The village is so close to the border that the villagers live in constant fear of attacks from the enemy.
In only twenty years the country was transformed into an advanced industrial power.
The company has evolved into one of the major chemical manufacturing bases in this region. 4、鉴于目前的金融形势，美元进一步贬值（devalue）是不可避免的。
Given the current financial situation, it is inevitable that the US dollor will be further devalued.
The government’s call for suggestions about the control of water pollution produced very little response from the citizens.
The weather showed no signs of getting better so the government called upon us to get prepared for floods.
At one time scientists thought there was nothing smaller than an atom but now most people know that an atom consists of even smaller particles.
The students are all very much concerned about the World Cup. Speaking at least two hours every day watching the live matches on TV.
The department store lost out because loans were very hard to come by and it could not start business on time.
We can’t to there for a walk because there is a navy base there, which is off limits to tourists.
He really know a lot about theory, but when it comes to actual work,he seems to be quite ignorant.
The newest survey showed that the majority of citizens support/supported the goveronment’s plan to build a library.
The two countries could reach agreement successfully on scientific and technological cooperation because several factors favorable to their cooperation had been at work.
I saw the film when I in primary school, but just won’t come to mind this moment.
He has been stuck with heavy debt though he works about twelve hours every day on average.
Is it necessary to know his height? To me，it is irrelevant to whether he can be a good lawyer or not.
The cupboard is build into the wall so that it both saves space and is convenient to use.
These worker can earn more than wo do, but the other side of the coin is that their job is more dangerous./
Helen majors in economics at the university at the same time she studies philosophy as her second major.
What is the most important is that you must find out and solve the problems by yourselves. It makes no difference whether I go there or not.
Most people strongly believe that the court will no doubt punish the bank robbers severely.
The medical workers overcame one difficulty after another in their long-term quest for a cure for the disease.
Acting on the information they received, the police closed off the streets and caught the bank robbers.
We were amazed at learning that the newly-built TV factory can produce 500,000 TV sets in the first year.
The government is looking into the causes of so many layoffs and is trying to help the laid-off workers to be re-employed.
To expand the sales of its product, the company has taken up various measures to open up new markets and to improve its services.
He has neglected his studies to such an extent that I am afraid it is impossible for him to catch up with the other students in a month.
The fireworks factory was closed last month for failing to comply with the government safety regulations.
It remains to be seen whether our football team can beat its opponent.
Mr. Smith predicted that the recent oil discoveries, together with the use of new technologies, would lead to a decline in the price of crude oil.
The increase in the price of oil A accident EJKIG LAHFD There are two types of people DACCB
Anne Whitney,a sophomore at Colorado State University CDBCA If the sun has enough power to warm and light CABDD BDBAA CDBDC DACAC
Rich-poor Divide Serious, Study Find
About 90 percent of Chinese believe the polarization between the rich and poor is "serious" in China, NYYNYYY a measure of income inequality offices are increasingly open-plan ban MP3 players from the workplace
Ronaldo More "Valuable" Than Ronaldinho
Ronaldo's hotel room topped that of team mate Ronaldinho's in an eBay online auction （拍卖） ending on May 29, NYYNNYY be given signed Brazilian football shirts watch England's opening World Cup match having the "smile of a peasant"
Low Expectations Are the Key to Happiness
Having extremely high expectations for yourself or others may not be such a good thing after all, YYYNNYN the happier a nation and a person can be to encourage those who have newly entered adulthood to become self-reliant members of society new responsibilities
Yao Says "Games First, Babies Second"
China's newly wed basketball sensation, Yao Ming, said babies would take a back-seat to Olympic NNYNNYY a big bonus serving tea pottery and porcelain industry
Biotech Foods Produce Mixed Feelings in US
Americans are still split in their opinions about genetically engineered foods （转基因食品）.YNYYYYY strong and continuous prices down genetically engineered organisms
Genetic Map Points Way to an Improved Honey Bee Scientists now have a genetic map of the world's most important insect —important
to the food supply.YYNNNNY nectar pollination makes the heart and lungs work harder and increases oxygen use
The Winners Teach Us How to Learn From Failure
Sometimes life is unfair and frustrating, but knowing how to approach failure can be the first step to success. F NG NG FF NG F bounce back out of boredom things have come full circle
Save Your Own Life
How to Survive ...
