科技英语翻译 1.1 翻译的标准第1节翻译练习1
The power plant is the heart of a ship.
The power unit for driving the machines is a 50-hp induction motor.
Semiconductor devices, called transistors, are replacing tubes in many applications.
Cramped conditions means that passengers’ legs cannot move around freely.
All bodies are known to possess weight and occupy space.
The removal of minerals from water is called softening.
A typical foliage leaf of a plant belonging to the dicotyledons is composed of two principal parts: blade and petiole. 去除水中的矿物质叫做软化。双子叶植物典型的营养叶由两个主要部分组成叶片和叶柄。 1.2 对译者的要求第4节翻译练习 1 Einstein’s relativity theory is the only one which can explain such phenomena. All four (outer planets) probably have cores of metals, silicates, and water. 爱因斯坦的相对论是能解释这种现象的唯一理论。直译这四颗外层行星的核可能都由金属、硅酸盐和水构成。意译 The designer must have access to stock lists of the materials he employs. Part adjustment and repair must be performed on regular basis if an acceptable printed product is to be the end product. 设计师必须备有所使用材料的储备表。意译要使印刷品的质量达到要求部件调试及修理就必须定期进行。意译第4节翻译练习2 The most important of the factors affecting plant growth is that it requires the supply of water. The doctor analyzed the blood sample for anemia. The apparent change in size of the sun is caused by dust in the air near the horizon. 植物生长的各因素中最重要的是水的供应。合译太阳的大小看起来有变化这是由于靠近地平线的空气中有尘粒而引起的。分译医生对血样作了分析看是不是贫血症。分译 These fragments of rock and iron range from thousand kilometers in diameter to less than one. Manufacturing processes may be classified as unit production with small quantities being made and mass production with large numbers of identical parts being produced. 这些石块和铁块的碎片大小不等大的直径有1000公里小的不到1公里。分译制造过程可以分为单件生产和大量生产。前者指的是生产少量的零件后者则是指生产大量相同的零件。分译第4节翻译练习3 Cartography is the science of making maps. Many elements in nature are found to be mixtures of different isotopes. 制图学是研究绘制地图的科学。增译人们发现
自然界里许多元素都是各种不同的同位素的混合物。增译 The two units used most frequently in electricity are ampere and volt: this is the unit of voltage and that of current. That like charges repel but opposite charges attract is one of the fundamental laws of electricity. 电学上最常用的两个单位是安培和伏特后者是电压的单位前者是电流的单位。增译同性电荷相斥异性电荷相吸是电学的一个基本规律。省译第4节翻译练习4 Almost any insulated body processes to some extent
the ability to retain for a time an electric charge. The angular contact bearing provides a greater thrust capacity. The properties of the weld can be altered by varying the grain orientation. 几乎任何一种绝缘体都多少具有保留电荷一段时间的能力。向心推力轴承有较大的轴向承载能力。通过改变晶粒的方向可以改变焊缝的性能。 2.1 词义的选择第1节翻译练习1 The spindle rotates simultaneously round two axes at right angles to each other. The earth isn’t completely round; it is slightly flattened at the poles. In each round of operation the particle picks up energy from the oscillating electric field. 锭子同时绕两个互相垂直的轴旋转。介词粒子每运转一周都从振荡电场获取新的能量。名词地球并非完全是圆的它的两极略扁平。形容词 An electron is an extremely small corpuscle with negative charge which rounds about the nucleus of an atom. Her waist measures forty inches round. 电子是绕原子核转动且带有负电荷的极其微小的粒子。动词她腰围40英寸。副词第1节翻译练习2 Rate of penetration was found to be proportional to the net pressure applied by the tool. Scientists are constantly striving to find fast and convenient way of obtaining quantitative data. To find the area of a square or oblong, you merely multiply its length by its width. Certain isotopes are not found in nature. 