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Text comprehension

I. C

II. 1 F; 2 F; 3 F; 4 T; 5 T.


1. worshiping youth and fearing growing old. To delay the effects of aging with cosmetics and physical exercises.

2. three. Less concern for one’s appearance; less uncertainty about the unknowns in the future; surer self-identity.

3. feel uncertain about what will happen to them and what they should do.

4. use contrast structure “Being young means…/ It means…” and “I …now/ I no longer…”

5. The writer learns the significance that the newer (younger) is not necessarily better, and she can be happier than before as she grows older.


1. Women are less capable of resisting the temptation the temptation of fashion than men.

2. make friends with different people in order to find a new identity for yourself.

Structural analysis of the text

1. see III


2. Paragraph 3: the last sentence; Paragraph 4: the second sentence; Paragraph 5: the first sentence.

Section Four Consolidation Activities

Part one. Vocabulary Analysis

I. Phrase practice

1. are apt to= are likely to 易于……,有……的倾向

. Infants are apt to put their hands into their mouths. 婴儿爱把手往嘴里塞。

2. fall apart= break up / disintegrate

3. in general= as a whole 通常,大体上;总的来说,从总体上看

. In general, this company’s products a re very reliable. 这家公司的产品通常是很可靠的。

In general, this paper is a bit difficult for these students to finish in an hour. 总的来说,让学生在一个小时内完成这份试卷有些困难。

4. at the mercy of= powerless against; completely controlled by 对……无能为力;任……处置,任由……摆布

. Some people are born with the belief that they are masters of their own lives. Others feel they are at the mercy of fate. 有些人天生相信自己是生命的主宰,另一些人则觉得他们受到命运的支配。

I don’t want to put myself at the mercy of others. 我不希望任由他人摆布。

5. no wonder= not surprising / only too natural 不足为奇,并不奇怪

. It is no wonder that it is so wet in the south. 南方这么潮湿,并不奇怪。

No wonder you’re so tired, you’ve worked three hours without a break.难怪你这么累,你已经连续工作了三个小时。

It is no wonder that he failed his final exam. 他没能通过期末考试,这是不足为怪的。


1. delay;

2. Feverishly;

3. fa?ade;

4. confronted;

5. premise;

6. dreaded;

7. automatically;

8. awaiting.

III. Word derivation

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the given words.

1. She has got this obsessive (obsess) fear of losing control, so she never shows her emotions.

2. People under a lot of stress at work will often experience moodiness (mood), irritability and a loss of confidence.

3. They wanted a tolerable (tolerate) existence — more food, better shelter, and peace.

4. In the end, the company and its investors came to a mutually beneficial (benefit) arrangement.

5. Working with the mentally handicapped can be a satisfying (satisfy) and rewarding experience.

6. Frogs can search for food underwater, hidden (hide) from birds of prey.

7. When I asked her about where she wanted the meeting to be held, she didn’t express any particular preference (prefer).

8. The committee has made four specific criticisms (critical) of the government’s transportation policy.

1. obsess v. (使)牵挂,(使)惦念,(使)着迷

obsessed a. 着迷的

obsession n. 困扰,沉迷,着魔

obsessive a. 着迷的,强迫性的,分神的

. 爱丽丝被一个她刚刚认识的男孩迷住了。

Alice was obsessed by a boy she has just met.


He’s always wanted to find his father but recently it’s become an obsession.

2. mood n. 心情,情绪

moody a. 易怒的,喜怒无常的,情绪化的

moodiness n. 忧郁

. 我每个星期日情绪都很坏。

I am always in a bad mood on Sunday.


My wife is moody at the hospital.

3. tolerate v. 容忍,忍受

tolerable a. 可容忍的

tolerant a. 宽容的,容忍的

. 她能忍受寒冷的天气。

She can tolerate the cold days.


The heat was tolerable at night.

4. benefit n. 利益;津贴

beneficial a. 有益的,有利的

beneficiary n. 受惠者,受益人

. 这项工程对每个人都大有好处。

This project is of great benefit to everyone.


