, 他们还是及时赶到教室。（arrive in a place in time）
你不用担心，她会办到的。You don’t have to worry, he will make it. ( succeed in doing sth.) There’s some time before the train leaves. I think we shall make it if we hurry. 离火车开车还有些时间，我想如果抓紧，我们能赶上。
It’s hard to make it to the top in show business. 想在演艺圈出人头地，并非易事。
 When snow or ice was on the ground, it was impossible for him to walk, even with help. At such times my sisters or I would pull him through the streets of Brooklyn, NY, on a child's sleigh to the subway entrance. Once there, he would cling to the handrail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept ice-free. In Manhattan the subway station was the basement of his office building, and he would not have to go outside again until we met him in Brooklyn' on his way home.
to cling to the hand-rail 紧紧握着扶手
eg. There’s no point in arguing with him, for he is a man who clings to the old ideas.同他争论没
to keep (the lower steps) free of ice 使(下面几级台阶)没有冰雪
eg. He wished to live a life entirely free of trouble.他希望过一种完全没有烦恼的生活。
ice-free (Line 18, Para. 4)
sugar-free beverage 不含糖饮料
duty-free shop 免税商店
 When I think of it now, I marvel at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such indignity and stress. And at how he did it -- without bitterness or complaint .
When I think of it now, I marvel at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man to subject himself to such shame and stress. 现在回想起来，我感到十分惊叹。像他那样一个成年人，得有多大的勇气才能经受这样的屈辱和压力。
句型提炼: 1)When sb. thinks of sth. / sb. else now ( someday in the future), he / she (will) feels amazed at … 现在（将来有朝一日）回想起某事／某人来，某人会对……感到惊叹。
应用：a. When they think of what they have undergone in the past 50 years, the old couple feel delighted at how lucky they were to be united in marriage and how faithful they have remained to each other.现在回想起过去50年的风风雨雨，这对老年夫妇为他们有幸结合而且彼此忠诚感到十分欣慰。
b. When you think of the battle against SARS someday in the future, you will feel shamed at how you backed away from the critical post to save your own skin. 将来有朝一日想起抗非典战役时，你会为你临阵退缩、贪生怕死而感到羞愧。
I think of him when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another’s good fortune, when I don’t have a “good heart”. (L.47)每当我因一些琐事而怨天尤人的时候，每当我嫉妒别人运气比我好的时候，每当我没有一颗“好心”的时候，我就会想到他。
句型提炼: 2) Sb. thinks of / remembers / calls to mind sth. / sb. when…(从句) when…(从句), and when …(从句)每当……的时候，每当……的时候，……，某人就会想到某事／某人。
应用：a. This honest official thinks of the people’s great trust when he uses his power, when he makes a choice between personal interest and larger interests, when he faces various attractions.每当行使职权的时候，每当在个人利益和更大利益之间作出选择的时候，每当面对各种诱惑的时候，这位清官就会想到人民的重托。
b. SARS will serve as a reminder of what lifestyle we should develop. We will think of it when we spit anywhere, when we help ourselves to wild game, when we are careless of our personal hygiene.SARS 将提醒我们应养成什么样的生活方式。每当我们随地吐痰的时候，每当我们品尝野味的时候，每当我们不注意个人卫生的时候，我们就会想到SARS.
to subject himself to such shame and stress
subject to: open to; cause to experience or suffer
eg. This type of product must be subjected to a number of severe tests before coming into the
subject oneself to (Line 24, Para. 5)
make someone experience something, especially something unpleasant 使承受,使遭受
The girl's sudden suffering of leukemia (blood cancer) subjected her parents to great sorrow.
be subject to be obedient to; be vulnerable to易于
Those who often have a close contact with the poultry are subject to bird flu.
 He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. What he looked for in others was a "good heart", and if he found one, the owner was good enough for him.
He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able.他从不把自己当作同情的对象，也从不对更幸运的或更能干的人表示任何嫉妒。
With the further monopoly of capital, the rich gets richer. 随着资本的进一步垄断,富人更富. Nor 位于后一分句的句首,引起部分倒装,类似的否定词还有seldom, hardly, scarcely, nor, neither, only等.
never, nor等具有否定意义或否定形式的词或词组居于句首时句子用倒装，不居于句首时则用正常语序。常用的有：seldom(很少), rarely(很少), hardly(几乎不), not(不，没有), hardly…when…(一…就…), no sooner…than…(一…就…), neither…nor…(即不…也不…), not only…but also…(不但…而且…), not until (直到…才), in no case(决不), at no time (从不), by no means (决不)，nowhere (没有地方), not often (不经常) 等等。例如：
Not often do they meet.他们不常见面。
not to show envy of the more fortunate or able 不嫉妒那些比自己幸运和能干的人
He finds it difficult to hide envy of his brother’s success.他很难掩饰对自己兄弟成功的妒嫉。
 Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people, even though
I still don’t know precisely what a "good heart" is. But I know the times I don't have one myself.
 Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some way. When a local sandlot baseball team found itself |without a manager, he kept it going. He was a knowledgeable baseball fan and often took me to Ebbets Field to see the Brooklyn Dodgers play. He liked to go to dances and parties, where he could have a good time just sitting and watching.
take part or become involved in an activity从事,参与
eg. Officials should not engage in business affairs.官员们不应参加商业活动.
He volunteered/was willing to be engaged in helping those migrant workers reclaim their unpaid salary. 他自愿参与为民工讨要拖欠的工资.
engage vt. (1) take part or become involved in an activity 从事
(2) occupy 占用（时间等）
(3) employ 雇佣；聘用
be engaged to sb 与某人订婚
be engaged to do sth 被雇佣来做某事
be engaged in doing sth 忙于做；从事于
be engaged oneself to do sth 自愿做某事
 On one memorable occasion a fight broke out at a beach party, with everyone punching and shoving. He wasn't content to sit and watch, but he couldn't stand unaided on the soft sand. In frustration he began to shout, "I’ll fight anyone who will tit down with me!"
occasion n. 1) a time when something happens 时机；时刻，场合
2) a special event or ceremony 场面；盛会；时节
on occasion 有时；间或
on this occasion 在这个场合下
on one occasion 曾经；有一次
on the occasion of 值。。。之际
occasion , chance, opportunity 都有“时机，机会”的意思
I sometimes have ________ to visit Birmingham on business.
A) opportunity B) occasion
C) chance D) possibility
adj. happy and satisfied 满足的,满意的,甘愿的
很多白领并不满足于为别人打工.Quite a few white collars are not content to work for others. Content-2
vt. please 使满足;使满意
大学生切不可满足于仅有的书本知识.College students should never content themselves with book knowledge only.
他的老板看来对他的工作很满意.His performance on duty seemed to content his boss
adj. happy and satisfied 满足的
v. to make happy or satisfied 使满足；使满意
n. [u] the subject matter, esp. the idea of a book ,paper etc. 题材；要旨；含量
contented adj. 满足的
contentedly adv. 满足地
contentment n. 满足
be content to do sth 愿意做某事
be content with sth 满足于
to one’s heart’s content满足地；尽情地
content v. 使人在一定程度上感到满足
satisfy v. 使人的要求、希望得到完全的满足
2) content, contented 两词同义‘满足的’
satisfy v. 使人的要求、希望得到完全的满足
2) content, contented 两词同义‘满足的’
content adj. 常作表语，例如：I’m very content with my life at present.
contented adj. 多作定语，例如：She gives a contented smile.
frustration n. 沮丧,挫折感
When we found our way blocked, the sense of frustration was more than some of us could bear.
block (someone or something) from accomplishing a purpose 挫败;阻挠;使灰心丧气
He gets frustrated when he can't win. 他赢不了的时候便垂头丧气.
I think the fact that he's working with amateurs really frustrates him. 我看和一些外行在一起工作让他很是气恼.
 Nobody did. But the next day people kidded him by saying it was the first time any fighter was urged to take a dive even before the bout began.
 I now know he participated in some things vicariously through me, his only son. When I played ball (poorly), he "played" too. When I joined the Navy he "joined" too. And when I came home on leave, he saw to it that " I visited his office. Introducing me, he was really saying, "This is my son, but it is also me, and I could have done this, too, if things had been different." Those words were never said aloud.
see (to it) that…make sure that 确保
要保证你不会再犯同样的错误.See to it that you do not make the same mistake again.
 He has been gone many years now, but I think of him often. I wonder if he sensed my reluctance to be seen with him during our walks. If he did, I am sorry I never told him how sorry I was, how unworthy I was, how I regretted it. I think of him when I complain about trifles, when I am envious of another's good fortune, when I don't have a "good heart".
n. unwillingness to do something 不情愿
She said this with great reluctance. 她极为勉强地这么说.
adj. jealous 妒忌的,嫉妒的
be envious of: be feeling envy at
The managers of many European football clubs are very envious of the superstars of Real Madrid. 很多欧洲足球俱乐部的经理都十分羡慕皇家马德里的超级巨星.
envy n. 嫉妒;羡慕
Many singers felt a lot of envy at/towards Jay Chou because all of his albums were among those best-selling ones.
envy 主要指"羡慕"别人的好运,希望自己也有好运;jealousy 语义比envy强,指对别人占有的或自己企图占有的东西感到不满或者怀有恼恨心理,认为应属于自己或自己应得.
He was filled with _________ at his friend's success. 他非常羡慕朋友的成功.
2. She was blinded by __________ to her fellow workers' achievement. 因为嫉妒,她对于同事取得的成就视而不见.
fortune n. [u] luck 运气；好运
She had the good fortune to be free from illness and her life.
