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Unit 1 Text A

Ex.1 Understanding the text

1、Because he is tired of listening to his father and he is not interested in grammar rules.

2、The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture are so marvelous and remarkable that they should be described at least in a brief account; however, what the student could do was only one single utterance : “whoa! ”without any any specific comment.

3、Because the schools fail to set high standards of language proficiency. They only teach a little grammar and less advanced vocabulary. And the younger teachers themselves have little knowledge of the vital structures of language.

4、Because teaching grammar is not an easy job and most of the students will easily get bored if it’s not properly dealt with.

5、He familiarized his son with different parts of speech in a sentence and discussed their specific grammatical functions including how to use adverbs to describe verbs.

6、Because the son had never heard about the various names and functions of words in an English sentence before.

7、The author uses “road map”and “car”to describe grammar and vocabulary. Here, “road map”is considered as grammar and “car”as vocabulary.

8、Since the subjunctive mood his son used is a fairly advanced grammar structure, the interjection “whoa! ”reflects the tremendous pride the father had toward his son; it also reflects the author ’s humor in using the word because it was once used by his student, though in two different situations and with two different feelings.

Ex.3 Words in use

1.condense 6.adequate




5.asset https://www.sodocs.net/doc/8910204064.html,petent 8.adjusting 9.precisely 10.beneficial

Ex.4 Word building

-al/-ial: managerial/editorial/substance/survival/tradition/margin

-cy -y : consistency/accuracy/efficient : recovery/ministry/assembly

Ex.5 Word building










9.survival 10.tradition 12.efficient

Ex.6 Banked cloze

1-5: L C J A I 6-10: O N E H F

Ex.7 Expressions in use

1.feel obliged to

2.be serious about

3.run into

4.distinguish between 6.was allergic to 7.get lost 8.be attracted to 9.make sense

5.thrust upon

10.looked upon as

Ex.8 Structured writing

Some bookworm s in my dormitory often spend hours reading their “Bible P”ra,ctical English

Grammar, and do a lot of exercises in that book , but I don since I have never learned Chinese grammar, what

’t care about it at all. My assumption is ’s the sense of l e s a h r n g i r n a g m E m n a g r l?i In

fact, English grammar has always been a big headache to me.

English grammar is very complicated because, unlike Chinese, there are many verb tenses. Even

stranger than verb tenses, English grammar also contains something very confusing. For example,

I don’rtemember how many times my middle school teacher tried to “impose ”tdhiefferences

between used to and be used to on us. Sometimes he would go on with the explanation for 20

minutes or so. He even summarized the differences by listing three or four points for us to

memorize. However, they could never stay in my head . I don ’t remember how many times I got it

wrong with the sentences containing used to or be used to on my exams . I was really confused

with these two phrases,and I can never get them right.

In brief, I ’m allergic to learning English grammar. Curiously, I just wonder if the native speakers of

English have a microcomputer in their brain to help them utter the two phrases promptly with

just a click of their brain mouse!

Ex.9 E-C Translation



和现代英语。英语起源于公元 5 世纪,当时三个日耳曼部落入侵英国,他们对英语语言的形

成起了很大的作用。在中世纪和现代社会初期,英语的影响遍及不列颠群岛。从17 世纪初,




Ex.10 C-E Translation

Chinese calligraphy is a unique art and the unique art treasure in the world. The formation and

development of the Chinese calligraphy is closely related to the emergence and evolution of

Chinese characters. In this long evolutionary process, Chinese characters have not only played an

important role in exchanging ideas and transmitting culture but also developed into a unique art

form. Calligraphic works well reflect calligraphers ’personal feeling-csu, l k t i n v o a w t i o l e n d,g e, self

