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Lesson One

Spell of the Rising Moon


A. Answer the following questions or complete the following statements.

1. D (But it is the drama of the moonrise that I come to see. For that

restores in me a quiet and clarity that the city spends too freely.)

2. D ( There have been broad, confident harvest moons in autumn; shy,

misty moons in spring; lonely, white winter moons rising into the utter silence of an ink-black sky and smoke-smudged orange moons over the dry fields of summer. Each, like fine music, excited my heart and then calmed my soul.)

3. C (To prehistoric hunters the moon overhead was as unerring as

heartbeat. They knew that every 29 days it became full-bellied and brilliant, then sickened and died, and then was reborn. They knew the waxing moon appeared larger and higher overhead after each succeeding sunset. They knew the waning moon rose later each night until it vanished in the sunrise.)

4. B (Still, it tugs at our minds. If we unexpectedly encounter the

full moon, huge and yellow over the horizon, we are helpless but to stare back at its commanding presence.)

5. B (I learned about its gifts one July evening in the mountains.

My car had mysteriously stalled, and I was stranded and alone.)

6. B (To watch the moon move inexorably higher is to find an unusual

stillness within ourselves.)

7. D (On that July night, I watched the moon for an hour or two, and

then got back into the car, turned the key in the ignition and heard the engine start, just as mysteriously as it had stalled a few hours earlier.)

8. A (I return often to the rising moon. I am drawn especially when

events crowd ease and clarity of vision into a small corner of my life.)

9. A (Of Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" and of Shakespeare, whose

Lorenzo declaims in The Merchant of Venice, //How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank! / Here will we sit and let the sounds of music/Creep in our ears." I wonder if their verse and music, like the music of crickets, are in some way voices of the moon.)

10. A (The whole passage.)

B.Global understanding and logical structures

Complete the following notes with the information, from the text:

1. The author often climbs the hill near his home at night to watch

the drama of the moonrise because it can restore in him a quiet and clarity that the city spends too freely.

2. To the author the different mood and color of the moon are:

A. In autumn: broad, confident harvest

B. In spring: shy, misty

C. In winter: lonely, white

D. In summer: smoke-smudged orange

3. A. To prehistoric hunters the moon overhead was as unerring as


B. To contemporary people live indoors few can say what time the

moon will rise tonight.

C. But if we unexpectedly encounter the full moon, we are helpless

but to stare back at its commanding presence.

4. The moon has gifts to bestow upon those who watch it:

Example: One July evening in the mountains, the author's car

mysteriously stalled, and he was stranded and alone.

He took the advantage to watch the moonrise for an hour or two.

When he got back into the car, the engine started just as

mysteriously as it had stalled a few hours earlier.

5. Later on the author often returns to the rising moon when events

crowd ease an clarity of vision into a small corner of my life.

He listens to the sound of owls and crickets

and thinks the beautiful music and poems about the moon.

6. At moonrise, people open the vents of feeling and exercise parts

of our minds that reason locks away by day.


A. Choose the best word from the four choices to complete each of the

following sentences.

1. B

2. C

3. A

4. D

5. A

6. B

7. A

8. C

9. A 10. B

B. Choose the best word or expression from the list given for each blank.

Use each word or expression only once and make proper changes where necessary.

1. swoop

2. cricket

3. smudged

4. Stalled

5. tugs at

6. stay clear of

7. slipped into

8. crowded into

9. loom up 10. stranded


1. just as

2. permanent

3. depend on

4. phase

5. shadow

6. Resembling

7. lunar

8. closer

9. illuminated 10. waning


Put the following parts into Chinese.


1. How does the author describe the moonrise? Is it the same as you see


The sun had set, and I was watching what seemed to be the bright-orange

glow of a forest fire beyond a ridge to the east. Suddenly, the ridge

itself seemed to burst into flame. Then, the rising moon, huge and red

and grotesquely misshapen by the dust and sweat of the summer atmosphere, loomed up out of the woods.

Distorted thus by the hot breath of earth, the moon seemed ill-tempered and imperfect……

But as the moon lifted off the ridge it gathered firmness and authority. Its complexion changed from red, to orange, to gold, to impassive yellow. It seemed to draw light out of the darkening earth, for as it rose, the hills and valleys below grew dimmer. By the time the moon stood clear of the horizon, full chested and round and the color of ivory, the valleys were deep shadows in the landscape……

The drama took an hour. Moonrise is slow and serried with subtleties。

2. Moonrise is a natural phenomenon. The main part of this essay is the description of it full of the author's emotions and thoughts associated with it. Pick out the author's most beautiful descriptions with similes, metaphors and personification.