[c] fate 命运; wealth 财产
He made a fortune in oil.
try one’s fortune 碰运气
make a fortune 发财；致富
tell one’s fortune 算命
 At such times I put my hand on his arm to regain my balance, and say, "You set the pace, I will try to adjust to you."
Post reading questions
Can you get any inspiration from the story?
After reading the story, the image of the father and the son is still flashing before us: one is tall and strong while the other is crippled and short. This may remind us of a Chinese character “人”, in which the left falling stroke is tall and strong, while the right one is short and weak. Can you jump to the conclusion that the left one is more important than the right one? The answer is absolutely no. Neither stroke can mean anything without the other. This character cannot exist without either stroke. Just as in our daily life, no matter how strong or weak, how rich or poor, how important or humble a person is, no one can live well without the help of others.
What do you think makes a good heart?
I think there are many things to make a good heart. They are: kindness to others, endurance (忍耐力), hard-work, never hurting (伤害) others, being satisfied with life, patience, etc.
What did you learn from this article about the relationship between the father and the son? The father knew his disability (残疾) stood in the way between him and his son. That’s why he said to his son: “You set the pace. I’ll try to adjust to you.”The son was young, so he was ashamed of his father because other people stared at them. But deep in their hearts they loved each other. The father was proud of his son, and the son learned a lot from his father.
How and why does the son’s attitude change?
The son realized that it was his father who taught him many things such as how to have a good heart. He knew that having a good heart was more important than having a good appearance. Especially after his father died, he felt it more intensely (强烈地) that it was his father who guided him in his life.
If you were the son, how would you feel towards the father?
If I were the son, I wouldn’t be ashamed to be seen with him by others. I could be proud of my father no matter how he looked because it was he who gave me life and brought me up (抚养，教育). His disability was not his own choice. He was disabled, which was hard enough for him. How could the others look down upon him, let alone his son (更不用说，别说)?
1) Blank filling
(1) The committee is ___(waiting/ awaiting ) a decision from head office before it takes any action.
(2) __ (Despite/Although) he was so much older than me, I was actually his first girl friend.
(3)He gave us food and clothing and asked for nothing__( in return/ in turn.)
(4) Shocked at what he had just been told, Julian put the phone down__(as though/ though)he had just seen a ghost.
(5) The people deprived the king __(from/ of) his power.
(6) He derives much pleasure__(from/ of) his books.
2). Choose one that best completes each sentence
(1) The new discovery will be a great __to the town.
(2) Linda describes her husband as a man of great __ , easily given to tears.
(3) He gave copies of the report to all those present at the meeting,__ that they read and digest its contents.
3) Translation (E-C)
(1).孩子依赖父母供给衣食。(depend on )
(4) .尽管他作出很大努力，但开始还是不及格。(despite/ In spite of)
1.Children depend on their parents for food and clothing.
2.Don’t bother me with stupid questions.
3.He adapted himself to his life in the country.
4.In spite of his hard work, he still failed in the examination.
4) Translation (E-C)
(1).She was envious of Julia’s beauty and wealth.
(2.The earthquake victims are in urgent need of medical supplies.
3).She is reluctant to answer the question about her privacy asked by the reporters.
(4). Recognition and sadness flooded her face.
Unit 2 Communication Problems
Aims of teaching
1. Grasp the main idea
2. Master key language points and grammatical structures in the text
3.Improve the students’ abilities of communication and making comments.
In this unit the students will learn:
2 In-class Reading passage and After-class Reading passages.
4. Listening centered activities
Preparation (Period 1&2)
A Speech Contest
Have you ever made speeches in public? When delivering speeches, different language styles should be carefully considered. Listen to an extract of the famous speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. “I Have a Dream”. Then you will be assigned different roles. You are supposed to prepare short speeches based on that role.
I HAVE A DREAM MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
Directions: Now choose from the roles given and try to make a speech on “My Methods to Learn English”.
Successful language learning requires hard training and continuous practice. My Fair Lady will show you how to improve English pronunciation. After seeing the video, exchange good language learning experiences with your classmates.
Telephone Chains (书上P36)
The whole class will be divided into several groups of 8-10 students. The first student of each group will be given a message by the teacher. The message should be whispered from one student to the next. The last person should repeat the message aloud. Compare with that of the first student.
1) There are 281 professors and 858 associate professors in Qingdao University.
2) You have told me your telephone number is 80358136, right?
3) My sister-in-law is a cook in Crystal Hotel of America.
4) Mary told me that our math teacher had scolded her yesterday.
5) The Christmas tree was decorated with candles, lights, colored papers.