人们发现钻孔速度与工具所受的净压力成正比。求一正方形或长方形的面积你只需将其长度乘以宽度。科学家们总是力求找到快速而简便的方法获得定量数据。有些同位素在自然界中并不存在。 New fibers find expanding applications in engineering and industry. Kangaroos are found in Australia. This plant is found in the sea near the mouth of rivers. Microcomputers have found their application in the production of genius sensors. Plastics find wide application in our daily life. 大袋鼠产于澳大利亚。这种植物生长在近河口的海中。新发明的纤维在工程和工业领域得到越来越广泛的应用。微型计算机已经应用于智能传感器的生产中。塑料在我们的日常生活中得到广泛应用。第2节翻译练习1 The cause of rolling resistance is the deformation of mating surfaces of the rolling element and the raceway on which it rolls. Traditionally, NC programming has been performed offline with the machine commands being contained on a punched tape. The occurrence of large mats of floating algae may result in the death of many fish from lack of oxygen. 滚动阻力的起因在于滚动体的配合面和它滚动的滚道的变形。技术性引申通常数控机床的编程是脱机完成的指令载于穿孔带上。技术性引申大片大片漂浮的藻类的出现导致很多鱼因缺氧而死亡。修辞引申The splitting of the uranium or plutonium nucleus is accompanied by the release of very considerable amount of energy. The major contributors in component technology have been in the semiconductor. The distance between the two plates is small compared with their linear dimensions. Just as different solids and liquids vary in density, so do gases and vapor元件技术中起主要作用的是半导体元件。具体化引申两板之间的距离相对于其宽度和长度而言比较小。具体化引申随着铀核和钚核的裂变会有极其巨大的能量释放处理。修辞性引申正像不同的固体和液体的密度不同一样不同的气体和蒸汽的密度也不同。具体化引申 The Curies believed that there was something in nature that gave out radiation. Obviously, there is much room for the improvement in the structure. At present coal is the most common food of a steam plant. The facts have been set down in black and white. 显然其结构还有较大的改进余地。抽象化引申目前煤是火电厂最常用的能源。抽象化引申居里夫妇坚信自然界中有一种物质能放出辐射能。具体化引申这些事实已经清清楚楚地记录下
来了。抽象化引申 2.3 词类的转换第3节翻译练习1 Each time a sample was drawn for color determination. What is certain is that the oil spill has delivered a devastating blow to the ecology of the Persian Gulf. We should get familiar with different systems of units. 每次取一个标本测定颜色。可以肯定这场石油泄漏事件对波斯湾的生态是个惨重的打击。我们应该熟悉各种计量单位制。These decision-making processes are applicable to the entire field of engineering design--- not just to mechanical engineering design. Hydrogen instead of air is frequently used for cooling large turbogenerators. When the war was over, it was discovered that the Germans were nowhere near success in developing nuclear weapons. 常以氢气代替空气来冷却大型汽轮发电机。第二次世界大战结束后人们发现德国人在研制核武器方面离成功还很远。这些判定过程可以应用于工程设计的整个领域而不仅仅限于机械工程设计。 Various precautions have been taken against leakage. Once inside the oven, panels are subjected to a temperature of 365°F. Value is defined as a numerical ratio, the ratio of the function, or performance, to the cost. This new model should appeal to potential buyers. 一旦进入烘干炉板材就处于365华氏度的温度条件下。价值的定义是功能或性能与成本的数值比。已采取了各种措施防止渗漏。这种新式样对潜在的买主肯定有吸引力。 Galileo’s experiments are not difficult, nor is there any evidence that he performed them with exceptional skill. Sometimes a scientist observes an object and its features, for example a star or a bird; sometimes he observes an event, which is something that happens at a particular time. Earthquakes are generally more destructive of life than volcanic eruptions. 