From this hill I have watched many moons rise. Each one had its own mood. There have been broad, confident harvest moons in autumn, shy, misty moons in spring; lonely, white winter moons rising into the utter silence of an ink-black sky and smoke-smudged orange moons over the dry fields of summer. Each, like fine music, excited my heart and then calmed my soul.

(And others referring to the first question.)

3. One July evening in the mountains, the author's car mysteriously stalled, and he was stranded and alone, but after watching the moonrise for an hour or two the engine started mysteriously again. Do you think it was the spell of the rising moon?Open.

4. We Chinese often associated the full moon with family reunion, our hometown and our motherland if we are abroad. Can you tell what people do when we Chinese celebrate the festivals associated with the moon such as the Lantern Festival and the Mid-Autumn Festival? And why?Open.

5. Find out the famous Chinese poems about the moon, and try to translate the following poem into English.


床前明月光, Before my bed

There is bright moonlight

疑是地上霜. So that it seems

Like frost on the ground.

举头望明月, Lifting my head

I watch the bright moon,

低头思故乡。 Lowering my head

I dream that I'm home.

Another poem for reference:


秋风清,秋月明 The autumn wind is light

The autumn moon is bright;

落叶聚还散 Fallen leaves gather but then disperse,

寒鸦栖复惊 A cold crow roosts but again he stirs;

相思相见知何日 I think of you, and wonder when I'll see you again? 此时此夜难为情 At such an hour,on such a night,cruel is love's pain.

Translation of the Text




















Lesson Two

Ethics and Competitiveness

Preparing to Read

Tips for the teacher

The text is about ethics in business; hence the purpose of this exercise is to let the students understand how important ethics is in doing business. The teacher can adopt several steps achieving the aim. First, let the students talk about the various businesses that involve ethics. Second, let the students understand the dangers of illegal business practices in American or Chinese corporations, so that the students' interest in the text will be aroused.

Background Information

1. Introduction to the author and the text: John F. Akers, born on 28 Dec. 1934 chairman and CEO of IBM 1985-1993.

A graduate of Yale, Mr. Akers joined IBM in 1960 as a sales trainee in San Francisco following active duty as a Navy carrier pilot. After various marketing assignments, he was named president of the Data Processing Division, then IBM's largest domestic marketing unit, in 1974 at age 39. He became a vice president in 1976, a senior vice president in 1982 and president in 1983. This article "Ethics and competitiveness - putting first things first" was first published in 1989 in Sloan Management Review, winter, 69-71.

2. American Education System:Most Americans attend twelve years of primary and secondary school. With a secondary school "'high school") diploma or certificate, a student can enter college, university, vocational (job training) school, secretarial school, and other professional schools.

Primary and Secondary School: Begins around age six for U.S. children. They attend five or six years of primary school. Next they go to secondary school, which consists of either two three-year programs or a three-year and a four-year program. These are called "middle school" or "junior high school" and "senior high school" (often just called “high s chool"). Americans call these twelve years of primary and secondary school the first through twelfth "grades."

Higher Education: After finishing high school (twelfth grade), U.S. students may go on to college or university. College or university study is known as “higher education." You should find out which level of education in your country corresponds to the twelfth grade in the U.S.A. You also should ask your educational advisor or guidance counselor whether you must spend an extra year or two preparing for U.S. admission. In some countries, employers and the government do not recognize a U.S. education if a student entered a U.S. college or university before he

or she could enter university at home.

3. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882):American poet, one of the most

popular and celebrated poets of his time. Born in Portland, Maine (then in Massachusetts), Longfellow was educated at Bowdoin College. After graduating in 1825 he traveled in Europe in preparation for a teaching career. He taught modern languages at Bowdoin from 1829 to 1835. In late 1835, during a second trip to Europe, Longfellow's wife, Mary Storer Potter, died in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Longfellow returned to the United States in 1836 and began teaching at Harvard University.

In 1843 he remarried, to Fanny Appleton. After retiring from Harvard in 1854, Longfellow devoted himself exclusively to writing. He was devastated when in 1861 his second wife was burned to death in a household accident. He commemorated her shortly before his own death with the sonnet "The Cross of Snow" (1879). In 1884 a bust of Longfellow was placed in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey in London; he was the first American to be thus honored.
























A Psalm of Life

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Tell me not, in mournful numbers, "Life is but an empty dream!" For the soul is dead that slumbers, And things are not what they seem. Life is real! Life is earnest! And the grave is not its goal; "Dust thou art,to dust returnest," Was not spoken of the soul.

Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,

Is our destined end or way;

But to act, that each to-morrow Find us farther than to-day.