“seeing the calligrapher personality, and so forth, thus there is an expression that ’s h like seeing the person ”A.s one of the treasures of Chinese culture, Chinese calligraphy shines

splendidly in the world ’s treasure house of cultur.e and art

Unit 1

Text B

2. Understanding the text

D. 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. D

4. Words in use

mysterious 2. desperate

7. depict 3. devise 4. negotiate

9. Expand

5. recalled

10 confusion

6. specifically 8. Ignorance

5. Expressions in use

apply to 2. in a bid to 3. end up

7. leaving ..behind 4. speaking of

8. focus on

5. get hold of

6. appealed to

EX. 6 Sentence structure


even though it is important of the students to have a deep understanding of the texts, it doesn ’ t make any sense to read texts word for word from the beginning to the end

as it is a matter of little importance to us, it doesn ’m t ake much sense to argue out which is

wrong or right or which is better or worse

it makes no sense to compel children to obey their parents; instead, we should try to tell them

what is right and what is wrong.

EX. 7.

II might as well have stayed at home.

We might as well have taken the train home

So he might as well have told me all about it .



essential framework

4 valuable possessions 7 overcome deficiencies Ex. 8 2. distinctive difference

5 considerable frustration

8 sketch thoughts

3 high standards

6 acquire knowledge

9 devise a scheme

1 essential framework 5 high standards

2 proper vocabulary

3 excellent control

4 language deficit 6 language proficiency 7 acquire knowledge

8 competent communication 11 effective communication 9 overcome deficiencies

12 advanced vocabulary

10 sketch thoughts

Unit 2 Text A

Reading Comprehension

1. because English or history majors are considered less competitive when the job market is shrinking, and they have to study something that can help them more easily locate their future


2. because as the tuition is climbing higher and higher, many students have run away from studying the humanities and toward “hard ”skills that they think will lead to employment.

3. since more students are now taking job-oriented courses, libraries, where students of liberal

arts used to study, are getting less popular than before; in contrast, labs are getting more eye-catching because students of science and engineering do experiments and research there.

4. because this inner drive that can be either constructive or destructive is so mysterious and powerful that it has attracted many people to speculate on it. From ancient times, these men and women developed artistic “languages ”in the form of story, music, m y t i t n h g,,parinchitecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions, which from the very foundation of civilization.

5. Studying the humanities improves your ability to read and write, makes you familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process, and, more importantly, provides you with a wide scope of possibilities that are open to you.

6. Because in modern life, an ideal capacity for establishing one’csareer is to have both technical knowledge and inner insight, not just one without the other.

7. “We-lrl o unded human beings ”are those who have insight and understand the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity.

8. Since many people who once studied the humanities became famous in their career, the author implies that if students spend more time studying the humanities, they could surely become successful in the future as well.

Language focus


1. promotes

2. accelerate

3. mystery

4. insight

5. boost

6. analysis

7. calculate 8. barriers 9. destruction 10. prospect


Promising Offend Intensify









1. excess 6. promising

2. bearing

7. exclude

3. objective

8. identity

4. intensify

9 offend

5. execute

10. housing


1-5 CHDJB 6-10 LMGFA


1. are liable to

2. in favor of

3. is bound to

4. speculate about 7. in the form of 10 in succession

5. invested ?with

6. stand up for

8. prepared for 9. in the company of




In recent years, with the development of Internet technology, the construction of digital

education resources of our country has made great achievements. Many universities have set up

their own digital learning platforms, and digital teaching is playing an increasingly important role

in education. Compared with the traditional way of teaching, the digital way has a lot of advantages. On one hand, digital teaching makes global sharing of teaching resources possible;

on the other hand, it expands the learner ’s study time and space to learn, allowing people to get access to the digital virtual schools through the Internet anytime and anywhere. These advantages make it possible for people to shift from one-time learning to lifelong learning.

Unit 2

Section B What college brings us?

Ex 1

1. Main idea: College has never been magical for everyone.

Major detail: More high school graduates don te’rnt o f if t c t h o e l e p g a e t.

2. Main idea :We need to revise our attitudes and reform the system. Major detail: we only

judge things based on our own college experiences.

3. Main idea: College education seems to have wasted time and accumulated debt.

Major detail: Close to 80 percent of new jobs can be performed by someone without a college



1C 2D 3C 4A 5D 6B 7B 8A


1. It ’s very true because the job market is becoming more competitive.

Yes, without a college degree, one can end up with nothing to do.

