Passage 1 (旧题)
题目：Tattoo on Tikopia
A There are still debates about the originsof Polynesian culture, but one thing we can ensure is that Polynesia is not asingle tribe but a complex one. Polynesians which includes Marquesans，Samoans, Niueans, Tongans, Cook Islanders, Hawaiians, Tahitians, andMaori, arc genetically linked to indigenous peoples of parts of Southeast Asia.It s a sub-region of Occania, comprising of a large grouping of over 1 ,000islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean, within atriangle that has New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island as its corners.
B Polynesian history has fascinated thewestern world since Pacific cultures were first contacted by European explorersin the late 18th century. The small island of Tikopia, for many people - evenfor many Solomon Islanders-- is so far away that it seems like a mythical land;a place like Namia that magical land in C. S. Lewis, classic, …The Chronicles of Namia.” Maybe because of it — Tikopia, its people, and their cultures have long fascinatedscholars, travelers, and casual observers. Like the pioneers Peter Dillion,Dumoni D' Urville and John Colleridge Patterson who visited and wrote about theisland in the 1800s, Raymond Firth is one of those people captured by thealluring attraction of Tikopia. As a result, he had made a number of trips tothe island since 1920s and recorded his experiences, observations and reflectionson Tikopia, its people, cultures and the changes that have occurred.
C While engaged in study of the kinship andreligious life of the people of Tikopia, Firth made a few observations on theirtattooing. Brief though these notes are they may be worth putting on record asan indication of the sociological setting of the practice in this primitivePolynesian community. The origin of the English word …tattoo' actually comesfrom the Tikopia word 'tatau1. The word for tattoo marks in general is tau,and the operation of tattooing is known as ta tau, ta being thegeneric term for the act of striking.
D The technique oftattooing was similar throughout Polynesia. Traditional tattoo artists createtheir indelible tattoos using pigment made from the candlenut or kukui nut.First, they bum the nut inside a bowl made of half a coconut shell. They thenscrape out the soot and use a pestle to mix it with liquid. Bluing is sometimesadded to counteract the reddish hue of the carbon-based
pigment. It also makesthe outline of the inscribed designs bolder on the dark skin of tattooingsubjects.
E For the instrumentsused when tattooing, specialists used a range of chisels made from albatrosswing bone which were hafted onto a handle which was made from the heart wood ofthe bush and struck with a mallet. The tattooer began by sketching withcharcoal a design on the supine subject, whose skin at that location wasstretched taut by one more apprentices. The tattooer then dipped the appropriatepoints - either a single one or a whole comb into the ink (usually contained ina coconut-shell cup) and tapped it into the subject's skin, holding the bladehandle in one hand and tapping it with the other. The blood that usuallytrickled from the punctures was wiped away either by the tattooer or hisapprentice, the latter having also served by restraining a pain-wracked subjectfrom moving, for the operation was inevitably painful a test of fortitude thattattooers sought to shorten by working as fast as possible. In fact, tattoosnearly always festered and often led to sickness - and in some cases death.
F In ancient Polynesian society, nearlyeveryone was tattooed. It was an integral part of ancient culture and was muchmore than a body ornament. Tattooing indicated ones genealogy
and/or rank insociety. It was a sign of wealth, of strength and of the ability to endurepain. Those who went without them were seen as persons of lower social status.As such, chiefs and warriors generally had the most elaborate tattoos.Tattooing was generally begun at adolescence，and would often not be completed for a number of years. Receivingtattoo constituted an important milestone between childhood and adulthood, andwas accompanied by many rites and rituals. Apart from signaling status andrank, another reason for the practice in traditional times was to make a personmore attractive to the opposite sex.
G The male facial tattoo is generallydivided into eight sections of the face. The center of the forehead designateda person's general rank. The area around the brows designated his position. Thearea around the eyes and the nose designated his hapu, or sub-tribe rank. Thearea around the temples served to detail ms marital status, like the number ofmarriages. The area under the nose displayed his signature. This signature wasonce memorized by tribal chiefs who used it when buying property, signingdeeds, and officiating orders. The cheek area designated the nature of theperson's work. The chin area showed the person's mana. Lastly, the jaw areadesignated a person's birth status.
H A person's ancestry is indicated on eachside of the face. The left side is generally the father's side，and the right side was the mother's. The manutahi design is workedon the men?s back. It consists of two vertical lines drawn down the spine, withshort vertical lines between them. When a man had the manutahi on his back, he took pride in himself. At gatherings of the people
he could stand forth in their midst and display histattoo designs with songs. And rows of triangles design on the men's chestindicate his bravery.
I Tattoo was a way delivering informationof its owner. It?s also a traditional method to fetch spiritual power,protection and strength. The Polynesians use this as a sign of character,position and levels in a hierarchy. Polynesian peoples believe that a person?smana, their spiritual power or life force, is displayed through their tattoo.
1. Scientists like to do research in Tikopiabecause this tiny place is of great remoteness.
2. Firth was the first scholar to study noTikopia.
3. Firth studied the culture differences onTikopia as well as on some other islands of Pacific.
4. The English word “tattoo” is evolved fromthe local language of the island.
答案：1. Y 2. N 3 NG 4 Y
答案：5 coconut shell6 soot 7 liquid 8 heart wood 9 wing bone
答案：10(the)forehead 11 chin (area)12 mother?s ancestry
13vertical lines 14 triangles
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