Proverbs and Sayings
Actions speak louder than words.事实胜於雄辩。
By reading we enrich the mind, by conversation we polish it.读书使人充实，交谈使人精明。
A word spoken is past recalling.一言既出，驷马难追。
Part Two Reading-Centered Activities
When translating an English story into Chinese in which a character identified as cousin
appears, a Chinese translator requires to know whether it refers to a male or a female, whether the character is older or younger than the speaker, and whether the character belongs to the family of the speaker’s father or mother.
Biaomei (表妹) :a female cousin on my mother’s side and younger than I
Of course, the translator might simply establish these facts about the character the first time she appears and thereafter translate the word as “cousin”, but that would ignore the significance in Chinese culture of the repetition of these obligatory categories.
The English language has a very large vocabulary because it has incorporated words form many other languages over the centuries. This is apparent in its color words. Women of native English speakers use these color terms to differentiate between shades of one color, whereas, men will be satisfied with the one word or even absent.
3. Emotional Coloring
There is, for instance, a group of adjectives which have, besides their specific and literal meanings, another use of indicating the speaker’s approval or admiration for something. Some of these adjectives are neutral as to the sex of the speaker: either men or women tend to use them. But another set seems, in its figurative use, largely confined to women’s speech. Representative lists of both types are below:
NEUTRAL WOMEN MOSTL Y
Thus, when learning a language, we sometimes need to pay attention to which sex uses which words, particularly when we reach an advanced stage where we are adding many new words to our vocabulary and want to use them accurately. We also need to pay attention to some of the multiple meanings that words have, as well as to their connotations.
More Relevant Information for Y our Reference
Geography: Among American English speakers, for example, some have a Boston accent, a Texas accent, an African American accent, etc. Across the world among English speakers, there are British English, Australian English, Indian English, etc.
Age: “Teenage Speak”is an example. Teenagers (at least in Southern California) typically use words and expressions like “rad, awesome, de bomb, etc.”and even the older generation
uses expressions such as “it’s like…”, or “I’m like…”frequently. No doubt you speak quite differently form your parents!
Social class: It’s showed that the frequency of the /r/ sound among New Yorkers varies depending on social class. Forms such as “ain’t”for “isn’t”may also indicate the social class of the speakers.
Topic: Legalese, for instance, is very different form the language of air traffic control.
Individuals: How about “Clintonese”? Individuals like Bill Clinton can have a distinctive style of their own. Do you and other members of your family share words no one else would understand or use?
Gender: Men are from Mars and Women from Venus! I couldn’t agree more. Do you?
Do you agree that men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words? Are there any examples in your daily life that may support your point of view?
Yes, I agree. Male speakers are more direct, and female speakers are more indirect or tactful. For instance, if a man says“You don’t look good in that dress”, he means what he says. In contrast, a woman might say“That’s an interesting dress you’re wearing”, when she actually means she doesn’t like the dress. She is trying to be tactful.
Besides the gender differences, are there any other differences that may cause people to speak differently?
--- I think, besides gender differences, differences in social position, education background, culture, occupation and age may also cause problems in understanding each other.
--- In my opinion, those who speak the same language may express themselves differently because they have different personalities, likes and dislikes, or value systems. All these work together to lead to different personal styles or easy of communication.
1)Why did Martians and Venusians encounter many problems with relationships when they first got together? (Para.1)
Because they recognized that they were different. They need solve these problems.
2) What was one of the secrets of the success? (Para.1)
One of the secrets of their success was good communication.
3)How could Martians and Venusians communicate well even if they spoke different languages? (Para.2)
They pulled out their phrase dictionaries to understand each other more fully or went to a translator for help.
4) How did Martians and Venusians understand the communication problems? (Para.3)
They assumed that it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other.
5) Why do men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words? (Para.4)
Women often don’t expect words to be taken literally. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information.
6) How do women usually do to fully express their feelings? (Para.5)
Women would tend to exaggerate the facts a little bit for effect and use various superlatives, metaphors, and generalizations.
The author here skillfully applies analogue (类比) into the communication problem between men and women.
Communication between Martians and Venusians (Para. 1~3)
1. One of the secrets of success in dealing with relationship is the good communication between Martians and Venusians. (Para. 1)
2. How did they communicate well though they spoke different languages? (Para. 2)
3. People from Mars and people from Venus experienced a trust and acceptance that we rarely experience today. (Para. 3)
1) When they had problems, they would just go to a translator for assistance.
2) When there was a conflict they didn’t start judging or fighting but instead p ulled out their phrase dictionaries to understand each other more fully.
Communication between Men and Women (Para. 4~9)
1. Men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words. ( Para. 4)
2. Ten common complaints that are easily misinterpreted. (Para. 5~9)
For example: If a woman says: “I feel like you never listen”, “never” is just a way of expressing the frustration she is feeling at the moment.