Sure, college brings students knowledge and personal growth.

No, it ’s not necessary to get a college degree to have a better career.

Disagree, college is too expensive now for students and family to afford.

2. More competitive.

More knowledgeable.

More confident.

More opportunities.

3. Traditional ideology.

More promising future.

High expectations of their children.

4. Worth their money because it ’s an investment that will pay off later.

A waste of their money because the tuition is too high.

Not sure if the y’ll profit from the large sum they invested.

5. Analytical ability.

Critical thing skills.

Broad knowledge.


1. enroll 2 revise 3accumulate 4 accorded 5 evaluate

6. prime 7 confirm 8 shrinking

9 sufficient 10 recruit


1. bother to

2.is available to

3. been compelled to

4.described ?as

7 have something to do with

4. exposed ?to 6.rather than

8 for its own sake


1. A teacher, no matter how knowledgeable he is, cannot teach his students everything they

want to know.

2. No matter where you travel, you can always find someone to communicate with in English since English is an important language.

3. No matter what work a person is doing, if he gives it his best each day, he creates lots of happiness for himself.


1. Although the number of applications is small, there is little doubt that the program will help

the students who really need financial aid.

2. There is no doubt that computer crime is a very serious problem, so people think that all hackers need to be punished for their actions.

3. Though the boy worked very hard and finally successfully passed the exam, there is no doubt that overwork and too much worry caused his illness.


1 promising

2 worsens

3 shrinking

4 dominant

5 land

6 great

7 well-rounded 8 creative 9 elegant 10 constructive 11 skills 12 make

Unit 3 Discovery of a new life stage

Text A


1. Because people in different life stages are confronted with different problems and setbacks and each group of people in a particular time period have their particular worries and pains.

2.The norm refers to the general consensus that as soon as students graduated from college, they would enter adulthood and be able to find an ideal job leading to their career.

3. They are recognized as a new life stage that comes after high school graduation, continues through college and leads to starting a family and having a career.

4. Because nowadays so many young people are following this new lifestyle that it has become a trend. As long as the economic situation continues its long slide, this new stage is unavoidable.

5. Unlike their parents, a large number of young people are now delaying marriage, child bearing, and even employment during their odyssey years.

6. They often resent the pressure they ’re feeling and k c e e e p f r o a m d i t s h t e a i n r parents or even run away from home. Many also resort to computer games, iPods, iPhones, or iPads.

7. Their parents feel more anxious and upset seeing their children ’o dysssey years continue to stretch without a clear direction.

8. The author thinks as people are getting to know the odyssey years better, both parents and

their children can tackle this phase better. For parents, they can understand their children more;

for children, they can explore and discover themselves with a positive attitude. Ex.3

1. peculiar 6. labeled

2. radical

7. resent

3. phase

4. sensible

5. predict

8. witnessed 9. equivalent 10. parallels





dramatic academy

Depression Classification -ist detection



cooperate dictate




1. journal 7. academy

2. chaotic

8. rightists

3. cooperate

9. depression

4. erosion

10. dictate

5. dramatic

6. confuse

11. detection 12. classification

Ex. 6

K E A C L I G N H O Ex.7

1. saddled with

2. back off

3. gives way to

7. prior to 4. resorted to

8. based upon/on

5. make allowances for

6. wonder at


The odyssey years are certainly a very complicated phase of life for young people. Not only do

these young people need to overcome many difficulties, they also have to face many challenges

from their parents. The differences between parents and children can be well observed in their

completely different attitudes and views.

First, they differ in their attitude toward life. Parents always wonder what has gone wrong with

the new generation. They feel that during their time, young boys and girls were better behaved,

more obedient and had greater respect for elders. Young people, on the other hand, feel that

they are capable enough to learn on their own rather than lean heavily on the older generation

for guidance. Young people do not like to be spoon-fed by their parents.