有时科学家观察一物体及其特征例如一颗星或一只鸟有时科学家观察某一事件即在一特定时间所发生的事。地震对于生命的破坏通常大于火山爆发。伽利略的实验并不难也没有证据表明他是以非凡的技能来做实验的。 Heat should be applied slowly to avoid localized overheating. How rapidly a fuel burns depends on how thoroughly it is mixed with oxygen or air. This is why a coil is often referred to as an inductor. 一种燃料燃烧的速度有多快取决于它与氧气或空气混合的均匀程度。这就是线圈常被叫做电感器的原因。应当慢慢加热以避免发生局部过热现象。第3节翻译练习2 Practically all of the useful properties of materials are strongly dependent on their internal structure. The metal casts well. A wire for conducting electric current is covered with plastic; the plastic is insulation round the wire. 几乎材料的一切有用特性都与其部的结构有密切的关系。这种金属有良好的铸造性能。传导电流的导线包有塑料
该塑料便是导线周围的绝缘材料。 There are many ways of determining the distribution of the magnetism about a magnet. Good lubrication keeps the bearings from being damaged. Safety in a power plant is of great importance. Most modern transmitters employ solid state circuits. 安全在电厂是非常重要的。现代发报机大多采用固体电路。有许多方法来确定磁场周围的磁力分布状况。润滑良好可保护轴承不受损伤。 E-Chemmerce now offers two main levels of online business intelligence on chemical, plastic and energy e-commerce. These images tend to exaggerate the robot’s similarity to human anatomy and behavior. Aluminum remained an expensive rarity till the discovery of the electrolytic process for reducing aluminum in 1886. 这些概念常常夸大了机器人与人类在形体和行为方面的相似之处。《电子化工商务》目前主要提供两个层次的有关化学、塑料和能源电子商务的在线商务信息服务。直到1886年人们发现电解法还原铝之前
铝一直是一种昂贵的珍品。 Since some materials are not damaged easily as others, the
possibility exists of developing radiation-resistant parts. 由于有些材料不像另一些那样容易被损坏所以有可能研制出防辐射的零件。 2.4 词的增译第4节翻译练习2 第4节翻译练习1 This action externally appears like the discharge of a capacitor. Once out of the earth’s gravity, an astronaut is affected by still another problem--- weightlessness. By minimizing the microscopic imperfections scientists are making far stronger ceramics. 这一作用从外表上看来像电容器的放电现象。一旦离开了地球的引力围宇航员又遇到了另一个问题——失重。科学家们正通过最大限度地减小微观缺陷来制造强度高得多的瓷。 Atomic cells are small and very light, as compared to ordinary dry ones. Transistors can make previously large equipment much smaller. Astronomers have evidence of a few other stars too, which might have black holes as companions. 天文学家有证据表明还有其他一些恒星也可能有黑洞作为伴星。和普通电池相比原子电池体积小、重量轻。晶体管能使原先体积大的设备变得小得多。 The key to the new materials is researchers’ increasing ability to manipulate substances at the molecular level. The largest and most expensive products cannot, because of their size, be testable in the factory. Cold rolling enables the operators to produce rolls of accuracy and uniformity, and with a better surface finish. 最大最贵的产品因为体积大在该工厂里是不能检验的。开发新材料的关键在于研究人员不断提高在分子一级上处理物质的能力。冷轧可使操作工生产出精确度高、均匀度好的轧制件并具有更好的表面光洁度。 All these factors play a key role in formulation of the model. PCs are not the most stable, and with video editing you have to be extra careful. This method makes it easy to identify the various components. 在拟订模型时所有这些因素都将起到关键性的作用。这个方法使人们很容易识别各种不同的构成成分。个人电脑一般并不太稳定所以进行视频编辑时需要加倍小心。第4节翻译练习2It was estimated that the power of an average horse is equal to 500 feet-pounds per second. Panel patch is one gauge heavier than thickness of original skin. Studies have shown that information can be communicated to people many times faster in a graphic form than in written form. 据估计一匹普通马的功率等于500英尺-磅力/秒。补块比原板的厚度大一号。