Speaking Different Languages
 When Martians and Venusians first got together, they encountered many of the problems with relationships we have today. Because they recognized that they were different, they were able to solve these problems. One of the secrets of their success was good communication.
encounter ( Line 1, Para. 1)
vt.find oneself faced by (danger, difficulties, etc.), meet (an enemy or enemies); meet unexpectedly (a friend, etc.)
eg: Encountering difficulties in the process of pursuing success is quite normal.
The young scientists encountered many difficulties during their exploration.
I encountered an old classmate when I went shopping yesterday.
n. sudden or unexpected (esp. hostile) meeting (with)
An encounter with a branch of Al-Qaed a resulted in a serious injury in the American soldier’s left arm.
A tour to Qingdao brought encounters with many acquaintances.
encounter group 谈心治疗小组
Ironically, they communicated well because they spoke different languages.When they had problems, they would just go to a translator for assistance.Everyone knew that people from Mars and people from Venus spoke different languages, so when there was a conflict they didn’t start judging or fighting but instead pulled out their phrase dictionaries to understand each other more fully. If that didn’t work they went to a translator for help.
assistance (Line 6, Para. 2)
n. help; aid 帮助；援助
Can I be of any assistance to you?
The identity of world champion is of great assistance for Liu Guoliang to become one of the youngest head coaches of Chinese national table tennis team. （有着很大的帮助）
conflict (Line 8, Para. 2)
n. 1) fight; struggle; quarrel 战争；斗争；争执
This is a serious dispute, and could lead to armed conflict.
2) (of opinion, desires, etc.) opposition; difference
His statement was apparently in conflict with other evidence.
pull out (Line 8, Para.2)
1) take something out of a bag, pocket, or cupboard 拿出
2) use force to take something from where it is
fixed or held 拔出，拉出
You’d better have that bad tooth pulled out tomorrow.
If that didn’t work they went to a translator for help.
Here “work” is an intransitive verb meaning “be effective or successful (起作用，有效)”.
1. Does this light work?
2. I don’t think your plan will work.
You see, the Martian and Venusian languages had the same words but different meanings depending on the way they were used. Their expressions were similar, but they had different connotations or emotional emphasis. Misinterpreting each other was very easy. So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. The experienced a trust and acceptance that we rarely experience today.
1) bad or badly
e.g. misfortune (bad luck)/ misbehave (behave badly)
2) wrong or wrongly
e.g. misinterpret/ misunderstand/ mislead/ misguide
3) show an opposite or the lack of something
1) appear or come out form somewhere出现，浮现(from, out of)
e.g. The sun emerged form behind the clouds.
2) to become known as a result of inquiry（真相）暴露，（事实）显露
e.g. It emerged that the driver of the car had been drunk.
That fact that he was just the murderer emerged from the interrogation.
讨论中没有出现新的想法。No new ideas emerged during the discussion.
assume (Line 14, Para. 3)
vt. 1) believe something is true without definite proof 假定, 假设, 臆想
American national basketball team is not as unconquerable as you assumed it to be.
我们先假定他的说法是可信的。Let us first assume his statement to be believable.
2) take up; undertake 担任；承担
Her father _assumes a leading position______ in that state-owned enterprise. （担任领导职务）You should __assume all the responsibilities_____ of what you have done. （承担所有的责任）名词形式：assumption
Even today we still need translators. Men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words. For example, when a woman says, “I feel like you never listen,” she does not expect the word “never” to be taken literally. Using the word“never”is just a way of expressing the frustration she is feeling at the moment. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information.
she does not expect the word ‘never’to be taken literally”.
In the sentence “the word “take” means “consider, understand (考虑，理解)”.
I take it from what you say that you don’t feel well today.
It is not to be taken as if it were factual information. (Line 22)它不会被理解为它实际表达的意思。
as if 所引导的从句的谓语动词多用虚拟语气，表示所叙述的情况与事实相反。
He stood there looking at me and laughing, as if to fool me was the best joke in the world.
It was as if he had lost his last friend
“I rem ember,” she tells her children now, “how wild her white hair looked — as if it had been electrified.”
必须注意的时，在指过去的动作时，即使主句是现在时，as if 从句中的动词也要用过去完成时。
Unit Two Communication problems T eaching Objectives 1. Let the students have some ideas of the common ways we usually use in our daily life to communicate. 2. Make the students find the efficient ways to communicate with each other. 3. Let the students come up with the ways to avoid misunderstandings. T eaching allotment six academic hours Focus points 1.key words and phrases assume, conflict, convey, emphasis, ignore, misinterpret, react, verge, feel like, for effect, on the verge of, pull out, take----lightly 2.difficult sentences 1) When Martians and V enusians first got together, they encountered many of the problems with relationships we have today. 2) So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. 3) To fully express their feelings, women would tend to exaggerate the facts a little bit for effect and use various superlatives, metaphors, and generalizations. 3.grammar focus prefix “mis---”的不同意义 Related Information It is well-known that learning a second language is never easy, and, generally speaking, the older one is when one attempts a new language, the more difficult it becomes. This is at least partly due to what is known as language interference, meaning that the linguistic patterns of our first language interfere with those of the second because no two languages have exactly the same sounds and grammatical structures. The English language has a very large vocabulary because it has incorporated words from many other languages over the centuries. This is nowhere more apparent than in its color words. For example, there are many words that express the color “purple”, describing its different shades and hues: mauve, violet, lilac, or lavender. An interesting linguistic gender difference among native speakers of English is the likelihood of women using these color terms to differentiate between shades of purple, whereas, men will be satisfied with the one word “purple”. This is true of other color words too.