Art is long, and Time is fleeting, And our hearts, though stout and brave,

Still, like muffled drums, are beating

Funeral marches to the grave.

In the world's broad field of battle,

In the bivouac of life,

Be not like dumb, driven cattle! Be a hero in the strife!

Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant!





航行在庄严的人生大海,遇险沉了船,绝望的时刻,会看到这脚印而振作起来。那么,让我们起来干吧,对任何命运要敢于担戴;不断地进取,不断地追求,要善于劳动,善于等待。Let the dead Past bury its dead! Act, - act in the living Present! Heart within, and God o'evhead! Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us. Footprints on the sand of time.; Footprints, that perhaps another, Sailing o'er life's solemn main, A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, Seeing, shall take heart again. Let us, then, be up and doing, With a heart for any fate;

Still achieving, still pursuing, Learn to labor and to wait.







Key to Exercises

I. Reading Comprehension

1. The issue Akers discusses is the relationship between ethics and competitiveness.

2. When they think of competitiveness, they should think not just of seeking their own selfish advantage, but of striving to improve living standards for all. When they think of ethics, they should think not just as managers focusing on business ethics, but as citizens of a larger society.

3. Ethics and competitiveness are inseparable because we compete as a society.

4. The greater the measure of mutual trust and confidence in the ethics of a society, the greater its economic strength.

5. First, we should fortify the practical ethical buttresses; second, ethical instruction must include a demanding study of history and literature; and above all we should keep our priorities straight.

6. They are role models the honor system, and codes of conduct.

7. We should start with a clear-cut study of the past, because our ethical standards come out of the past.

8. What bothers Akers is that they have missed the humane lessons in

individual ethical conduct, which can be found in the annals of world

history, the biographies of great men and women and works of literature.

9. He thinks that the good of an entire society counts more than that of any single corporation.

10. We remember him because he did not see winning or self-advancement or even life itself as the only thing. He saw his newly born nation greater than himself.

II. Structure of the text

1. Introduction (Paras.1-5)

A central subject in international business competition is ethics. We are urged to look at ethics and competitiveness with a wide angle of vision.

Ethics and competitiveness are inseparable, they are important not only in running a company. but also in running and managing a country.

2. Body (Paras.6-23)

1) Ethical buttresses

A. We should fortify the practical ethical buttresses that help all

of us know and understand and do exactly what is required of us.

The simplest and most powerful buttress is the role model.

B. There are other ethical buttresses such as the institutional

buttresses honor system.

C. There are professional standards and business codes of conduct.

2) Ethics teaching

A. Ethical instruction is important in a business school or anywhere

else in the universities, but to take ethical examination of

workplace safety, consumer protection environmental safeguards,

and the rights of the individual employee within the organization

is equally important.

B. We should start from kindergarten to twelfth grade with a clear-cut

study of the past because our ethical standards come out of the

past-out of our inheritances as a people: religious, philosophical, historical.

C. The more we know of the history of US, the more sure-footedly we

can inculcate ethical conduct in the future.

3) Putting first things first: keep our sense of order straight

3. Conclusion (Paras.24)

By taking advice of the three suggestions, we shall go far toward discharging our responsibilities as managers and as human beings.

V. Vocabulary

A. l. ludicrous 2. endowed 3. consequences 4. conflicting 5. safety

6. count

7. falsified

8. fortified

9. inculcate 10. vexing

B. 1. D 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. B

VI. Cloze

1. devoted

2. Concern

3. Threatens

4. Perhaps

5. respectable

6. address

7. Defined

8. Occupation

9. Which 10. Behind

11. perfectly 12. Refer 13. Benefit 14. Personal 15. assess

16. commit 17. Being 18. Lower 19. Prosecute 20. Summon


John. F. Akers

1 我想谈谈国际经济竞争中的一个核心问题:道德。在一开始我想奉劝我们所有的管理层人员应该以宽阔的视野来看待这两个词,即道德和竞争力。在我们想到竞争力的时候,我们不应该只想到像美国人,欧洲人或日本人那样追求我们自己的利益,贪得无厌;而是应该像管理者们那样在日益相互依存的世界里心中怀有提高全人类的生活水平的大志,努力工作,争取成功。而在我们想到道德的时候,我们不该像那些只是把重点放在自己的狭窄领地即商业道德上的管理者,而是应该像一个宽广社会里的公民。

2 道德和竞争力是不可分的。我们处在一个竞争的社会中。没有哪一个社会的竞争会因为下列情形而长久和成功的:人们彼此背后相互使坏;互相偷窃;由于缺乏诚信而事事公证;一点争吵就会诉诸法律;或政府为了保证诚实的商业运行而制定很多各种各样束缚手脚的法规。