众多研究表明以图形表示的信息被人们接受的速度比以文字表示的快许多倍。 The chemist is making an analysis of the poison. It appears that the construction of the dam has had a considerable effect on the ecology of the region. The receiver will operate reliably no matter what happens. 无论发生什么情况这台接收机都将可靠地工作。药剂师正对毒性进行分析。看来建造水坝对这一地区的生态已经有相当大的影响。 Radiant, electrical and chemical energies can all be turned into heat. The frequency, wave length and speed of sound are closely related. Noise figure is minimized by parametric amplifier. 频率、波长和声速三者是密切相关的。辐射能、电能和化学能这三种能均可转变为热能。采用参量放大器即可将噪音系数减小至最低限度。 In the absence of sufficient knowledge confusion exists in classifying a specimen as a butterfly or a moth. Lead can be hammered into very thin sheets without being broken. There are a number of devices that give an electric current when light falls on them, without any chemical changes taking place. 如果没有足够的知识就分不清标本是属蝶类还是蛾类。有许多器件在受光照射时能产生电流但不发生任何化学变化。铅能被锤成很薄的薄片而不破裂。 2.5 词的省译第5节翻译练习1 The fact that the concrete is slow in setting is no sign that it is of poor quality. Such an engine is called an internal combustion engine. The symptoms of hepatitis are similar no
matter which virus is involved. 混凝土凝固得慢并不表示其质量差。这种发动机成为燃机。肝炎不管是由何种病毒引起的其症状均小异。 This critical deficiency was itself due to three factors which interacted with each other over the entire period. The properties change in going from carbon to graphite. The design choices hinge upon considerations of gain, noise figure, and so forth. 设计选择的关键在于考虑增益、噪音系数等等。这个关键性的逆差来源于三个始终互相影响的因素。碳转变成石墨时其性质也发生了变化。 Temperatures may reach 700°C and surface oxidation becomes critical. If the atomic nucleus of a heavy element is split, a large amount of energy is released. The discovery of enzymes is very important because it gave impetus to a series of experiments. 分裂一重元素的原子核会释放出很大的能量。温度高达700摄氏度表面氧化便成为关键问题。酶的发现很重要因为它推动了一系列试验的进行。Apart from the fact that it may become hot, no apparent change occurs in a metal when it is carrying a current. This equipment forms an integral part of many advanced systems. There was a rise in temperature, and as a result, the component failed. 金属有电流通过时除了金属可能变热外没有什么显著变化。温度升高了结果元件出了故障。这个设备是许多先进系统不可缺少的一部分。 If there is little cooling water available, a diesel engine makes an excellent prime mover for generation below 10,000 kVA. There was a block in the pipe and the water could not flow away. 如果能利用的冷却水不多则柴油发动机可以成为极好的发电10000千伏安以下的原动机。水管被东西堵住水流不出去。 2.6 重复法第6节翻译练习1 The properties of gas are quite different from those of liquid. The electric resistance of copper is not so large as that of iron. The three gas laws are true of all gases, as well as of air. 气体的性质与液体的性质大不相同。重复名词气体三定律不但适用于空气也适用于所有气体。重复动词铜的电阻不像铁的电阻那样大。重复名词 Matter changes not only in state but also in volume. Continuous data can be expressed in either fractions or whole numbers. 物质不仅形态改变而且体积也改变。重复动词连续资料可以用分数表示也可以用整数表示。重复动词 3.1 名词的译法第1节翻译练习 1 In an unusual application, this organization uses a fingerprint scanner to monitor the comings and goings of its residents. A capacitor is used to eliminate sparking when a circuit containing inductance is suddenly opened. 一个不同寻常的用途是这个机构使用指纹扫描器监视居住人员的进出。当含有电感的电路突然断开时可用电容器消除火花。