新编大学英语教案(第二册)_U n i t2 C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o b l e m s -CAL-FENGHAI-(2020YEAR-YICAI)_JINGBIAN
Unit Two Communication problems Teaching Objectives 1. Let the students have some ideas of the common ways we usually use in our daily life to communicate. 2. Make the students find the efficient ways to communicate with each other. 3. Let the students come up with the ways to avoid misunderstandings. Teaching allotment six academic hours Focus points 1.key words and phrases assume, conflict, convey, emphasis, ignore, misinterpret, react, verge, feel like, for effect, on the verge of, pull out, take----lightly 2.difficult sentences 1) When Martians and Venusians first got together, they encountered many of the problems with relationships we have today. 2) So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. 3) To fully express their feelings, women would tend to exaggerate the facts a little bit for effect and use various superlatives, metaphors, and generalizations. 3.grammar focus prefix “mis---”的不同意义 Related Information It is well-known that learning a second language is never easy, and, generally speaking, the older one is when one attempts a new language, the more difficult it becomes. This is at least partly due to what is known as language interference, meaning that the linguistic patterns of our first language interfere with those of the second because no two languages have exactly the same sounds and grammatical structures. The English language has a very large vocabulary because it has incorporated words from many other languages over the centuries. This is nowhere more apparent than in its color words. For example, there are many words that express the color “purple”, describing its different shades and hues: mauve, violet, lilac, or lavender. An interesting 2
Unit 10 Agriculture Farming for the Future  Every year, more people face poverty and hunger and more of the earth's resources are ruined. The problems are enormous, but many experts believe that the situation is not hopeless. The solution will require big changes in how we think about agriculture, food, and our planet.  First of all, farmers everywhere need to develop methods that are less destructive to the environment. The change from single crop farming to a mixed crop system would be one important step. The planting of several different crops improves the soil and helps prevent erosion. Erosion could also be prevented by planting trees to protect the fields from the wind. Another way farmers could improve the soil is to avoid deep plowing. In fact, only a slight plowing is necessary if proper methods are used.  If the soil were treated better, farmers would not need to use chemical fertilizers. They could use natural animal and vegetable products instead. With mixed crops, farmers would need fewer toxic chemical insecticides. They could use biological methods of controlling insects and disease.  Farmers could also help save the earth's precious supplies of water and petroleum. To save water, they could plant more water-efficient plants instead of the standard types of wheat or corn. They could also use watering systems that are much less wasteful. To save petroleum, farmers could make use of bio-gas generators which could be fueled by the vegetable and animal wastes of the farms. In less-developed countries, bio-gas generators could reduce the need for firewood and so help save forests, as well.  In less-developed countries, the small farmers need help. They need to learn more about crops that are better suited to local conditions. They need to learn how to limit erosion and make the best use of their resources. These farmers will never be successful without land and economic reform. This should be the aim of governments and international agencies. The current industrial and cash crop policies are only making the situation worse.  Industrialized countries could use their economic resources to help bring about these changes. They could make some changes in their own policies. At present, much food is wasted in these countries for political reasons. In Europe and in North America, tons of fruit and dairy products are thrown away every year. Eating habits, too, could be changed in these countries. For example, people often eat foods from distant places instead of local foods. The transportation of the imported foods adds to the global pollution problem. People in industrialized countries also eat a lot of meat, especially beef.