The differences also appear in the way the two generations look at things. For example, the

parents g’eneration never understood Elvis and the Beatles. Because they couldn ’u t nderstand

what was going on, they were frequently opposed to them and saw rock as “the devil ’s mus Young people, however, are crazy about the modern music and would love to listen to it for a

hundred times a day. Wherever they go, they ’iP lol d h a w v i e t h t h t h e e i r m.

In conclusion, it ’vesry difficult for parents and their youngsters to get along due to their

distinctive attitudes and the way they view things. To fill this gap, both parents and their grown

children need to be more understanding to each other.









Ex. 10

Filial piety is the basic code of ethics in the ancient Chinese society. Chinese people consider

filial piety as the essence of a person ’instegrity, family harmony, and the nation ’wesll -being.

With filial piety being the core of Confucian ethics, it has been the moral standard for the Chinese

society to maintain the family relationship for thousands of years. It ’s undoubtedly a tradition Chinese virtue. The culture of filial piety is a complex concept, rich in content and wide in range.

It concludes not only cultural ideas but also institutional etiquettes. Generally speaking, it refers

to the obligation of children to their parents required by the society, including respect, care,

support for the elderly and so fo r th. Filial piety is fundamental to the ancient “Oriental

civilization ”.

Keys to Unit 3 Text B

Understanding the text 2

1. A

2. C

3. D

4. A

5. B

6. D

7. D

8. C

Words in use 4

1. hollow

2. restless

3. demonstrate

4. exiled

5. miserable

6. commercial

7. hesitated

8. erupt

9. refine 10. Feasible

Expression in use 5

1. are tired of 2 fall into 3 be strict with 4 not amount to much

5 drifted off

6 bonded with

7 resign himself to

8 surrender themselves to

Sentence structure 6

1. The man walked slowly, with one hand pulling with effort at his coat and the other holding

tightly on to his trousers.

2. With more and more students joining it, the new club soon expanded and became the largest

one on the campus.

3. With the Internet becoming increasingly popular for young people to connect with their

friends, letter writing is becoming less and less common.


1. With the traditional values in their heads, most parents found it hard to accept their children


2. With this kind of jeans out of fashion, young people do not like to wear them any more now.

3. With the differences in their skills and abilities, the young and the old seem to live in two very different worlds..

Collocation 8

1 fluid

2 contemporary

3 radical

4 enormous

5 prideful

6 competitive

7 rebellious 8 transition 9 unavoidable 10 traditional 11 unique 12 peculiar

Keys to Unit 3 Text B

Understanding the text 2

1. A

2. C

3. D

4. A

5. B

6. D

7. D

8. C

Words in use 4

1. hollow

2. restless

3. demonstrate

4. exiled

5. miserable

6. commercial

7. hesitated

8. erupt

9. refine 10. Feasible

Expression in use 5

1. are tired of 2 fall into 3 be strict with 4 not amount to much

5 drifted off

6 bonded with

7 resign himself to

8 surrender themselves to

Sentence structure 6

1. The man walked slowly, with one hand pulling with effort at his coat and the other holding

tightly on to his trousers.

2. With more and more students joining it, the new club soon expanded and became the largest

one on the campus.

3. With the Internet becoming increasingly popular for young people to connect with their friends, letter writing is becoming less and less common.


1. With the traditional values in their heads, most parents found it hard to accept their children s thinking.

2. With this kind of jeans out of fashion, young people do not like to wear them any more now.

3. With the differences in their skills and abilities, the young and the old seem to live in two very different worlds..

Collocation 8

1 fluid

2 contemporary

3 radical

4 enormous

5 prideful

6 competitive

7 rebellious 8 transition 9 unavoidable 10 traditional 11 unique 12 peculiar

Unit 4

Text A

Ex. 1

1. The author uses this sentence to tell her own love story. She didn would’etnedxpect that she up marrying Butch. He became her boyfriend just because of her wish to find a cute boyfriend.

She didn ’t really want to marry him at the beginning.

2. Because when she met up with Butch the first time, he kept staring at her all night long. He

flattered her and fell in love with her at first sight. He looked really wild or maybe even dangerous.

