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Unit 1

Never Give In, Never, Never, Never

Winston Churchill

Almost a year has passed since I came down here at your Head Master's kind invitation in order to cheer myself and cheer the hearts of a few of my friends by singing some of our own songs. The ten months that have passed have seen very terrible catastrophic events in the world—ups and downs, misfortunes—but can anyone sitting here this afternoon, this October afternoon, not feel deeply thankful for what has happened in the time that has passed and for the very great improvement in the position of our country and of our home? Why, when I was here last time we were quite alone, desperately alone, and we had been so for five or six months. We were poorly armed. We are not so poorly armed today; but then we were very poorly armed. We had the unmeasured menace of the enemy and their air attack still beating upon us, and you yourselves had had experience of this attack; and I expect you are beginning to feel impatient that there has been this long lull with nothing particular turning up!

But we must learn to be equally good at what is short and sharp and what is long and tough. It is generally said that the British are often better at the last. They do not expect to move from crisis to crisis; they do not always expect that each day will bring up some noble chance of war; but when they very slowly make up their minds that the thing has to be done and the job put through and finished, then, even if it takes months—if it takes years—they do it.

Another lesson I think we may take, just throwing our minds back to our meeting here ten months ago and now, is that appearances are often very deceptive, and as Kipling well says, we must "... meet with Triumph and Disaster. And treat those two impostors just the same."

You cannot tell from appearances how things will go. Sometimes imagination makes

things out far worse than they are; yet without imagination not much can be done. Those people who are imaginative see many more dangers than perhaps exist; certainly many more will happen; but then they must also pray to be given that extra courage to carry this far-reaching imagination. But for everyone, surely, what we have gone through in this period—I am addressing myself to the school—surely from this period of ten months this is the lesson: never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never—in nothing, great or small, large or petty—never give in except to convictions of honour and good sense. Never yield to force; never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. We stood all alone a year ago, and to many countries it seemed that our account was closed, we were finished. All this tradition of ours, our songs, our school history, this part of the history of this country, were gone and finished and liquidated.

Very different is the mood today. Britain, other nations thought, had drawn a sponge across her slate. But instead our country stood in the gap. There was no flinching and no thought of giving in; and by what seemed almost a miracle to those outside these islands, though we ourselves never doubted it, we now find ourselves in a position where I say that we can be sure that we have only to persevere to conquer.

You sang here a verse of a school song: you sang that extra verse written in my honour, which I was very greatly complimented by and which you have repeated today. But there is one word in it I want to alter—I wanted to do so last year, but I did not venture to. It is the line: "Not less we praise in darker days."

I have obtained the Head Master's permission to alter darker to sterner. "Not less we praise in sterner days."

Do not let us speak of darker days: let us speak rather of sterner days. These are not dark days; these are great days—the greatest days our country has ever lived; and we must all thank God that we have been allowed, each of us according to our stations, to play a part in making these days memorable in the history of our race.



1 将近一年前,应贵校校长盛情邀请,我来到这里唱了几首我们自己的歌曲,既为自己加油,也为一些朋友打气。过去的10个月中全世界发生了可怕的、灾难性的事件——盛衰浮


2 但我们必须学会同样善于应付短暂而干脆与漫长而艰难的局面。人们普遍认为英国人最终总是会胜出的。他们不指望关键时刻接踵而至;他们不是一直期待每天都有决战的重大机会;不过一旦深思熟虑之后决意出手,即便需要经年累月,他们也矢志不渝。

3 回首10个月前我们在此地的相聚,对比现在,我觉得我们可以汲取的另一个教训就是,事物的表象常常是很有欺骗性的。吉卜林说得好:我们必须“……面对胜利和灾难,以同样的方式对待这两个骗子。”

4 光看表象很难判断事物将何去何从。有时想象的情景比事实糟糕很多,但缺乏想象人们会碌碌无为。那些想象力丰富的人们也许预想的危险比现实多很多;当然,还会发生很多危险;然而他们也必须祈祷获得更多勇气来维持这样深远的想象。当然,对每个人而言,我们在这个阶段经历的一切——我正在对学校发表演讲——诚然这是我们从这10个月中得到的教训:绝不屈服,绝不屈服,绝不,绝不,绝不,绝不——无论事务巨细——都绝不屈服,除非你坚信屈服是光荣的明智之举。绝不屈服于强权,绝不屈服于貌似气势排山倒海的强敌。一年前我们孤军作战,许多国家都以为我们被彻底打败了,我们完蛋了。我们所有的传统,我们的歌曲,我们的校史,我们国家的这部分历史,已经消逝、告终与完结。

5 今天的情绪大不相同。其他国家认为英国输得一无所有了。但恰恰相反,我们的国家挺身而出。没有退缩,也丝毫没有屈服的念头;我们发现以目前的处境来看,我们只要坚持下去就一定能够征服敌人,这一点在英伦三岛以外的人看来是一个奇迹,但我们从不怀疑这一点。

6 你们当时在此地吟唱了校歌中的一段,这一段是你们为了我而特地写的,我感到不胜荣幸,而今天你们又再次唱起那一段。不过我想改动其中一个词语,我去年就想这么做了,但是没敢这么做。就是这一句歌词:“我们在更黑暗的日子里的赞美依然如故。”

7 蒙校长应允,我现在可以把“更黑暗的”改成“更严峻的”。“我们在更严峻的日子里的赞美依然如故。”

8 让我们不用“更黑暗的岁月”这样的字眼:让我们用“更严峻的岁月”来代替。这不是黑暗的岁月;这是伟大的岁月——我们国家历史上最伟大的岁月;我们全都应该感谢上帝,因为上帝允许我们每一个人根据自己不同的地位扮演一个角色,让这些岁月成为我们民族历史上令人难忘的时刻。

Unit 2

Space Invaders

Richard Stengel

At my bank the other day, I was standing in a line snaking around some tired velvet ropes when a man in a sweat-suit started inching toward me in his eagerness to deposit his Social Security check. As he did so, I minutely advanced toward the woman reading the Wall Street Journal in front of me, who, in mild annoyance, began to sidle up to the man scribbling a check in front of her, who absentmindedly shuffled toward the white-haired lady ahead of him, until we were all hugger-mugger against each other, the original lazy line having collapsed in on itself like a Slinky.

I estimate that my personal space extends eighteen inches in front of my face, one foot to each side, and about ten inches in back —though it is nearly impossible to measure exactly how far behind you someone is standing. The phrase \space\has a quaint, seventies ring to it (\gratifying expressions that are intuitively understood by all human beings. Like the twelve-mile limit around our national shores, personal space is our individual border beyond which no stranger can penetrate without making us uneasy.

Lately, I've found that my personal space is being invaded more than ever before. In elevators, people are wedging themselves in just before the doors close; on the street, pedestrians are zigzagging through the human traffic, jostling others, refusing to give way; on the subway, riders are no longer taking pains to carve out little zones of space between themselves and fellow-passengers; in lines at airports, people are pressing forward like fidgety taxis at red lights.

At first, I attributed this tendency to the \explosion\and the relentless Malthusian logic that if twice as many people inhabit the planet now as did twenty years ago, each of us has half as much space. Recently, I've wondered if it's the season: T-shirt weather can make proximity more alluring (or much, much less). Or perhaps the proliferation of coffee bars

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