Unit 1 Listen1_Ex1 Interviewer:Angela, you were born in Korea but you've been living in Canada for a long time, haven't you? Angela:Yes, I was 10 years old when my parents immigrated to Canada and I've been living here for 20 years now. Interviewer:Do you think that belonging to two different cultures has affected your personality? Angela:Yes, definitely. There are times when I think that I have two personalities. Depending on where I am and who I'm with, I'm Korean or I'm Canadian. Interviewer:That sounds complicated. Could you explain what you mean? Angela:Well, growing up in Canada when I was going to high school, for example, I was known as Angela to the outside world, and as Sun-Kyung at home. I would wave hello to my teachers, but bow to my parents' Korean friends when they visited our home. Interviewer:Do different cultures have different ideas as to what is polite? Angela:Yes, definitely. In high school, I was expected to look straight in the eyes of my teachers and to talk openly with them. But when Koreans spoke to me, I was expected to look at my feet and to be shy and silent. Interviewer:Do you think that having two personalities makes you a richer person? Angela:Yes, but sometimes I don't know who I am. 1.Angela immigrated from Canada to Korea.(F ) 2.Angela is about 20 years old now.(F ) 3.Angela had two different personalities,one at school and one at home.(T ) 4.Sun-Kyung is Anglela's gilefriend at school.(F ) 5.Angela agrees that culture affects personality.(T ) 6.Being expected to two different cultures is sometimes confusing.(T) 1) outside world 2) at home 3) wave hello 4) bow 5) look straight in the eyes of 6) openly 7) look at my feet 8) shy and silent Listen2_Ex1 I am a very sensitive person, and that's good to a point. I feel everyone should be able to feel or understand what others are going through. But when you hurt, cry, or are unhappy for people you don't know, or for a movie that is not real, then I think that's a little too sensitive. That's the way I am. I am a very independent person. I must do things for myself. I don't like people doing things for me, or helping me, or giving me things. It's not that I don't appreciate it, because I do. I just feel that when someone does something for you, you owe them, and if there is one thing I don't like to feel, it's that I owe anyone anything. I think I would be a good friend. I would do almost anything for someone I like, and would share or give anything I have. I'm very caring and understanding. People
Unit Seven Culture Teaching Objectives 1. Culture and characteristics of people; 2. Learn to bridge a gap among different culture groups; 3. To know the importance of culture in our English study; 4. To enable students to master the new words and phrases. Teaching allotment 6 academic hours. 1)1-2 Preparation 2)3-4 In-Class Reading: Bridging Cultural Gaps Gracefully 3) 5-6 After-Class Reading & Exercises Focus Points 1. Key words,phrases & usages abrupt, accompany, accomplish, assure, avoid, caution, compliment, confusion, constant, cultural, definitely, edible, fancy, farewell, feasible, gap, graceful, gracious, haste, inadequate, inevitable, involve, literally, mission, modest, modify, naughty, negotiation, polar, proposal, protest, refusal, respond, signal, surpass 2. Difficult sentences 1. Why is it that when you study a foreign language, you never learn the little phrases that let you slip into a culture without all your foreignness exposed? 2. Then finally, listening to others, I began to pick up the phrases that eased relations and sent people off with a feeling of mission not only accomplished but surpassed. 3.If I try to go fast to discourage them from following, they are simply put to the discomfort of having to flee after me. 4.Not so a Chinese host or hostess (often the husband does the fancy cooking), who will instead apologize for giving you “nothing” even slightly edible and for not showing you enough honor by providing proper dishes. 3. Grammar focus 特殊疑问词的强调; 双重否定;不定式复合结构;动名词的复合结构;be + 不定式结构 Methods of Teaching 1) Using multi-media teaching equipment（应用多媒体教学手段）
Unit 1 羞怯的痛苦 对许多人来说，羞怯是很多不愉快的起因。各种各样的人——矮的、高的、愚笨的、聪明的、年轻的、年老的、瘦的、胖的——都说自己是羞怯的。羞怯的人会焦虑不安，感到不自然；也就是说，他们过分地关注自己的外表和举止。脑海中不断盘旋着一些使自己不安的想法：我给人留下的是什么印象？他们喜欢我吗？我讲话是不是傻里傻气？我长得难看。我穿的衣服毫不引人注目。 很显然这种不安的感觉会对人产生不利的影响。一个人的自我看法反映在自己的行为方式之中，而一个人的行为方式又影响他人的反应。通常，人们如何看待自己对他们生活的各个方面都会产生深刻的影响。例如，具有积极的自我价值观或很强自尊心的人往往表现出自信。而由于自信，他们不需要他人不断地称赞和鼓励，也能使自己感觉良好。自信者热情、自发地投入生活。他们不因别人认为他们“该”做什么而受到影响。有很强自尊心的人不会被批评所伤害；他们不会把批评看作是人身攻击。 相反，他们认为批评是一种提醒他们改进的建议。相比之下，羞怯的人自尊心较弱，往往消极被动并且容易受他人影响。他们（是否）在做“该做的事情”需要得到别人的肯定。害羞的人对批评非常敏感；他们觉得批评正好证实了他们比别人差。他们也很难因别人的赞美而高兴，因为他们相信自己不值得称赞。羞怯的人也许会用这样的话来回答别人的赞美之辞：“你这么说只是为了让我感觉好一些。我知道这不是真的。”显然，尽管自我意识是一种健康的品质，过分的自我意识却是不利和有害的。 能否彻底消除或者至少减轻羞怯感呢？幸运的是，人们能够通过坚持