NGTFFFFNG trap moisture playing dead fight through his fear
Much to the delight of horse lovers everywhere, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill (H.R. 503) in September 2006 outlawing the sale and transport of horses for slaughter (屠杀) for human consumptio CBDAB In the past, the horse was considered a livestock for farm work or transportation. Now it is treated as a symbol of wealth The horses can be sold privately only if they are not sold for slaughter
In China, tea fell out of favor as a drink during the years of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368 CBDAC Tea is brewed by steeping loose leaves in boiling water Because tea was a drink that would take on literary, artistic and even religious implications, as in the example of "Ch’a Ching Transportation facilities in Egypt are centered in Cairo and largely follow the pattern of settlement along the Nile DBACC
攻势已经持续了三天，但是我们并没有取得多少进展。我们在前线与敌人交战的部队遇到了强力的抵抗。师长（DIVISION COMMANDER）命令我们营（BATTALION）绕到敌人后方发起突然袭击。然而，要绕到敌人后方，我们必须越过一片沼泽地（MARSHLAND）。我们很多人担心会陷入泥潭之中。我们营长决定冒一下险。我们在夜幕掩盖下出发，不顾困难，奋勇向前。幸运的是，夜间温度突然下降到摄氏零下20度，烂泥地都结上了冰。由于这寒冷的天气，我们于天亮前到达并从敌人后方发起进攻。这一下扭转了战局。敌人没有戒备，不久便投降了。 The offensive had already lasted three days, but we had not gained much ground. Our troops engaging the enemy at the front were faced with strong/fierce/stiff resistance. The division commander instructed our battalion to get around to the rear of the enemy and launch a surprise attack. To do so, however, we had to cross a marshland and many of us were afraid we might get bogged down in the mud. Our battalion commander decided to take a gamble. We started under cover of darkness and pressed on in spite of great difficulties. By a stroke of luck, the temperature at night suddenly dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius and the marsh froze over. Thanks to the cold weather, we arrived at our destination before dawn and began attacking the enemy from the rear. This turned the tide of the battle. The enemy, caught off guard, soon surrendered. Unit 2 汽车在二十世纪改变了世界，尤其是在美国和其他工业国家。汽车确实对我们大有用处，但也带来了一些危害，比如声音污染、空气污染以及公路死亡事故。据报导汽车事故被列为全世界导致死伤的主要原因之一。可庆幸的是，现代发明家们正在重新发明汽车。新的推进系统（PROPULSION SYSTEM）、燃料、设计以及制造汽车的手段在过去的十年中得到迅速发展。例如，通过使用卫星辅助的全球定位系统，汽车里的计算机能给汽车精确定位；随着遥感器的应用，智能汽车能排除不少汽车事故。 Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century, particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. They are indeed of great use to us, but they have brought some hazards as well, such as noise and air pollution, and highway fatalities. It is reported that automobile accidents rank among the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world. Fortunately modern innovators are reinventing the automobile. New propulsion systems, fuels, designs, and means of manufacturing cars have all developed rapidly in the past decade. For example, by using the satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS), a computer in the automobile can locate the vehicle's precise position, and with the application of sensors, smart cars can eliminate most car accidents.