第1节翻译练习2 The comparison reveals that the error is due to aliasing. The scans confirmed that the subjects’ brains dealt with words in ways that contradict one hoary old idea. The latest research with radioactive isotopes has shown that this assumption is quite wrong. 比较结果表明误差是由于名称不同而造成的。扫描结果证实受试者的大脑处理词的方式同一种古老的旧观念不一致。对放射性同位素的最新研究结果表明这种设想是完全错误的。 Metals differ in the ease with which they give up electrons and enter into chemical combination. Internal-shoe drum brakes provide better protection from water and dust. People on earth are protected from the dangerous ultraviolet radiation of the sun by a layer or ozone that spans the planet and absorbs the radiation. 各种金属放出电子和参与化学反应的难易程度不一。蹄式鼓形制动器的防水、防尘性能比较好。地球上的人们受到包围着地球并能吸收辐射的一层臭氧层的保护从而免受危险的太阳紫外线辐射的伤害。 According to the molecular theory the temperature of an object depends on the average speed of its
molecules. Effectiveness of temperature control depends upon the amount of lubricant supplied, the ambient temperature, and the external cooling. 根据分子理论的原理物体的温度取决于其分子的平均速度。温度控制的效果取决于润滑剂的用量、环境温度以及外部的冷却设施。第1节翻译练习3 Particular attention should be given to hoses to ensure that chafing does not occur. The primary concern of electrical engineering is the doing of work by the delivery of energy. Gene piracy is not new. All plants and animals need carbon for growth. 要特别注意软管保证没有擦伤。窃取基因不是新鲜事。电工学主要关注的是通过输送能量做功的情况。所有动植物均需要碳才能生长。第1节翻译练习4 The experiment was a success. Semiconductor devices can perform a variety of control function in electronic equipment. 这个试验是成功的。半导体在电子设备中能起各种各样的控制作用。 3.2 冠词的译法第2节翻译练习1 A polymer is a substance of high molecular weight. Being a good insulator, rubber is often used in cables. The patient was administered the mixture twice a week. These machines may be oiled once or twice a month. 聚合物是一种高分子的物质。这种混合剂病人每周服用两次。橡胶是一种良好的绝缘体所以经常使用在电缆上。这些机器每个月可以加一次或两次油。第2节翻译练习2 A bearing can be defined as a member specifically designed to support moving machine components. Use a transformer and power at low voltage can be changed into power at high voltage. An object at rest has no kinetic energy, its velocity being zero. 轴承可以定义为一种专门用于支撑运动着的机器零件的构件。静止的物体没有动能因为它的速度为零。使用变压器可将低压电转变为高压电。第2节翻译练习3 作为固定词组时的省译 on a large scale a majority of a wealth of as a result 结果因此大规模地大多数的大量的第2节翻译练习4 The machine is intended for grinding the top and bottom surfaces of tungsten carbide tips. The mechanism has been termed cumulative feedback inhibition. 该机床是供磨削硬质合金刀片上下表面用的。这种机制就叫做累加反馈抑制。第2节翻译练习5 The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. The main effect is to raise the fundamental slosh mode frequency. 计算机的基本任务是处理信息。主要作用在于提高基本的晃动频率。第3章总复习题 Other factors affect the configuration of the total system. In normal flight the hatch doors fair into the fuselage. Energy can neither be created, nor destroyed by any means known to man. 另一些因素则将影响整个系统的结构。飞行正常时舱门与机身平整贴合。用人们已知的方法既不能创造能量也不能消灭能量。 It is customary to refer to design levels as high or low on component complexity. The main economy of the system stems from the ability to move cars in a continuous train without uncoupling. He is a stranger to the operation of the electronic computer. 他对电子计算机的操作是陌生的。习惯上根据部件的复杂程度把设计级称为高设计级和低设计级。此系统的主要经济之处在于它能移动列车的车厢而不必将它们脱钩分开。 A key element in system capacity planning is the financial cost of performance. The assembler can expand the key words in the assembly code into their full instruction set. The flame does not touch the flask directly. 这种汇编程序能把汇编码中的关键字扩展成完整的指令集。系统能力计划中关键因素是性能的金融成本。火焰没有直接接触烧瓶。 The study of the strength of solids involves the study of the defects in the crystalline structure. The problem was solved by the provision of a compensating jet. The rusting of iron is the slow chemical combination of the elements iron and oxygen in moist atmosphere. 研究固体的强度就必须研究晶体结构