3. Because Butch had a “bad boy image ”which was very tempting to a lot of girls, and his wild, dynamic personality was a little frightening. She didn

with him.

now whether s h’e c t o k u l d be getting along

4. Though she always had an excellent reputation in respect to her schoolwork, she thought that

her college life was dull, with no fun. In her opinion, college was supposed to be a time of great

learning and also of some fun.

5. Because she was becoming more interested in him and she wanted to find out if she was the

“right ”date in the eyes of Butch, thinking of herself as a traditional girl.

6. It means that Butch didn ’t want to do anything to c h a n a g d e s i h t u i s a b t i o n.The word fate here

refers to the fact that Butch was going to be expelled from the university.

7. Though Butch was wild and would sometimes display directly his love in front of her friends, he

was always a perfect gentleman at his core. And they had a pure and responsible relationship for

seven years.

8. The author and her husband ’s faithful journey of love that started with a causal attraction but bloomed into a mature love proves that romantic love can last long through the ups and downs in


Ex. 3

1. confess 6. deserved Ex. 4

2. tempting

7. displayed

3. commence

4. coordinating

9. lodged

5. granted

8. consequently 10. proceed


Contented compress complicate -ion

Identification Illustration Interpretation Ex. 5 justification



extension plantation perception

1. qualifications 6. contented 11. identification

2. perception

7. interpretation

12. justification

3. plantations

8. complicate

4. compressed

9. illustration

5. exhibit

10. extension

Ex. 6


Ex. 7

1. on her behalf

2. took the liberty of

3. immune to

4. were filled with

5. fall in love with

6. Expelled from

7. been pessimistic about

8. go along with

Ex. 9

美国和欧洲各国都会庆祝 2 月 14 日的情人节。这是一个充满爱情和浪漫的节日,恋人之间





2 月 14 日那天,瓦伦丁被

处死,不仅因为他是基督徒,而且因为他曾治愈了一位监狱看守双目失明的女儿。 他在被 处死的前一晚上给她写了一封署名“你的瓦伦丁”的告别信。后来, 2 月 14 日就成了一个 人们可以为他们的情人展示感情的节日。 现在, 人们以不同的方式庆祝情人节, 他们发送贺


中国,这个节日也越来越受年轻人的欢迎。 Ex. 10

July 7th on the Chinese calendar is Chinese Qixi Festival, the most romantic of all the traditional Chinese holidays. Every year, some big businesses organize various activities, and young people send gifts to their lovers. As a result, the Qixi Festival is considered to be Chinese

Day ”T.he Qixi Festival is derived from the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid. The legend holds that on this particular night every year the Weaving Maid in heaven meets with Cowherd. So, people can see Cowherd and Weaving Maid meeting in the Milky Way on the night of Qixi. On this night, girls would also beg Weaving Maid for some wisdom for a happy marriage. But, with the changing of times, these activities are diminishing. All that remains is the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid, a sign of faithful love, continuously circulated among the folk. “

(Unit 4) Section B Reading Skills 1

1. They became romantically attracted to each other. (para.5)

2. share the dating expense or split the money with the date

3. sharing the cost of a meal in a restaurant ( para.7)


4. a tight and uncomfortable feeling because of nervousness (para.12)

5. mark the date on the calendar (para.14) Reading comprehension Understanding the text 2 1. D 5. A

2. C 6. D

3. A 7. B

4. C 8. C

Critical thinking 3

1. Males because that ’s the norm.

Males because men are expected to do it that way. Both since they are on an equal basis. Both since the traditional way is out of date.

2. Men and women are treated equally in this way.

Females are not considered inferior to males.

Both men and women feel more comfortable.

3. Won ’t feel embarrassed when taking the initiative to date.

Won’t put stress on either males or females.

Will widen the social circle and give opportunity to make more friends. Won’t feel obligated to keep a long-term relationship.

4. Both men and women can pay for a date.

Both men and women can take the initiative.

People are free to choose a casual or formal date.

5. Behave with respect for each other.

Be honest with each other.

Be considerate and helpful to each other.

