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新视野第三版第三册 课后翻译及答案



Global citizen is someone who identifies with being part of an emerging world community and whose actions contribute to building this community's values and practices. Global citizenship believes that humankind is essentially one and each individual has the power to change things. In our interdependent world, global citizenship encourages us to recognize our responsibilities toward each other and learn from each other. Global citizens care about education, disease, poverty, and environmental issues around the world. Today, the forces of global engagement are helping some people identify themselves as global citizens who have a sense of belonging to a world community. This growing global identity in large part is made possible by the forces of modern information, communications and transportation technologies. Global citizenship aims to empower people to lead their own action. Along with the knowledge and values that they have gained from learning about global issues, people need to be equipped with the necessary skills to give themselves the ability and confidence to be pro-active in making a positive difference in the world.



如今,很多年轻人不再选择"稳定"的工作,他们更愿意自主创业,依靠自己的智慧和奋斗去实现自我价值。青年创业(young entrepreneurship)是未来国家经济活力的来源,创业者的成功不但会创造财富、增加就业机会、改善大家的生活,从长远来看,对于国家更是一件好事,创业者正是让中国经济升级换代的力量。尤其是在当前,国家鼓励大众创业、万众创新,在政策上给予中小企业支持,这更加激发了年轻人的创业热情。

Nowadays, many young people no longer choose “stable” jobs. Instead, they prefer to start their own businesses and realize their self-value through their own wisdom and efforts. Young entrepreneurship is the source of national economic vitality in the future. The success of entrepreneurs not only creates fortune, increases job opportunities, improves people’s life, but it is also good for the country in the long term. Entrepreneurs are a driving force in upgrading China’s economy. Especially for the time being, our country is encouraging people to start their own businesses and make innovations and giving policy support for medium and small businesses. This further arouses young people's enthusiasm to start their own businesses.



The American Dream is a national ethos (精神特质) of the United States. The term is used in many ways, but it essentially is an idea that suggests that anyone in the US can succeed through hard work and has the potential to lead a happy, successful life. Many people have expanded upon or refined the definition to include things such as freedom, fulfillment and meaningful

relationships. The idea of an American Dream is older than the US, dating back to the 1600s, when people began to have all sorts of hopes and aspirations for what was a new and largely unexplored continent to European immigrants. And the meaning of the Dream has changed over the course of history, including both personal components and a global vision. But not everybody thinks the American Dream is a positive thing. Some people believe that the structure of society in the US prevents such an idealistic goal for everyone. Critics often point to examples of inequality rooted in class, race, religion and ethnicity that suggest that the American Dream is not attainable for everyone.




Realizing the great national rejuvenation, which we define as the Chinese Dream, has been the greatest Chinese expectation since modern times. It basically means achieving prosperity for the country, renewal of the nation and happiness for the people, thus ensuring that every enterprising Chinese carries, generation after generation, the firm conviction that a better life is accomplished through persistent effort. People should achieve their prosperity through diligence, courage, creativity and determination instead of aid from society or other people. Each individual is a participant and a designer in the cause of realizing the Chinese Dream, for it is a dream not only for the entire nation but also for every Chinese.



Leonardo da Vinci, one of the greatest minds of the Italian Renaissance, is perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. A painter, sculptor, architect, mathematician, engineer, and inventor, he is famous for a wide range of accomplishments. His natural genius, which crossed multiple disciplines, won him the title of "Renaissance Master". Leonardo is renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the best known and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time. What make Leonardo's drawings unique are mainly his innovative techniques and acute scientific mind. Perhaps only 15 of his paintings have survived, partly because his constant experimentation with new techniques made his total output quite small. Although not a prolific (多产的) painter, Leonardo was a most productive draftsman, keeping journals full of sketches, drawings, and diagrams. These notebooks, often referred to as da

Vinci's manuscripts, recorded his inventions, observations, and theories about everything that captured his attention. Leonard's genius made him a pioneer in almost every field of study he undertook. His paintings, together with his notebooks, have contributed significantly to the history of art.