中的缺陷。铁生锈是铁元素和氧元素在湿空气中缓慢化合的现象。通过安装一个补偿喷嘴解决了这个问题。 The decay of organic matter is a slow oxidation by oxygen in the air. In order to improve a certain kind of battery, Edison spent almost ten years and made nearly 50,000 experiments. 有机物的腐烂是空气中的氧引起的一种缓慢氧化过程。为了改善一种电池的性能爱迪生花了差不多十年时间做了近50000次试验。 4.1 代词的一般译法第1节翻译练习1 In this cell the light incident on the sensitive surface of the cell causes the photo-electric emission of electrons from the surface, and these electrons are attracted to the other electrode. The owl can hear a mouse chewing and fly down on it, even though it is hidden from sight under a pile of leaves. 在这种电池中照在电池光敏表面光电效应而发射电子而这些电子被吸引到另一电极。即使老鼠躲藏在一堆叶子下看不见的地方猫头鹰也能听见老鼠咀嚼的声音而飞下来袭击它。 This might be compared with the mumble of wavelengths of sound that go to make up ordinary noise. 这可以与杂乱的声波相比一般的噪音就是由这种杂乱的声波组成的。第1节翻译练习2 Drawing electrons away from the atom causes it to have a net positive electric charge. Each crystal should have a shape as much like that of the other crystals as possible. 将电子与原子分离会使原子带上纯净正电荷。每一结晶的形状应与其他结晶的形状尽可能相似。第1节翻译练习3 Every element retains its identity no matter how it is finely divided. Astronomers can estimate the size and brightness of a star by its color. 每种元素不论分得怎样细小它仍保持其特征。天文学家根据恒星的颜色可以估计它的大小和亮度。第1节翻译练习4 Many processes have already been proposed, and one possible future process is a smelting reduction. It is possible to work backward from the known strength and determine what factor of safety was used. Each is a solid sphere with a metallic core surrounded by silicate shells. 我们能够由已知的强度反过来求出所用的安全系数。它们每一颗都是由硅酸盐外壳包围着金属核的固态球体。人们已经提出了很多方法未来可能的选择之一就是熔融还原法。第1节翻译练习5 In this chapter our task is to find out what the air is made of. Today we have a fairly clear idea of what goes on inside of atom. Practically all of the heat energy received by the earth comes from the sun. 现在我们对原子部的情况已相当清楚了。地球所得到的热能几乎都来自于太阳。在这一章中我们的任务是弄清空气的构成成分。 4.2 人称代词的译法第2节翻译练习1 You can decide what resolution and compression level is best for your output. We’ll do everything possible to improve the supply of electricity. You can find the density of a body providing you know its mass and volume. We must be very careful to avoid trying to express energy in terms of power units. 我们将尽一切努力来改善电力供应。只要知道物体的质量和体积就可求出物体的密度。你可以决定哪种溶解和压缩程度对成品最好。必须注意避免用功率单位表示能量。第2节翻译练习2 It may require the taking of a large sample as in macro analysis. If an atom contains three protons, it must have three electrons to be electrically neutral. 如果一个原子有三个质子这个原子必然有三个电子来使其呈电中性。它可能要求像宏观分析中那样采用大的样本。 4.3 形容词性物主代词的译法第3节翻译练习1 The density of anything is its mass per unit volume. Each substance shows an individual structure of its own. One of the drawbacks of the early lasers was their inability to operate continuously. 每一种物质都显示出它自己的独特结构。任何物体的密度是它的每单位体积的质量。早期激光器的缺点之一是它们不能连续地工作。第3节翻译练习 2 In their workshop there is no one who