不懈的努力建立自信从而克服羞怯。由于胆怯和缺少自尊是密切相关的，因此正视自己的弱点和正视自己的优点一样重要。例如，大多数人希望每门功课都得A。如果仅仅因为在某些领域有困难，就把自己列为差生，这不恰如其分。人们对自己的期望必须现实。老是想那些不可能的事情会令自己觉得无能，甚至产生嫉妒。当我们嫉妒比自己成绩好的学生时，我们正在自我否定。 如果你害羞，这里有些具体有效的步骤帮助你树立信心并克服羞怯感：１．认清自己的优缺点。每个人既有优点又有缺点。随着对自我的不断认同，羞怯感就会自然减弱。 ２．确定合理的目标。例如，在聚会时和一群陌生人在一起，你也许会怯场。不要以为你必须和每个人交谈。集中精力，仅和一两个人交谈，你会感到更自在些。 ３．内疚和羞耻感是消极的情感。不要把时间和精力浪费在这上头。假设你伤害了某人的感情，（光）感到羞愧是无济于事的。相反，应该承认你犯了个错误，并决心在将来更加善解人意。 ４．所有问题都有许多种解决办法。很少有完全正确或完全错误的意见。要敢于公开表达自己的观点。 ５．不要对自己做消极的评论。这是一种自我否定。千万别把自己描述为愚蠢的、丑陋的，或者一个失败者。注重自己积极的方面。 ６．接受批评时要缜密思考。不要把批评理解为人身攻击。例如，如果一位朋友抱怨你的烹饪技术，要把这当成对你的烹饪技术而不是对你本人的评价而接受下来。放心，你们还是好朋友，但你的烹饪技术也许确实
Book 3 Unit 1 Personality The Misery of Shyness Shyness is the cause of much unhappiness for a great many people. All kinds of people describe themselves as shy: short, tall, dull, intelligent, young, old, slim, overweight. Shy people are anxious and self-conscious; that is, they are excessively concerned with their own appearance and actions. Worrisome thoughts are constantly swirling in their minds: What kind of impression am I making? Do they like me? Do I sound stupid? I'm ugly. I'm wearing unattractive clothes. It is obvious that such uncomfortable feelings must affect people adversely. A person's self-concept is reflected in the way he or she behaves, and the way a person behaves affects other people's reactions. In general, the way people think about themselves has a profound effect on all areas of their lives. For instance, people who have a positive sense of self-worth or high self-esteem usually act with confidence. Because they have self-assurance, they do not need constant praise and encouragement from others to feel good about themselves. Self-confident people participate in life enthusiastically and spontaneously. They are not affected by what others think they "should" do. People with high self-esteem are not hurt by criticism; they do not regard criticism as a personal attack. Instead, they view a criticism as a suggestion for improvement. In contrast, shy people, having low self-esteem, are likely to be passive and easily influenced by others. They need reassurance that they are doing "the right thing". Shy people are very sensitive to criticism; they feel it confirms their inferiority. They also find it difficult to be pleased by compliments because they believe they are unworthy of praise. A shy person may respond to a compliment with a statement like this one: "You're just saying that to make me feel good. I know it's not true." It is clear that, while self-awareness is a healthy quality, overdoing it is detrimental, or harmful. Can shyness be completely eliminated, or at least reduced? Fortunately, people can overcome shyness with determined and patient effort in building self-confidence. Since shyness goes hand in hand with lack of self-esteem, it is important for people to accept their weaknesses as well as their strengths. For example, most people would like to be "A" students in every subject. It is not fair for them to label themselves as inferior because they have difficulty in some areas. People's expectations of themselves must be realistic. Dwelling on the impossible leads to a sense of inadequacy, and even feelings of envy, or jealousy. We
新编大学英语教案（4） Unit One Leisure Activities 1．Aims of Teaching Master the words describing leisure activities. Improve the students’ abilities of communication and making comments 2．Key Points Learn something about leisure activities. Learning to employ the following key words and phrases into practice. Learning some English grammar 3．Methods of Teaching Using multi-media teaching equipment Group-Discussion Living performance 4．Time Arrangement: Unit 1 Leisure Activities Part I Preparation Useful Information There are some people in society who either has to or want to work all the time. Most people, however, seek ways to socialize, to relax or to have fun during their leisure hours. Obviously people's tastes vary depending on their income and their age. But in recent years, the home entertainment, industry has grown all over the world. Instead of going out to see a movie or taking a walk in a park, people of all ages prefer to turn on the television and stay at home. More and more families have tape recorders, CD players, VCRs and VCDs to add to the variety of leisure activities in the home. In some countries, young people spend hours sitting in front of their computers, surfing on the Internet or playing computer games. Despite the rise in home entertainment, there are still many people who enjoy spending some of their leisure time attending sports events or participating in competitive sports or other physical activities such as dancing and tai chi (shadow boxing). Exercise not only contributes to good health but also takes the mind away from worries and troubles. Concerts, plays and other performances constitute another source of entertainment outside