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王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

第7章慎于修辞

7.1 复习笔记

翻译修辞是贯彻翻译标准,确保译文忠实、通顺的主要手段。翻译修辞的几点要求如下:

一、译文明确无误是翻译修辞的首要要求

二、“文字意同而立语自有工拙”

翻译必须讲究“语工”。

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. (Francis Bacon) 读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理使人庄重,逻辑修辞使人善辩。

三、“简洁乃智慧之灵魂”

No admittance for passengers.

旅客止步。

四、叙述层次要分明

五、译文要文从字顺。承上启下。流畅自然

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

六、选词要适当,用词要得体

这里主要指翻译要考虑原文的文体特征、作者的风格特征,以及所涉及的人物(如文学作品)的性格、年龄、受教育程度、社会地位等特征。

Tourism for Development

旅游促进发展(广告用语)

七、适当运用汉语的四宇词组

在翻译中成功地运用四字词组,可以使译文生动、形象、有力。

八、尽量保留原文的修辞方法,或灵活利用译入语的修辞方法,以增强译文的力量或效果

1. 重复

(1)保留原有句法结构的重复

Energy imports and consumptions must be reduced, competition enhanced by rigid enforcement of pertinent laws, and general monetary growth retained.

能源的进口和消耗必须减少,竞争必须通过相关法律的严格实施来加强,货币的总增长必须限制。

(2) 利用同义词或近似同义词进行重复

What John said made his wife stare with mouth open.

约翰的话使他的妻子张口结舌,目瞪口呆。

(3) 译成排比式重复

And now, you who have so long been bound to the most narrow and material

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

views, you who have denied the virtue of transcendental medicine, you who have always derided your superiors—behold!

喏,你这个一向目光短浅、见解卑俗的人,你这个矢口否认超常医学功能的人,你这个一贯嘲笑前辈的人,睁开眼睛瞧瞧吧!

2. 否定

否定作为一种修辞手段,通常用以表示强调,译法比较灵活。

(1) 译为肯定形式

Not infrequently does the septuagenarian walk over a long distance to Darning Lake Park.

那位年逾古稀的老翁经常从很远的地方步行去大明湖公园。

(2) 保留否定形式

No law-breakers can go unpunished.

不管谁犯了法,都不能不受到惩罚。

3. 比喻

比喻手法的正确使用,会使语言的形象和生动。在翻译时,应尽量保留这种修辞手段;若有必要,在原文没有使用比喻的情况下,亦可在译文中适当加用。例:

(1) Seeking pleasure is like drinking poisoned wine.

宴安鸩毒。

(2) His statement is nothing but a left-handed compliment.

他的话只不过是一种言不由衷的恭维而已。

7.2 课后习题详解

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

一、翻译下文,注意斜体的比喻性词语的引申意义:

1. The runaway inflation is back on track. And the talks about it are occupying the story-of-the-spot. But to say that an effective remedy for the ailment is already in the pipeline would be going far down the road. One might say, however, that they have crossed a new threshold. Each of the candidates is claiming credit for this in the hope that the popularity of the advance will rub off on him.

【答案】失控的通货膨胀又恢复了正常态势,并一时成为人们的中心议题。但是,若说已经找到了医治通货膨胀的有效方法,那是言过其实的。不过,不妨说障碍已经清除,新的阶段已经开始。每个候选人都声称有功,生怕成功的荣誉与自己无缘。(指望成功的荣誉落在自己的名下。)

2. The film star lent his name to the efforts to raise money to help the flood victims. 【答案】这位电影明星以个人名义努力募款,以帮助洪涝灾民。

3. We were stranded on the mountain all night and the arrival of the rescue party was a sight for sore eyes.

【答案】我们整整一夜被困在山上一筹莫展,援救人员的到来使我们感到喜出望外。

4. When Anne wore her short dress at the party, she raised several eyebrows.

【答案】安妮身着短连衣裙参加宴会,这令一些人大为惊讶。

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

5. Stop beating about the bush and tell me what is really wrong.

【答案】不要拐弯抹角了,告诉我究竟错在哪里。

二、翻译下文,注意对偶法:

1. “He is a fool who can not be angry, but he is really a wise man who will not.”The habit of keeping pleasant is indeed better than an income of a thousand dollars a year. The life without cheerfulness is like the severe winter without the sun.

【答案】常言道:愚者不会怒,智者而不怒。保持常乐确实胜过拥有黄金万两;没有欢乐的生活恰似严冬不见阳光。

2. Nothing to do but work,

Nothing to eat but food,

Nothing to wear but clothes,

To keep one from going nude. (Benjamin Franklin King)

【答案】除了工作什么也别做,除了食物什么也别吃,除了衣服什么也别穿,为的是遮掩赤身露体。

3. The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comforts and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. 【答案】最终衡量一个人,不是看他在舒适和顺利的时刻站在哪儿,而是看他在受到非难和有争议的时刻站在哪儿。

王治奎《大学英汉翻译教程》【笔记课后习题翻译示例汇总】-第7~11章【圣才出品】

4. One is never as unhappy as one thinks, nor as happy as one hopes. (La Rochefoucauld)

【答案】一个人永远不像他所想象的那样不幸,也不会像他希望的那样幸福。

三、翻译下文,特别注意译文的自然流畅:

And then she would bid the girls hold up their heads; who, to conceal nothing, were certainly very handsome. Mere outside is so trifling a circumstance with me that I should scarcely have remembered to mention it, had it not been a general topic of conversation in the country. Olivia, now about eighteen, had that luxuriancy of beauty with which painters generally draw Hebe; open, sprightly, and commanding. Sophia's features were not so striking at first, but often did more certain execution, for they were soft, modest, and alluring. The one vanquished by a single blow, the other by efforts successively repeated. (Oliver Goldsmith: The Vicar of Wakefield)

【译文】

说完(她)就叫女儿们抬起头来,我不瞒众位,她们长得果然好看。我以为外貌好看原算不了什么,若不是乡下里人人都说她们长得好看,我也忘记提起这句话了。奥维雅今年18岁,长得丽艳,神采焕发,如画师所画的希腊仙女希毕一样,坦白活泼而又动人。索绯雅的面貌不如她姊姊动人,而柔媚幽闲,有潜移之力,往往尤能动人。大女儿能使男子一见立刻倾倒。二女儿能使男子屡见必定倾倒。

(伍光建译:《威克菲尔德牧师传》第一章)

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