Fresh air is beneficial to our health.


Her husband is the chief beneficiary of her will.

5. satisfy v. 使满意,满足

satisfaction n. 满意

satisfactory a. 令人满意的

. 观赏一幅美丽的图画使人心满意足。

Looking at a beautiful painting always gives one satisfaction.她对现状根本不满意。

She is not at all satisfied with the present situation.

6. hide v. 隐藏,隐瞒

hiding n. 隐藏,躲藏

hidden a. 隐藏的,秘密的

. 她设法不表露自己的感情。

She tried to hide her feelings.


The police are following a murderer who’s in hiding.

7. prefer v. 较喜欢;宁可

preferable a. 更好的,更合意的

preference n. 偏爱,优先,喜爱物

preferential a. 优先的;优惠的

. 我更喜欢牛奶,而不是咖啡.

I prefer milk to coffee.


My father finds country life preferable to living in the city.


In considering people for jobs, we give preference to those with some experience.

8. critical a. 批评的;决定性的,关键的

critic n. 批评家,评论家

criticism n. 批评,评论

criticize v. 批评;非难

. 他的行为招致尖锐的批评。

His behavior called forth sharp criticism.


He criticized my taking risks.


1. C;

2. D;

3. A;

4. A;

5. B;

6. D;

7. C;

8. B.

V. Synonym / Antonym

Give a synonym or an antonym of the word underlined in each sentence in the sense it is used.

1. Advertisements convince us to buy Grecian Formula and Oil of Olay so we can hide the gray in our hair.

Synonym: conceal, disguise

2. My legs were too heavy, my shoulders too broad, my waist too big.

Antonym: narrow

3. Their contentment holds out great promise for me as I move into the next —perhaps even better — phase of my life.

Synonym: satisfaction, happiness, joy

4. The Virtues of Growing Older

Synonym: merits, advantages

5. My rounded figure seems fine, and I don’t deny myself a slice of pecan pie if

I feel in the mood.

Synonym: fat, plump

6. Dave lifted weights, took megadoses of vitamins and drank a half-dozen milk shakes

a day in order to turn his wiry adolescent frame into some muscular ideal. Synonym: well-built

7. The two of us enjoy wearing fashionable clothes, but we are no longer slaves to style.

Antonym: old-fashioned, outdated

8. Obviously, I still have important choices to make about my life, but I have already

made many of the critical decisions that confront those just starting out. Synonym: clearly, evidently

VI. Prefix

Write in each space one word that has the same prefix as underlined in each given word.


preface prepare

5. periphery perimeter

2. prologue progress 6. dialogue diameter

3. foresight foresee 7. semifinal semiconductor

4. paralysis parallel 8. devaluate decelerate

1. Explanation:

pre- : before someone or something

. prewar, precondition, precaution, prediction

2. Explanation:

pro- : before

. proceed, procession, provision

3. Explanation:

fore- : before or in the front of

. foreword, foretell, forecast, forehead

4. Explanation:

para- :on one side

. paragraph, parallel

5. Explanation:

per- : surrounding

. periodic, period

6. Explanation:

dia- : pass through between sth.

. dialectic, diagram, diagnosis

7. Explanation:

semi-: half or partly

. semicircle, semi-final, semi-skilled

8. Explanation:

de-: reduce

. declass, degrade, deduce

Part Two Grammar Exercises

1. concrete nouns & abstract nouns

Concrete nouns are words we use for people, places, or things that we can observe

with at least one of our five senses. The abstract class is the opposite — we can never experience these nouns according to our senses.

While this distinction is sometimes useful, the boundary between concrete and abstract is not always clear. Some nouns can be used as uncountable nouns when they refer to a thing in general and countable nouns when they refer to a particular instance of it, consider, for example, the noun art, which usually refers to a concept:

e. g. Art is an important element of human culture.

But it can refer to a specific artwork in certain contexts:

. I put my daughter’s art up on the fridge.

This is the problem of context within sentences.

I. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of the nouns given.

1. agony.

2. agonies.

3. experience.

4. experiences.

5. youth.

6. a youth.

7. My children are __a great help__ to me. (great, help)

8. The boy had __a good knowledge__ of mathematics. (good, knowledge)

9. a gray hair

10. He is looking for __work__. (work)

II. 1 A; 2 B; 3 D; 4 C; 5 A; 6 B; 7 B; 8 C.

III. a lot of; a little; some; a few; A; some; some; a lot of; X. many; X; a lot of.

2. quantifiers & determiners (every, each, everyone, every one, all)

Each and every have similar but not always identical meanings.

each = every one separately

every = each, all

Sometimes, each and every have the same meaning:

e. g. Prices go up each year.

Prices go up every year.

But often they are not exactly the same.

Each expresses the idea of “one by one”. It emphasizes individuality.

e. g. Each artist sees things differently.

Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general.

e. g. Every soldier saluted as the President arrived.

Each can be used in front of the verb:

e. g. The soldiers each received a medal.

Each can be followed by “of”:

e. g. The President spoke to each of the soldiers.

Every cannot be used for two things while each can:

e. g. He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

Every is used to say how often something happens:

e. g. There is a plane to Bangkok every day.

Everyone means “everybody” and is u sed when you want to refer to all the people in a group:

e. g. Everyone in my family likes spaghetti.

But if you’re referring to the individuals who make up a group, then the phrase is every one. “Each and every one” you should never substitute everyone, f or everyone as singular or plural:

. We wish each and every one of you a Merry Christmas.

All is more often used with plural verb forms, though sometimes it is used with singular verbs. However, if we wish to specify the things or people under discussion, we can use all or all of with nouns and pronouns and the correspondingly correct singular or plural verb forms.

e. g. Has all (of) the cake been eaten

Have all (of) the presents been distributed

All of us are going to Sam’s party next week. We’re all going.

IV. Complete the following with every, each, everyone, every one or all.

1. all; Every one; Every.

A: He had eaten _______ the biscuits.

B: What _____________

A: __________ single one.

2. The pavement on ________ side was crowded with neat smiling people. each;

3. Every;

4. each;

5. Everyone. The girl is very popular. ____________ likes her.

6. Each;

7. everyone; everyone; 8. Each.

3. dangling participles

Dangling participles is a participle that is not grammatically linked to the word it is intended to modify. In “Driving down the street, the house came into view,” “driving” is a dangling participle. Though they are not rare in speech, dangling participles are avoided in formal writing because of the possibility of misunderstanding.

e. g. The burglar was about 30 years old, white, 5′10″, with wavy hair weighing about 150 pounds.

If properly installed, you shouldn’t be able to open the door without first pressing the safety button.

V. Correct errors in the following sentences.

1. When planting these flowers, care must be taken not to damage the roots.

you must take care

2. Though received late at night, he started to work on the document immediately. Though he received the document … work on it….

3. Falling … we thought…. ------ When he fell

4. Reading the letter a second time, the meaning becomes clearer.

When you read

5. what he meant became clear to me ------- I became clear about what he meant

6. Shining in the sky we saw the first star.

We saw the first star shining in the sky.

7. The teacher walked behind the kids eating their lunches.

who were eating

8. While cleaning his gun, it went off unexpectedly.

he was cleaning


1. As long as…

As long as you are healthy, nothing can devastate you.

2. Obviously…

Obviously, enlarging your vocabulary is essential.

3. neither…nor…

Neither poverty nor failure frustrated the industrious student.

Part Three






II. Translation exercises

1. 如今很多爱慕虚荣的年轻人,尽管还不富裕,但却迷上了漂亮的小汽车。(vain, be obsessed with)


Many vain young people are obsessed with fancy cars despite the fact that

they are not yet rich enough to afford them.



The man who is obsessed with his job is just as hooked as the alcoholic, the junkie, or the compulsive gambler.


Your generation may seem to be obsessed with relationships that change continually.