水墨画(ink and wash painting)是中国独具特色的传统艺术形式之一,是中国国画的代表。它大约始于唐代,兴盛于宋代和元代,距今已有一千多年的历史,其间经历了不断的发展、提高和完善。水墨画的创作工具和材料是具有浓厚中国特色的毛笔、宣纸和墨,其作品特点也与此紧密相关。例如,水和墨相互调和,使作品具有干湿浓淡的层次。水墨和宣纸的交融渗透也使画作善于表现丰富的意象,从而达到独特的审美效果。水墨画在中国绘画史上具有很高的地位,甚至被认为是衡量东方绘画艺术水平的标准。

Ink and wash painting, one of the unique traditional art forms of China, is representative of Chinese painting. It began around the time of the Tang Dynasty, and then prospered in the Song and Yuan dynasties. With a history of over one thousand years, it has experienced constant development, improvement and perfection. The tools and materials used to create ink and wash painting, i.e. brushes, rice paper, and ink, are characteristic of Chinese culture and closely related to the features of the paintings. For example, the mixing of water and ink creates different shades of dryness, wetness, thickness and thinness. The integration and infiltration of water, ink, and rice paper enables such paintings to convey rich images, and hence to achieve unique aesthetic effects. Ink and wash painting holds a high status in the history of Chinese painting, and it is even regarded as the criterion to evaluate the artistic level of Oriental paintings.



Venice is the world's famous island city in northern Italy. Founded in the 5th century, Venice became a major maritime power in the 10th century. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Venice was a major center for commerce and trade, and became an extremely wealthy European city, a leader in political and economic affairs. After several hundred years in power, Venice began to decline in the 15th century. Nowadays, it is regarded as one of the world's most beautiful cities and one of the most important tourist destinations in the world. Venice has a rich and diverse architectural style, the most famous of which is the Gothic style. Venice is also known for several important artistic movements in history, especially the Renaissance period. The influence of Venice on the development of architecture and arts has been considerable. Today, it is still playing

an important role in contemporary arts and popular cultures. In 1987, Venice was listed as a World Heritage Site. In March 1980, Venice became a sister city of China's Suzhou City.



丽江地处云南省西北部,境内多山。丽江古城坐落在玉龙雪山脚下,是一座风景秀丽的历史文化名城,也是我国保存完好的少数民族古城之一。丽江古城始建于南宋,距今约有800年的历史。丽江不仅历史悠久,而且民族众多,少数民族人口占全区人口的半数以上。随着丽江旅游业的发展,到丽江古城观光游览的中外游客日益增多。1997年12月,丽江古城申报世界文化遗产获得成功,填补了中国在世界文化遗产中无历史文化名城的空白。Lijiang is a mountainous city in northwest Yunnan Province. The old town of Lijiang, located at the foot of Jade Dragon Snow Mountain, is a town of scenic beauty and known for its history and culture. It is also a well-preserved old town with features of ethnic minorities. The construction work of the old town was started from the Southern Song Dynasty about 800 years from now. Not only does Lijiang boast a long history, but also it boasts many ethnic minorities who make up over a half of the total population in the region. With the booming of Lijiang tourism, the old town of Lijiang is receiving a growing number of tourists from home and abroad. In December 1997, the old town succeeded in applying to be named a World Cultural Heritage Site, filling the gap of lacking a noted historical and cultural city in China on the World Cultural Heritage List.



The English ceremony of afternoon tea dates back to the 1840s. The tradition evolved out of the rituals and routines that surrounded tea drinking in Britain before that time. Tea was first introduced to England in the late 1650s, but for a long time, it was only consumed by the royal family and the aristocracy due to its high cost. The habit of having afternoon tea did not become established until almost 200 years later. In those days, the British ate only two daily meals: a large breakfast late in the morning and a late dinner around 8 o'clock in the evening. Anna, the 7th Duchess of Bedford, can be credited for creating the tradition of afternoon tea to soothe hunger pangs before supper. She invited friends to join her for an additional afternoon meal at four to five o'clock. The menu included tea and snacks such as dainty cakes and sandwiches. Fine porcelain (瓷器) was used to serve this minor feast. Afternoon tea soon became popular, and is now a symbol of the elegant British way of life. As novelist Henry James wrote, "There are few hours in life more agreeable than the hour dedicated to the ceremony known as afternoon tea."





China is the hometown of tea and the birthplace of tea culture. Since ancient times, tea has been known as the "national drink" of China. In both the Chinese scholars' seven daily necessities, namely music, chess, calligraphy, painting, poetry, wine and tea and common people's seven ones, namely firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce, vinegar and tea, tea is listed as one of the necessities. Meanwhile, China is a country with ancient civilization and a land of courtesy. The practice of making and serving tea is essential whenever there are guests or friends. With the development of cultural exchange, commerce and trade between China and other countries, Chinese tea and tea culture spread to the world. Today, a number of countries across the five continents grow tea plants, and many countries import tea from China. Chinese tea, like Chinese silk and chinaware, has become synonymous with China in the world.