Unit 1 Growing Up Ⅱ. Translation 1.那是个正规宴会，我照妈妈对我讲的那样穿着礼服去了。（formal） As it was a formal dinner party, I wore formal dress, as Mother told me to. 2.他的女朋友劝他趁抽烟的坏习惯尚未根深蒂固之前把它改掉。（take hold） His girlfriend advised him to get out of/get rid of his bad habit of smoking before it took hold. 3.他们预料到下几个月电的需求量很大，决定增加生产。（anticipate） Anticipating that the demand for electricity will be high during the next few months, they have decided to increase its production. 4.据说比尔因一再违反公司的安全规章而被解雇。（violate） It is said that Bill has been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. / Bill is said to have been fired for continually violating the company’s safety rules. 5.据报道地方政府已采取适当措施避免严重缺水（water shortage）的可能性。 （avoid, severe） It is reported that the government has taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. /The local government is reported to have taken proper measures to avoid the possibility of a severe water shortage. 苏珊（Susan）因车祸失去了双腿。有一段时间，她真不知如何面对自己再也不能行走的事实。 一天，苏珊在浏览杂志时，被一个真实故事吸引住了。那个故事生动地描写了一个残疾（disabled）姑娘是如何成为一位作家的。苏珊读后深受鼓舞，开始相信她最终会成为一个有用的人生活下去。 Inspire vivid scan face up with finally Susan lost her legs because of / in a car accident. For a time, she didn’t know how to face up to the fact that she would never (be able to) walk again. One day, while scanning (through) some magazines, a true story caught her eye /she was attracted by a true story. It gave a vivid description of how a disabled girl became a writer. Greatly inspired, Susan began to feel that she, too, would finally be bale to lead a useful life. Unit 2 Friendship II. Translation 1)半个小时过去了，但末班车还没来。我们只好走路回家。（go by） Half an hour had gone by, but the last bus hadn’t come yet. We had to walk home.
Unit 1 无名英雄：职业父亲意味着什么？ 在我们的孪生女儿出生后的第一次“约会”时，我和丈夫一起去看了一部名为《玩具总动员》的电影。我们很喜欢这部片子，但随后我丈夫问道：“父亲在哪儿呢？”起初我还认为因为一个小小的失误而批评一部很吸引人的家庭影片似乎是太偏狭了。可后来越想越觉得这一疏忽太严重了。父亲不仅没有出现，他甚至没有被提到——尽管家中有婴儿，说明他不可能离开太长时间。影片给人的感觉是，父亲出现与否似乎是个极次要的细节，甚至不需要做任何解释。 新闻媒体倾向于把父亲的边缘化，这只是一个例子，它反映了在美国发生的巨大的社会变化。大卫?布兰肯霍恩在《无父之国》一书中将这种倾向称之为“无需父亲”观念。 职业母亲（我想这应是与无职业母亲相对而言的）奋斗的故事从媒体上无尽无休地轰击着我们。与此同时，媒体上绝大多数有关父亲的故事又集中表现暴力的丈夫或没出息的父亲。看起来似乎父亲惟一值得人们提及的时候是因为他们做家务太少而受到指责的时候（我怀疑这一说法的可靠性，因为“家务”的定义中很少包括打扫屋顶的雨水沟、给汽车换机油或其它一些典型地由男人们做的事），或者是在他们去世的时候。当布兰肯霍恩先生就“顾家的好男人”一词的词义对父亲们进行调查时，许多父亲都回答这一词语只有在葬礼上听到。 这种“无需父亲”综合症的一个例外是家庭全职父亲所受到的媒体的赞扬。我并非暗指这些家庭全职父亲作出的承诺不值得人们的支持，我只是想指出在实际生效的双重标准：家庭全职父亲受到人们的赞扬，而家庭全职母亲和养家活口的父亲，所得到文化上的认同却很少，甚至完全得不到。 我们用来讨论父亲角色（即没出息的父亲）的话语本身就显示出人们对大多数男人默默无闻而自豪地履行对家庭承担的责任缺乏赏识。我们几乎从来没听到“职业父亲”这一说法，在人们呼吁应该考虑给予工作者在工作地点上更大的灵活性时，很少有人认为这种呼吁不但适用于女子，同样也适应于男子。我们这个社会表现出似乎家庭职责对父亲来说并不象对母亲那么重要——似乎事业上的满足就是男人生活的全部。 更让人感到侮辱的是最近媒体的这种倾向，即把家庭主妇看成是一种“地位的象征” ——就像一辆名贵的汽车，只有据说少数男人才享受得起这种奢侈与豪华。这暗示家里有家庭主妇的男人比那些妻子在外工作的男人日子过得更舒适，因为他们拥有全职管家这种“奢侈品”。