3 这不仅仅会成为公司经营中令人头痛的事情,也会让国家成为一个浪费、低效和缺乏竞争力的国家。一个不可逃避的事实是:在一个道德社会中人们之间相互信任和忠诚度越高,它的经济力量就越强。

4 我并不是说我们美国这里天要塌下来。我不认为在我们过去美好的时光中道德水准已经很高了而我们现在是道德滑坡。当然,我们确实存在道德和竞争力的问题,这一点无可质疑。我们一直都看到关于不道德行为的报导:教会领导层聚会时发生偷窃;华尔街上靠内部机密消息发财的掮客;各种政客和权利贩子;剽窃的法学专业的学生;篡改研究数据的医学教授;贩卖机密情报的国防部雇员。但我们大多数人都同意托马斯·杰弗逊关于所有人都生来具有道德意识的观点——个整日耕作的普通农民可以和一个大学教授一样具有道德意识。如杰弗逊一样,我们可以相信大街上的入,不论这大街是在阿蒙克,在旧金山,或者牛津,伦敦,巴黎或东京。

5 这种道德意识不是凭空而来的,也不会自动永远存在下去。每一代人都要让它保存并发扬光大。为此,我们每个人都要想出些策略。下面是三个建议。


6 首先,我们要加强日常生活中的道德基础的培养,让我们从孩提时代起就明白并理解,继而按照要求行事。最简单也是最有用的道德基石就是榜样:父母或其他人言传身教为我们树立榜样,使我们明白是非好坏。在我一生所有的榜样中,我认为起作用时间最长的就是我的祖父了,一个坚强的新英格兰地区中学校长。我的房间里挂着他的肖像。直到今天,每当我走过他的肖像前我都会挺直腰板,还要检查一下我的领带是否打好了。

7 还有许多其它方面的道德基础。有些尽管有一点傲慢和世俗但却是简单的信条:“童子军是可信的,忠诚的,助人的,友好的,礼貌的,善良的,听话的,


8 最后,还有从业标准和商业行为规范,它们都对下列事情有严格的规定:如股票内部交易,馈赠和娱乐,回扣及利益冲突。如果认为这些道德准则会解决我们所有的问题就太天真了。但是,若想没有这些明确的要求和了解违反这些要求引起的后果,人们也一样会按道德准则行为,那这种想法也同样是天真的。


9 到了该认真考虑学校的道德课的时候了。这里我不仅仅指商学院的研究生院。众人皆知约翰·山德将捐赠给哈佛商学院近3 000万美元用于其道德课的教学和研究。我们也知道麻省理工的斯罗恩学院院长兰斯特·苏罗和其他教育家已经对这个举措表示了公开的置疑。

10 先弄清楚我们在说什么吧。很多商界人士在面对大学生听众时都对他们的一些脱口而出的断言感到吃惊:如在南非做生意、为军队制造武器、反对兴建日托所、建核工厂、甚至谋取利润都显然是不道德的。若想让年轻人清楚地了解这些问题的复杂性——而这些问题是不能用伪善的答案去搪塞的——还要做大量的工作。相反,这些问题需要一个明确的定义和敏锐的分析,需要对公司的责任有清醒的认识,而公司对员工,股东及国家所持的责任有时是相互冲突的,需要经历艰难的、甚至痛苦的抉择。

11 我完全赞同在商学院和大学的其它系所进行这种道德教育,它可以加强学生们的这种分析能力。我也赞同对工作场所安全性、消费者保护、环境监督及团体内部员工个人的权利等方面进行的道德审查。

12 但想一想塞缪尔·约翰逊曾经说的话吧:如果一个人不能区分好恶,“他一出我们的家门,我们就数羹匙是否少了。”如果一个工商管理硕士生不能区分诚实与犯罪,说谎和讲真话,那么商学院就完全有可能培养不出来一个个非常虔诚敬业的学生。

13 对于为什么说偷偷摸摸,行骗欺诈,盗窃财物这样的事情是不好的,这种最基础和根本的教育,在工商管理学院里进行就太晚了,内容也太简单了。这里不是开始这些课的地方。开始的地方应该是幼儿园。

14 可以肯定的是,对于是否在上课时进行祈祷存在着很多和宪法相关的麻烦问题及其它问题。但我们不需要等到所有的问题有了答案——若真有这一天——再开始学校里的道德教育。我们可以现在就开始,从幼儿园到中学,但不是硬塞给学生们一些模糊的抽象“价值观”。我是指我们应该对过去的历史有个清楚明了的了解。我们的道德准则始于过去,始于我们的民族传统:宗教,哲学和历史。我们对于过去了解得越多,我们就越能在未来踏踏实实地教授道德准则。