Language focus

Words in use


1. conveying 6. thrilled

2. Forged

3. Thriving

8. Clarified

4. Abnormal

9. Conquer

5. frowning 7. Reckoned 10. concealing

Expressions in use 5

1. make contact with 5. indifferent to

2. took the initiative

3. are inclined to

4. thrive on

8. chip in 6. whip out 7. in the pit of her stomach

Sentence structure


1. With online learning, there is less study in a regular classroom and more time to spend by yourself.

2. With regular exercise, you ’ll have less mental stress and more physical strength.

3. With the new highway, there is less traffic and more comfort for drivers on the road.


1. Ambitious as he is, he has never been able to accomplish his goal and make his parents feel proud of him

2. Embarrassed as they were, they remained positive throughout their travels and learned from

the mistakes they made along the way.

3. Hard as she tried, Jane failed to introduce her father to the joys of rock music.



1. casual attraction

2. healthy friendship

5. mature love

3. romantic relationship 6. mutual friends

4. dynamic personality


1. college sweetheart

3. romantic relationship

5. casual attraction

7. exceedingly embarrassed 9. healthy friendship

11. mature love

2. take the initiative

4. steady boyfriend

6. fairy-tale romance 8. madly in love

10. traditional upbringing 12. mutual friends

Key to Unit5 Section A Ex.3

1. contradict 4. explicit 7. defy

2. paradox

3. perspective 5. suspended 6. derive

8. retains 9. manipulating

10. tackle



browse message consumer -ion browser messenger consume

negotiate object

negotiation objection reaction


constitute cultivate define

constitution cultivation definition expansion concentrate civilize

expand concentration civilization Ex.5

1. concentrated 3. civilized

5. browser

7. expansion 9. definition 11. reaction Ex.6

2. messenger 4. Constitution 6. objection 8. consume 10. cultivation 12. negotiation

1 B 6C 2D









1. referred to 3 put off 2 at odds with

4 consulting with

5 do their utmost 7 on track

Ex.8 6 took stock of 8 take in

It is often said that whatever wealth one may have will be gone quickly if the person only spends.

However, some people think the purpose of life is to enjoy moment, so they spend all they have

earned. Even though Bryan and Peter are close friends, their spending habits are very different.

Bryan is very careful about using his pocket money. He only spends money when it ’s necessary.

For example, when his pocket money is only $50,he may spend $20 on necessary stationery for

schoolwork. He will try to deposit the remaining $30 in his savings account. In his opinion, though

the amount is small, it will help him for a possible rainy day since people never know what could

happen in the future.

Unlike Bryan, Peter usually spends money at will. He often purchases expensive electronic

products such as an iPhone and iPad. Sometimes, he might buy himself an expensive brand-name

shirt or a pair of expensive brand- name shoes. Different from Byan, he never deposits extra

money in a bank after meeting his basic needs. To him, saving money in a bank is something silly

because he believes that he can always earn big money after he gets a decent job in the future.

All in all, Bryan and Peter are very different in the way they spend money. Spending money wisely

and saving extra money for future urgent needs enable students to manage their finance and

fully concentrate on their study. They will also derive great pleasure from the way they handle

their money.


大发现年代,也被称为大勘探年代,是欧洲进行全球勘查的一个历史时期,始于15 世纪初

并一直持续到18 世纪。这一时期通常被认为是中世纪和近代之间的桥梁,当时西方帝国








The Silk Road is a traffic route in the ancient times connecting China and Eurasia. This trade route

focuses on the trade of silk, hence the name “the Silk Road ”. As an international trade channel

and a bridge of cultural exchanges, the Silk Road effectively improved the economic and cultural

exchanges and development between the East and the West, exerting a profound impact on the

progress of the world civilization. Nowadays, under the new historical circumstances, our country

proposes the strategy of “OneBelt, One Road”(namelythe Silk Road Economic Belt and the

21st-century Maritime Silk Road). The strategy of “One Belt, One Road ”focuses on cooperation and mutual benefits, emphasizing mutual benefits, win-win, as well as common development of

the related countries. Once proposed, the strategy has received positive responses from the

related countries along the road.