然而，实际上作为家庭惟一挣钱者的男人要承受很多压力。当他们的那份工作是家庭收入的惟一来源的时候，失业，或者甚至只不过是受到失业的威胁，对他们来说显然构成更大的困难。同样，家庭惟一的工资收入者在想辞去不太满意的工作时，其灵活程度也要小一些，因为这种工作变换会使他们失去收入。此外，为了给家庭挣更多的钱，许多丈夫超时工作或兼做第二职业。对于这些男人来说，正是这份工作所支撑的家庭，使得他们值得付出努力。很多男人相信母亲呆在家里对小孩十分重要，这种信念使得他们乐意地担起家里惟一挣钱人的担子。 目前，研究者们普遍认为家庭中没有父亲会对小孩——因此对整个社会——带来严重的问题。然而，我们这个社会并没有把“普通”父亲作为正面角色为未来的父亲树立榜样，相反地，却常常持放弃态度，认为传统的父道从最好的方面说是已经过时，从最坏的方面讲就是危险的反动。这使得许多男人对他们作为父亲的角色的价值提出疑问。 作为一个社会，我们需要认识到对于孩子来说，父亲是与母亲同等重要的，不仅仅在经济支
1.我们的计算机系统出了毛病，但我觉得问题不大 We have a problem with the computer system, but I think it’s fairly minor. 2.父亲去逝的时候我还小,不能独立生活。就在那时，家乡的父老接过了教育我的责任。My father died when I was too young to live on my own. The people of my hometown took over my upbringing at that point. 3.这些玩具必须得达到严格的安全要求后才可出售给儿童 The toys have to meet strict safety requirements before they can be sold to children. 4.作为新闻和舆论的载体，广播和电视补充了而不是替代了报纸。 Radio and television have supplemented rather than replaced the newspaper as carriers of news and opinion. 5.至于这本杂志，它刊载了世界各地许多报纸杂志上文章的摘要 When it comes to this magazine, it is/ carries a digest of articles from many newspapers and magazines around the world. 1.虽然受到全球金融危机后果的巨大影响，但是我们仍然相信我们能够面对挑战，克服危机。Though greatly affected by the consequences of the global financial crisis, we are still confident that we can face up to the challenge and overcome the crisis. 2.在持续不断的沙尘暴的威胁下，我们被迫离开我们喜爱的村庄，搬迁到新的地方。 Under threat of constant sand storms, we were compelled to leave our cherished village and move to the new settlement. 3.根据最近的网上调查，许多消费者说他们也许会有兴趣考虑购买电视广告中播放的产品。According to a recent online survey, a lot of consumers say they may be motivated to consider buying products shown in TV commercials. 4.看到卡车司机把受污染的废弃物倒在河边，老人马上向警方报告 Having spotted a truck driver dumping contaminated waste alongside the river, the old man reported to the police at once. 5.一些科学家坚信人们总有一天会喜欢转基因农作物的，因为它们能够提高产量，帮助发展 中国家战胜饥荒和疾病 Some scientists hold to the firm conviction that people will come to like genetically modified crops someday since they can increase yields and help combat hunger and disease in the developing world. 1.无论是在城市还是农村，因特网正在改变人们的生活方式。 The Internet is changing the way people live, whether they are in urban or rural areas. 2.和大公司相比，中小公司更容易受到金融危机的威胁。 Medium-sized and small companies are more vulnerable to the threat of the global economic crisis than large ones. 3.关于期末论文，教授要求我们先分析失业图表，然然后对过家的经济发展提供批评性的见解。 With regard to our term paper, the professor asked us to analyze the unemployment chart first, and then provide critical reflections on the nations economic development. 4.他从来也没有想到他们队会大比分赢得那场篮球赛。 It never occurred to him that their team would win the basketball match by a large margin.