2.当他的婚外恋被妻子发现后,他们的婚姻终于破裂了。(affair, fall apart) Their marriage finally fell apart when his affair with another woman was found out by his wife.

3.那位艺术家为了获得创作的灵感,在农村住了三年,放弃了生活上的许多享受。(inspiration, deny oneself something)

For artistic inspiration, the artist lived in the country for three years, where he denied himself many comforts of life.

4.我不知道明天去崇明岛的远足活动能不能成行,因为这要取决于会不会下雨。(excursion, at the mercy of)

I’m not sure if we can have the excursion to Chongming Island tomorrow. It is at the mercy of the weather.

5.他早年到日本学医,回国后却改变了主意,一辈子从事文学创作。(pursue) When he was young he went to Japan to learn medicine, but after he returned to China he changed his mind and pursued a career as a writer all his life.

6.她最近和足以做她父亲的老头好上了,这使她父母感到非常丢脸。(take up with, disgrace)


She’s taken up with a man old enough to be her father, which is a disgrace to her parents.



Her parents could not understand why she had taken up with an unemployed actor.有名望有权势的男人似乎对“保姆型”的女人情有独钟,如秘书、助手和乘务员等等。Powerful men seem to take up with the young women whose job was to tend to them and care for them in some way: their secretaries, assistants, flight attendants, etc.

7.1978年以来,我国经济发展神速,相比之下,一些发达国家的经济反而滑坡了。(witness, contrast)


Since 1978, our economy has witnessed a rapid development; in contrast that of some developed countries has declined.



Thanks for talking and sharing China’s story with me. I will return to China and witness all its happenings.


I am sure to come back to China before October 1st. Personally I would like to witness the important gala of China.

8.地震切断了这个城市和外界的联系。人们的食品供应也许捱不过冬天了。(hold out)Translation:

The earthquake isolated this city from other areas. I’m afraid their food supplies will not hold out through the winter.



If our supplies hold out, we will camp here for another week.

那位飞行员说,因为缺乏燃料,他只能再坚持一小时,然后就不得不把飞机降落在水面上。The pilot said he could hold out for another hour before he would have to ditch the plane because of lack of fuel.

VI Writing Practice

Paragraph development — the topic sentence

A topic sentence is a statement of the controlling idea that the rest of the paragraph clarifies, exemplifies, or supports. It is usually the most general statement of the paragraph but meanwhile specific enough so that it can be fully developed in a single paragraph. A good topic sentence promises what is to come.

A good topic sentence has three characteristics: it includes a topic and a controlling idea; it is limited; and it lends itself to development.

Exercise 1. Write a topic sentence to sum up the following details.

Set A

1. Denver, Colorado, is named for James Denver, a soldier and administrator of the Western frontier.

2. Mississippi’s capital Jackson is named after the seventh President of the United States.

3. Cleveland, Ohio’s largest city, gets its name from Moses Cleveland,

a man who invested a lot of money in the area.

Topic sentence: Many American cities are named after important people who are or were locally or nationally famous.

Set B

Topic sentence: Happiness means different things to different people.

Exercise 2. For each of the following two paragraphs, the topic sentence has been taken out. Read them carefully and work out for each paragraph a topic sentence that you think can hold all the following details together.

A. The problem isn’t that there’s no interest in teaching. I constantly meet young

people who’ve graduated from colleges and have signed up for teaching in some of the country’s toughest urban public schools. They are strongly interested in helping those so-called difficult kids. They find the work extraordinarily rewarding; the kids they teach benefit from their creativity and enthusiasm. But by the end of two years, most have either changed careers or moved to suburban schools — a consequence of low pay, a lack of support from the educational bureaucracy, and an overwhelming feeling of isolation, but never because of the lack of interest in teaching.

B. It means paying teachers what they’re worth. There’s no reason why an experienced, highly qualified, and effective teacher shouldn’t earn $100,000 annually at the peak of his or her career. Highly skilled teachers in such critical fields as math and science —as well as those willing to teach in the toughest urban schools — should be paid even more.

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