Key to Unit5 Text B

Reading Skills

2. Denotation: examine a place or area in order to get information about it

Connotation: it associates with the feeling of curiosity and anxiousness because it was a new experience and he was eager to find out what he could get for free.

3. Denotation: the right to do what you want without being controlled or restricted by anyone

Connotation: it implies the feeling of delightfulness because he had never used credit card before but now he could start to use it freely. 4. Denotation: not real or not made of natural things

Connotation: the word artificial appears before the word sense to men his sense of security was just a false one. In addition, it connotes that the sense was naive because he was deceiving himself.

5. Denotation: produce, invent, or make up

Connotation: it connotes a sense of large quantity because he had to make up many different excuses and false stories to reject his friends

’ offers.

6. Denotation: being unable to walk properly because one legs are damag ’e d s or injured

Connotation: It associates his emotional feelings with a crippled person to mean that he was in

despair and unable to share his feeling with others. 7. Denotation: be unable to breathe properly

Connotation: It implies he was extremely embarrassed and felt guilty to talk about his financial problems. As a result, it was difficult for him to speak out the words. 8. Denotation: an idea or opinion that is wrong

Connotation: It connotes a sense of realization and regrets about the desire to get something free. Because of his illusion, he had to pay much more than a dictionary usually costs, i.e. $3,000. READING COMPREHENSION Understanding the text 2





5.D Language focus




Words in use 1.prohibited 5.feature 9.issued 2.submit 3.remedied 4.imposed 6.crisis 7. artificial



Expressions in use


1.suffering from 4.be entitled to 7.access to Sentence structure

6 2.in accordance with 3.shrugged off 5. care about

6.tore at

8. out of the question 1. Follow your doctor

’s advice or your cough will get worse.

’ll be able to see it better.

2. Stand over there and you


Watch your step if you go out or you might fall.

1. There is nothing more important than being honest with everyone at school and at work.

2. There is nothing more than helpful than using the Internet to improve my English skills.


There is nothing more than encouraging and stimulating than communicating successfully

with your colleagues. Collocation Warm-up 1.

seemingly free

2. barely enough

3. easily accessible

4.absolutely needed


bankrupt https://www.sodocs.net/doc/8910204064.html,pletely charmed

7.truly autonomous

8.staggeringly expensive 9.emotionally

crippled 8 1.

financial distress

2.financial trouble

3.financially bankrupt


4.seemingly free


11.staggeringly expensive

6.easily accessible

7.emotionally crippled

8.artificial sense

9.truly autonomous

12.buying decisions

https://www.sodocs.net/doc/8910204064.html,pletely charmed

Unit6 Section A 1

1B 2C 3A 2



1 An irrational behavior can be described as an action or opinion not based on adequate use of logic and reason:

Be willing to pay much more for a cup of Starbucks coffee when there's cheaper, equally good coffee across the street.

Once a price is established in their minds, they will compare other similar items to this price, not only for the current but also for the future.

Buy products they don't need just because they get something for free in the transaction. Do something just because some other people are doing the same thing.

2 Ignorance - People can be totally unaware about a situation, yet form their own views and judgments. They often tend to jump to conclusions based on rumors.

Emotions - People take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and harbor unrealistic expectations.

Stress - It is the main reason that causes physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feeling of anger, irritation and frustration. Blind beliefs - People live entirely on the

lines that are drawn by others and do not have their

own point of view. They are too conscious about society and its reactions to them.

3 Yes, I'm often irrational because of different kinds of stress, uncertainty about my future, and sensitivity to how people look at me.

No, I don't think I'm irrational because I always use my logic and common sense to judge things and react to what has happened to me.


As the most intelligent animal on this earth, we are supposed to behave in a rational way, i.e., act according to logic and reason required in a situation. But does that really happen? Do we always behave rationally? Certainly not. There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. Irrational behavior is part of human nature, but as

MIT Professor Ariely has discovered, people tend to behave irrationally in a predictable fashion. Though we cannot explain the exact cause behind irrational behavior, we know that it is a manner of behavior not based on logic and reasoning. I would like to give you an example of irrational behavior. If a person has heard about someone suffering from some disease, he will start thinking that he may suffer from the same disease. This is irrational

and illogical behavior. I don't think this behavior is always intentional.