Unit1 Working with words and expressions 1. 2. cloze Translation
Answers to Unit 2 Book 4 Unit Two Man and Technology Words in Action Working with Words and Expressions 1. 1) monitor 2) phenomenon 3) isolation 4) gradual 5) opponent 6) advent 7) genetic 8) consciously 9) extreme 10) nasty 11) boom 12) formal 13) soar 14) survey 15) Similarly 16) modify 17) rough 2. 1) at the same time 2) are stuck with 3) for certain 4) make no difference 5) on average 6) when it comes to 7) depends on 8) built into 9) come to mind 10) at work Increasing Your Word Power 1. Adjectives Nouns Adjectives
Nouns 1) technological technology 6) luxurious luxury 2) eternal eternity 7) leisurely leisure 3) miraculous miracle 8) subjective subject 4) relevant relevance 9) prosperous prosperity 5) analytical Analysis 10) innovative innovation 2. 2) multi-faith 3) multiform 4) multifunction 5) multi-ethnic 6) multilateral 7) multi-lingual 8) multimedia 9) multimillionaire 10) multinational 1) a multi-faith society 2) a multi-lingual secretary 3) a multimillionaire 4) a multinational motor-manufacturing corporation 5) a multifunction video camera
Unit 1 1)The village is so close to the border that the villages live in constant fear of attacks from the enemy. 2)In only twenty years the country was transformed into an advanced industrial power. 3)This company has evolved into one of the major chemical manufacturing bases in this region. 4)Given the current financial situation, it is inevitable that the US dollar will be further devalued. 5)The government’s call for suggestions about the control of water pollution produced very little response from the citizens. 6)The weather showed no signs of getting better so the government called upon us to get prepared for flood. 7)At one time scientists thought that there was nothing smaller than an atom but now most people know that an atom consists of even smaller particles. 8)The students were all very much concerned about t he World Cup, spending at least two hours every day watching the live matches on TV. 9)The department store lost out because loans were very hard to come by and it could not start business on time. 10)We can’t go there for a walk because there is a navy base there,
新标准大学英语综合教程4课后翻译 Uint 1 If you ask me, real life is not all it's cracked up to be. Twelve years at school and three years at uni versity, teachers banging on about opport un ities in the big wide world bey ond our sheltered life as stude nts, and what do I find? 依我看，现实生活与人们想象的不一样。我们上了12年的中、小学，又上了3年的大学， 这期间老师们一直在没完没了地谈论在安宁的学生生活之外那个广阔天地里的各种机会，可 我遇到的又是什么呢？ Try as I might to stay cheerful, all I ever get is hassle, sometimes with people (especially boys, god, whe n will they grow up?), but mostly with mon ey. It's just so expe nsive out here! Everyone wants a slice off you. The Inland Revenue wan ts to deduct in come tax, the bank man ager wants repayments on my student loan, the Iandlord wants the rent, gas, water, electricity and my mobile bills keep coming in, and all that's before I've had anything to eat. And then some bright spark calls me out of the blue, ask ing if rm in terested in buying a pension. At this rate, I won't even last till the end of the year, let alone till I'm 60. 无论我怎么想保持心情愉快，麻烦事总是接踵而来：有时是跟人争吵(尤其是跟男孩，天哪！他们什么 时候才能长大？)，但通常是为钱发愁。这个地方什么东西都很贵！人人 都想从我身上拿点钱去：国税局要收个人所得税，银行经理要我偿清学生贷款，房东催我 交房租、燃气费、水费、电费，手机账单也不断地寄来。所有这些还没算上吃饭的钱。更 可气的是，不知从哪里冒出一个自作聪明的家伙冷不丁地给我打电话，问我要不要买养老金。 照这样下去，我连今年都活不过去了，更别提活到60岁领养老金了。 汉译英 我认为，选修第二专业并不适合每一位本科生。我大学本科主修英语专业，大一时就开始辅修经济学了。无疑，我是班里最用功的学生。我竭尽全力想同时达到两个不同专业的 要求，但还是有不及格的时候。