15 参议员丹尼尔说,如果你想了解塔米·贝克你就得读辛克莱·路易斯的作


16 在我听说美国的高中生不太知道或完全不知道乔叟或惠特曼或美国内战或1日约中的预言书时,我担心的不是他们的无知,而是他们丢失了我们在世界历史、名人传记及富于高度想象力的文学作品中能够发现的蕴藏在一个个道德行为中的高尚的人文素养。

17 一个古典文学作家曾定义历史为“实例中的哲学”。亨利·朗费罗,美国的牛津城布拉特大街上一个很有名的居民,是这样优雅地总结的:伟人的生平启示我们:我们能够生活得高尚,而当告别人世的时候,留下脚印在时间的沙上。


18 我的第三个建议是,牢记顺序,最重要的事情先做。

19 我们都听到过目光短浅的生意人把下面这句话当作是朗巴迪说的:“成功不是最重要的,但是唯一要做的事情。”对于鼓舞团队±气,这句话确实很好,但作为商业理念,它就是一派胡言。这里还有一段稍好一点的话:朗巴迪曾经希望他的队员有三种忠诚:对上帝,对家庭,还有对(绿湾包装工)橄榄球球队,“并按此顺序”。

20 他知道哪些事情更重要。商界人士可以毫不掩饰地为他们自己的公司而感到骄傲。但整个社会的利益超越了任何一个公司的利益。整个世界的道德秩序超越了任何一个单一的国家。一个人如果不了解商业在更大范围内的地位,他就不可能成为优秀的商界领袖,或好医生,或好的律师、工程师。

21 一个很恰当的例子说的就是曾经有一个团队明白了这个道理:那就是200年前费城那些起草了美国宪法的代表们。他们以坚定的态度看生活,全面地看生活,并看到了生活的不同层次。我们为什么记住了他们中最年长的那个叫本杰明·富兰克林的人?不是因为他提出很多有用的建议,如怎样早起,怎样做生意,怎样获利,怎样在营销中获得成功等,尽管他本人对这些事情确实充满热情和干劲。我们之所以记住他和其他在费城起草了独立宣言的人,是因为他们没有把成功,或自我进步甚至生活本身看作是唯一要做的事情。为了比他们自己更重要的事情——一个“孕育于自由,并执着于一种理念,即所有人都是生来平等的”新国家,为了这个信念,他们奉献了所有的附属物——他们的生命,财富及至高无上的荣誉。

22 我们永远都不会忘记这个例子。

23 所以,三条建议是:




24 要做到以上几点,我们就应该履行经营者的责任或人的责任:为我们国家的强盛做贡献;提高我们国家在竞争日益激烈和繁荣的世界中的领导能力,使我们的国家在本世纪结束,21世纪到来时始终走在正确的轨道上。

Lesson Three

A Beautiful Mind



1. D ( The whole text.)

2. C ( His visitor sat upright, oppressed by the silence, acutely conscious that the doors to the room were locked. Mackey finally could contain himself no longer. His voice was slightly querulous, but he strained to be gentle.)

3. C ( ... the ideas I had about supernatural beings came to me the same way that my mathematical ideas did. So I took them seriously.)

4. B (It wasn't merely that his mind worked faster, that his memory was more retentive, or that his power of concentration was greater. The flashes of intuition were nonrational.)

5. D ( But even after he'd try to explain some astonishing result, the actual route he had taken remained a mystery to others who tried to follow his reasoning. Donald Newman, a mathematician who knew Nash at MIT in the 1950s, used to say about him that " everyone else would climb a peak by looking for a path somewhere on the mountain. Nash would climb another mountain altogether and from that distant peak would shine a searchlight back onto the first peak.")

6. B ( As a young man he was surrounded by the high priests of twentieth-century science-Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, and Norbert Wiener-but he joined no school, became no one's disciple, got along: largely without guides or followers.)

7. A (... disdainful of authority... In almost everything he did-from game theory to geometry-he thumbed his nose at the received wisdom, current fashions, established methods.)

8. C ( Compulsively rational, he wished to turn life's decisions-whether to take the first elevator or wait for the next one, where to bank his money, what job to accept, whether to marry-into calculations of advantage and disadvantage, algorithms or mathematical rules divorced from emotion, convention, and tradition.)

9. A (I was not aware of the extent of his talent. I had no idea he would contribute as much as he really did. But he did contribute, in a big way. The marvelous paradox was that the ideas themselves were not obscure.)

10. D (The whole text) B:



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