Reading comprehension

Understanding the text


1 He was imposing on his troops a necessary sacrifice to achieve victory over their opponents. By doing this, the soldiers would be more determined and concentrated on the battles.

2 The purpose for the experiment is to investigate seemingly irrational human behavior when making a decision, such as the tendency for keeping multiple options open.

3 The experiment enabled people to see why it's always so hard for them to say "NO" to any opportunities that came to them. In everyday life, people just give excuses to keep options open.

4 Students should quickly check all the doors and keep clicking on the one with the highest cash. They should absolutely ignore the vanishing doors.

5 Because we can see that the students didn't really focus on ensuring future cash earnings. What they tried to avoid was the immediate pain of watching options close.

6 Because in life the doors are closing slowly, not like the ones on the computer in the experiment, people don't really see the opportunities actually vanishing away little by little.

7 He suggests that people should prohibit overbooking, reduce options, delegate tasks to others, and even give away ideas to others to pursue.

8 People can obtain pleasure and satisfaction by focusing their energy and attention in a more concentrated fashion. They will have more with fewer, carefully chosen options.

Critical thinking


1 ~ Surprising but very strategic and visionary.

~ Reflection of his unique foresight and wisdom.

~ Knowledgeable about winning battles.

~ Experienced in fighting with enemies.

2 ~ Interesting and thought-provoking.

~ Reflect students' mentality.

~ Meaningful and valid.

~ May not be convincing to some people.

3 ~ Both consequences are surprising.

~ Both are about choices and decision-making.

~ Both have to do with strategies.

~ Both focus on human's mentality.

4 ~ Afraid of losing potential opportunities.

~ Too greedy and too ambitious.

~ Over-confident about their real capacity.

~ More choices, better chances.

5 ~ Fewer options, more focused concentration.

~ Fewer choices, better quality.

~ Everything has two sides.

~ Too much greed ends up with nothing. Language focus


1 implement 4 discarded 7 restore

10 investigate Word building 4 2 rival 3 motivating

6 prejudiced

9 profit

5 fluctuating

8 enlightening

Words learned


New words formed

strategy sympathy -ion

strategic sympathetic

confirm locate confirmation location

reflect reflection

provide install provision installation registration quote

register quotation -ize

sympathy critic sympathize criticize

industrial industrialize 5

1 sympathize 3 strategic 5 quote

2 confirmation 4 installation

6 sympathetic

8 location

7 criticize

9 reflection 11 provision Banked cloze 6 10 industrialize 12 registration

1 M 6 L

2 D

7 I

3 H

8 C

4 0

9 J

5 F

10 A

Expressions in use 7

I was attached to

3 come in handy 5 pay a big price 7 imposed on 2 be measured in

4 clinging to

6 are exhausted from 8 revolve around

Structure analysis and writing

Structured writing


There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. It's hard to analyze the exact causes behind irrational behavior, but we know that it is a manner of behavior that is not based on logic and reasoning. Irrational behavior is caused by various factors but two stand out.

The first main factor that contributes to irrational behavior is uncontrolled emotions. Irrational people take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and express exaggerated emotions such as crying and shouting. They have unrealistic expectations, expecting everyone to like them and if someone does not, they feel angry and neglected. It is

fairly common for people to show such signs of irrationality.

Too much stress can also lead to irrational behavior. In fact, these days, stress is the major cause

of physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feelings of anger, irritation and frustration.

For instance, when you spend a stressful day in the office, it makes you anxious. You start releasing your frustration or stress by screaming at your family members for small reasons like a badly prepared meal. That day you feel everything is wrong.

In summary, uncontrolled emotions and too much stress can result in irrational behavior. To behave rationally is not an easy job because the behavior is internalized. However, to discover the source of your irrationality will help you behave more rationally.













National Happiness Index (NHI) is an index that measures how happy people are. It is also a tool that measures the levels of economic development and people's livelihood and happiness in a

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