因为经济学需要良好的数学基础，我不得不花大量时间钻 研数学，因而忽略了英语学习。 If you ask me, tak ing a sec ond major isn't good for every un dergraduate. In my freshma n year as an En glish major, I took economics as my minor. By all odds, I was the most hardwork ing stude nt in my class. But try as I might to meet the requireme nts of the two differe nt subjects, I still could n't do well eno ugh to pass all the exams. Given that the study of econo mics required a good comma nd of mathematics, I had to spe nd so much time on math that I n eglected my En glish major. 第二学期，《英国文学》及《宏观经济学》两门课不及格给我敲响了警钟，这可是我一生中第一次考 试不及格，这大大打击了我的自信心。虽然我不是一个容易向命运低头的人， 在暑假结束的时候，我还是决定放弃经济学，以免两个专业都难以完成。当我只需修一个 专业的时候，一切似乎又回到了正轨。(if you ask me; odds; try as …might; sap on e's con fide nee; give n that; bow to fate;come to a close; for fear that; now that) Faili ng En glish Literature and Macroec onomics in the sec ond semester soun ded the alarm for me. This was the first time I did not pass a course in my life, which had greatly sapped my con fide nee. Although I was n ot a man who would easily bow to fate, as the summer break came to a close, I decided to give up econo mics for fear that I would fail in both subjects. Now that I had only one subject to attend to,everything seemed to be on the right track again. Uint2 In dubitably the vast majority of books overlap one ano ther. Few in deed are those which give the impressi on of orig in ality, either in style or in content. Rare are the unique books -less tha n 50, perhaps, out of the whole storehouse of literature .In one of his recent auto-biographical no vels, Blaise Cendrars points out that R my de GSurmont, because of his knowledge and awareness of this repetitive quality in books, was able to select and read all that is worthwhile in the entire realm of literature.Cendrars himself —who would suspect it? —is a prodigious reader. He reads most authors.Not only that, but when he likes an author he reads every last book the man has written, as well as his letters and all the books that have been written about him. In our day his case is almost un paralleled, I imagi ne.For, not only has he read widely and deeply, but he has himself written a great many books. All on the side, as it were. For, if he is anything, Cendrars, he is a man of action, an adventurer and explorer,a man who has known how to ——waste II his time
危险!书可能会改变你的人生 1 刘易斯?卡罗尔书中的爱丽丝不小心掉进了兔子洞里，但她在那里发现了一个神奇的仙境。当我们打开一本书时，我们也会像爱丽丝那样走进一个全新的世界。我们能从一个年长者的角度，或通过一个孩子的眼睛来观察生活；我们可以周游世界，遍访现实生活中从没想过要访问的国家和文化；我们可以体验未曾经历过的事情，这些事情也许令人困惑，也许引人入胜；可能是不愉快的，也可能是令人痛苦的，但无论如何都至少能把我们从现实世界中解放出来。 2 英国诗人威廉?柯珀（1731—1800）说：“变化是生活的调味品，它让生活变得有滋有味。”虽然他没有说在什么地方以及怎样才能找到变化，但我们知道他说得对。我们知道我们生活在一个充满变化与差异的世界里，我们知道人们的生活各不相同，过日子的方式也不尽相同，人们做不同的工作，有不同的信仰，持不同的观点，有不同的风俗习惯，操不同的语言。通常，我们不知道这些差异的大小，但一旦发生了不平常的事情并引起了我们的注意，这种变化或差异与其说是机会，毋宁说是威胁。 3 读书让我们能够安全地享受和庆贺这种变化与差异，并为我们提供成长的机会。在家里安详平和的环境中与他人的生活互动，这是阅读小说才享有的特权。我们甚至感觉到——哪怕只是在一瞬间——我们和其他文化读者的共同点或许要多于我们和家门口 随便碰到的一个人的共同点。我们学会把目光移出我们周围的环境，投向天边，去领略一下异域风光。 4 如果我们怀疑读书是否能给我们力量的话，我们就应该自己去一趟当地的图书馆或书店，或者，如果我们足够幸运的话，可以读一读家里书架上的书。我们会惊奇于古今小说的标题所创造出来的壮观景象：约翰?斯坦贝克的《愤怒的葡萄》、约翰?欧文的《第四只手》、亚历山大?索尔仁尼琴的《癌病房》、欧内斯特?海明威的《丧钟为谁而鸣》、格雷厄姆?格林的《哈瓦那特派员》、奥黛丽?尼芬格的《时间旅行者的妻子》、保罗? 托迪的《到也门钓鲑鱼》。一旦开始阅读，我们就应该思考一下我们在书中读到的别样人生。 5 每一本书都有自己的语言、方言、词汇和语法。我们不见得总能理解其中的每一个字、每一句话，但不管我们是痴迷其中，还是觉得被排斥在外，我们的情感被调动起来了。尽管在地理上有一定的距离，但其他民族、其他文化未必就离我们那么遥远。在书里我们可能遇见生活在不同气候、有不同信仰、属于不同种族的人。即便是住在同一条街上的邻居，我们也可能对其一无所知，而只能通过阅读结识。