Homer's epics are said to be written by an ancient Greek blind poet Homer, who is revered as the greatest of ancient Greek epic poets. The epics include two great works of Greek history: the Iliad and the Odyssey. The two epics are the earliest works of Greek literature, and are among the greatest treasures of the ancient world, regarded by Westerners as the greatest epics in history. They have had an enormous influence on the history of literature and are of great value for the study of history, geography, archeology and folklore. Both the epics are divided into 24 volumes, the Iliad containing 15,693 lines and the Odyssey 12,110 lines. The Iliad is the oldest surviving work of Greek literature, which tells the story of the 10-year siege of the city of Troy. The Odyssey mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his journey home after the fall of Troy. Given the concise language, vivid plots and characters, Homer's epics are great masterpieces of literature and occupy an important position in the world literature history.




《孙子兵法》(The Art of War)是我国古代著名的军事家(strategist)孙武的著作。它既是一部经典的军事著作,又是一部光辉的哲学著作,是我国灿烂的古代文化中一份珍贵的遗产。孙武在书中揭示了一系列具有普遍意义的军事规律,提出了一套完整的军事理论体系。这一理论体系不仅深受战国以来历代军事家的重视和推崇,对他们的军事思想和实践产生了重要的影响,而且在世界军事思想领域也拥有广泛的影响,享有极高的声誉。

The Art of War was written by Sun Wu, a famous ancient Chinese strategist. A classic work not only of military value but also of great philosophical significance, The Art of War is a precious heritage of brilliant ancient Chinese culture. Sun Wu disclosed in his book a series of military rules and principles, and put forward a complete system of military theory. His theory has been highly regarded by strategists since the Warring States Period and exerted strong impacts on their thought and practice. Moreover, it has yielded a worldwide influence in the field of military thought, enjoying extremely high prestige.



The WTO, established on January 1, 1995, intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence (遵守) to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified (批准) by their parliaments. The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and current trade regime (体制). China became a member of the WTO on December 11, 2001. The admission of China to the WTO was preceded by a lengthy process of negotiations and required significant changes to the Chinese economy. It also meant a deeper integration of China into the world economy. The admission of China to the WTO was an enormous multilateral (多边的) achievement which marked a clear commitment toward multilateralism from the Chinese perspective.



上海自贸区(Shanghai Free Trade Zone)是中国政府于2013年设立在上海的自由贸易区。上海自贸区总面积为28.78平方公里,是中国大陆境内第一个自由贸易区,也是进行一系列经济改革的“试验田”(testing ground)。设立上海自贸区是顺应全球经贸发展新趋势,实行更加积极主动开放战略的一项重大举措。其主要任务是为全面深化改革开放探索新路径、积

累新经验。上海自贸区作为试点(pilot project),是中国经济的“试金石”(touchstone),将为深化改革、促进经济活力起到积极的推动作用。

Shanghai Free Trade Zone is a free trade zone in Shanghai that was launched in 2013 by the Chinese government. Covering an area of 28.78 square kilometers, Shanghai Free Trade Zone is the first of its kind in China's mainland, and is regarded as a "testing ground" for a number of economic reforms. The establishment of the free trade zone is a significant measure taken to actively promote the opening-up strategy under the new global economic and trade situation. It undertakes a major task to explore new ways and accumulate new experience for the deepening of reform and opening up in an all-round way. As a pilot project, Shanghai Free Trade Zone will become a "touchstone" for Chinese economy. It will play an active role in deepening reforms and boosting economic vigor.



The New Year's Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic (爱乐乐团) is a concert of classical music that takes place each year in the morning of New Year's Day in Vienna, Austria. The music always includes pieces from the Strauss family —with occasional additional music from other main Austrian composers. The demand for tickets is so high that people have to pre-register one year in advance in order to participate in the drawing of tickets for the following year. The popularity of the concerts can be attributed to the creative energy of the compositions of the Strauss Dynasty, as well as their authoritative interpretations. These concerts not only delight the audiences in the Musikverein (金色大厅) in Vienna, but also enjoy great international popularity through the worldwide television broadcast, which now reaches over 90 countries. Originating during the darkest chapter in Austria's history, these concerts convey the desire of the Philharmonic not only to provide musically definitive interpretations of the masterworks of this genre, but at the same time, as musical ambassadors of Austria, to send people all over the world a New Year's greeting in the spirit of hope, friendship and peace.




The CCTV Spring Festival Gala (Spring Festival Gala for short), which was started in 1983, has become an indispensable cultural consumer product and a cultural symbol in the cultural life of

the Chinese people. Though it's hard to satisfy the tastes of all the people, it has to be admitted that the Spring Festival Gala has become a "new custom" for the public that they can't live without. The Spring Festival Gala is more than a gala; it is a ritual and a symbol, a culture and a label, and an emotion and a place where people entrust their hearts to. With the development of the times and the emerging of new media, the audiences are having more diversified choices and demands. Corresponding, the Spring Festival Gala is also advancing with the times to satisfy the growing cultural needs of the people.

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