Unit 1 If you ask me, taking a second major isn’t good for every undergraduate. In my freshman year as an English major, I took economics as my minor. By all odds, I was the most hard-working student in my class. But try as I might to meet the requirements of the two different subjects, I still couldn’t do well enough to pass all the exams. Given that the study of economics required a good command of mathematics, I had to spend so much time on math that I neglected my English. Failing English Literature and Macroeconomics in the second term sounded the alarm for me. This was the first time I did not pass a course in my life, which had greatly sapped my confidence. Although I was not a man who would easily bow to fate, as the summer bread came to a close, I decided to give up economics for fear that I would fail both subjects. Now that I had only one subject to attend to, everything seemed to be on the right track again. Unit 2 It was not until after he had graduated from university and started to work that Zhang Lei became aware of the pleasure of reading. reflecting on his undergraduate studies, he lamented that he, unlike some of his classmates who had immersed themselves in various interesting books they were able to lay hands on from the library or bookshops, had only read textbooks, none of which was really worthwhile, or could be read in one sitting. He was deprived of the privilege of gaining access to the writers’ fantastic worlds through the windows their books have opened, so to speak. Now he has become an avid and omnivorous reader. It is as if he wants to read all those marvelous books he hadn’t had a chance to read in his university days. By now, in his spare time, he had read several hundreds of books, including novels, biographies and travel notes. He realizes that books can not only reveal to him the vista of a hopeful future and help him withstand stresses and strains, they can also help him clear up some misconceptions and discover the true meaning of life. Unit 3 What you wear seems to dictate your behavior. Take primary school and high school students for example. One of the hard and fast rules they have to observe is that they must wear uniforms at school. There is no doubt that school uniforms would not have achieved their currency without a symbolic correlation between the uniformity of clothes and the students’ conformity to some common code of conduct. However, after years of school life, there is always a backlash secretly nursed in the students’ mind against the ubiquitous uniform which suppresses the expression of individuality. To compensate for this loss, students usually wear more casual and popular clothes on weekends. It is not until they start university, however, that they can really enjoy the freedom of dress, an anarchy associated with the cultivation of creativity and the encouragement of free expression of ideas and talents. But this situation won’t obtain for long. After a relatively short time of liberty, they may experience again the revived pressure of dress code as soon as they become professions. Unit 4 When it comes to the effects of the current economic downturn, the decrease of student activities is a good case in point. To enliven campus life, the university is always willing to carve out some money for activities organized by student clubs and societies, but such sponsorships have been pared down this year because of huge budget cut. Apparently, student organizations need to weather their own financial crisis if they want to recover from their current state of inactiveness. Some suggest enrolling more club members, on the ground that the consequent increase of membership fees may help them get out of the difficulty.