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Unit 6 Food

Food and Culture

[1] We all have ideas about what kinds of foods are good to eat. We also have ideas

about what kinds of foods are bad to eat. As a result, people from one culture often think

the foods that people from another culture eat are disgusting or nauseating. When the famous boxer Muhammad Ali visited Africa, for example, one member of his group became quite sick when he saw someone pick up a butterfly and eat it. Many people would find it disgusting to eat rats, but there are forty-two different cultures whose people regard rats as appropriate food.

[2] Some people in Africa think African termites make a delicious meal. Many other

people would probably be sick if they had to eat termites, but one hundred grams of termites contain more than twice as many calories and almost twice as much protein as

one hundred grams of cooked hamburger.

[3] However, food likes and dislikes do not always seem related to nutrition. For example, broccoli is first on a list of the most nutritious common vegetables, but it is twenty-first on a list of vegetables that Americans like most to eat. Tomatoes are sixteenth on the list of most nutritious vegetables, but they are first on the list of vegetables that Americans like most to eat.

[4] But dislike is not the only reason why some cultures will not eat a certain food. In

some cultures, certain foods are taboo. Taboo is a word from the language of the Fiji Islands that is used to describe something that is forbidden. Some foods are taboo in certain religions, but there are also other food taboos that are not connected to a religion.

We do not usually think about why certain things are taboo in our culture. We may not

even know why they are taboo. Anthropologists try to discover the hidden reasons for taboos. For example, the sacred cows of India are well known. Cows can go wherever they

want to in the streets of India, and they can eat anything they want from the supplies of

the foodsellers on the street. As a result, the cows are a problem. However, no one in India will kill them or eat them. It is taboo to do so. This custom seems strange to other

people, but anthropologists believe that there are reasons for it. First, cows are valuable

because the farmers need them to help plow their fields. Second, cow manure is used as a

fertilizer on the fields. In India, many farmers cannot afford to spend money on fertilizer.

Third, the cow manure can be dried and burned to make cooking fires. Therefore, farmers

that kill their cows for meat soon find that they cannot plow or fertilize their fields or make a cooking fire.

[5] Another example is that Americans do not eat dogs, although people from some

other cultures regard them as good food. In the United States, dogs are very important to

people as pets. They are usually regarded as part of the family, almost like a child in some

cases. In addition, dogs have value as protection against criminals. Thieves will not usually enter a house where there is a dog because the dog will bark and possibly attack a

stranger who is trying to get into a house. Apparently, the dog's place in society as a companion and as protection against criminals makes the dog taboo as food.

[6] The taboo against eating pork occurs in more than one culture. There is some evidence that some ancient Egyptians did not eat pork. The ancient Israelites also regarded pork as taboo. One explanation for the pig-eating taboo is that pork that is not

cooked sufficiently may spread a disease called trichinosis. However, most people no longer think that this is a good explanation for the pork taboo. Another explanation is that the Israelites were nomads—they were always moving from place to place. People have to stay in one place to raise pigs. The Israelites did not want to stay in one place because they did not want to change their culture. As a result, they did not eat pigs.

[7] Anthropologists believe that most food likes and dislikes are a result of the ways

of life of different people. Some people live in areas where there are both large animals

and many insects. It is difficult for these people to kill large animals, and it requires a lot

of energy. It is easier for them to use insects for food because it is not difficult to catch

insects and it does not require a lot of energy. Nomadic people who move around will not

want to keep pigs for food. People will not eat pets such as dogs. Americans eat a lot of

beef because there is plenty of land for raising cattle and their meat can be shipped cheaply for long distances by railroads.


1 对于什么样的食物好吃,我们都有自己的主见。对于什么样的食物不好吃,我们也有自己的看法。因此,某种文化背景的人常常会觉得另一种文化背景的人吃的食物难以忍受或者




2 在非洲有些人认为非洲白蚁可以做成美餐。对于许多其他人来说,如果非吃(白蚁)


3 不过,对食物的好恶似乎并不一定与营养有关。例如,花椰菜在营养最丰富的常见蔬菜



4 但不喜欢并不是某些文化(中人们)不吃某种食物的唯一原因。在有些文化中,有些

食物是禁忌。“禁忌”一词来源于斐济群岛的语言, 用来表示禁止做的事。有些食物在某些宗








5 再比如,美国人不吃狗肉, 尽管其他一些文化背景的人视狗肉为佳肴。在美国,狗作为




6 不止一种文化忌食猪肉。有迹象表明一些古埃及人不吃猪肉。古代以色列人也视猪肉




7 人类学家相信,对食物的好恶大多是不同人不同生活方式的结果。有些人生活在既有大型动物又有许多昆虫的地区。他们杀死大型动物有困难,需要花很大的力气。对他们来说,


The Menu

Jim Heimann

[1] Food history tells us that in early restaurants the recitation of the available food

dishes became an increasingly time-consuming chore; therefore, written menus were developed to help guide diners in their eating choices. This written menu was commonly handwritten on a chalkboard or listed on a board that could be easily seen by the customers. Developments in printing finally led to a change and the larger restaurants' floor plans made a single handwritten menu impractical, so printed menus were introduced.

[2] Delmonico's restaurant in New York City is often given credit for introducing the

first printed menu in the United States in 1834. That menu, as well as others of the period,

was simple in design and offered specific information. Special occasions led to a call for

unique designs and eventually led to more highly decorated menus.

[3] For the most part, however, menu decoration followed the art movements of the

time. The highly decorated late 19th century menus, which were influenced by Victorian

art, gave way to modern art in the 20th century. Developments with graphics and printing allowed distinctive menu cover art.

[4] By the 1930s, the menu was seen as a part of the restaurant's plan to create a memorable meal. It could develop an appetite, tell a joke, explain a food item, create a

mood, tell something of the history of the restaurant, and, above all, sell some food. Restaurant trade publications encouraged the use of the menu as part of the business strategy, and the National Restaurant Association promoted effective menu graphics in its annual competition of best menus in the nation. Its guidelines for judging included (1) originality, (2) legibility, (3) ease of handling, and (4) sales effectiveness. Restaurant Management magazine in its November 1935 issue stated that most restaurant owners considerably underestimated the importance of the appearance of the menu. The magazine went on to say that the menu really has two important functions: (1) to sell food,

and (2) to repeat and emphasize the unique atmosphere of that restaurant.

[5] In spite of the Depression of the 1930s, restaurants did well and menu design became important. There were increasing numbers of many different types of restaurants

during this decade, including cafeterias, drive-ins, and lunch counters in stores, as well as

the traditional, more formal restaurants. Many of the restaurants developed themes in food, decoration and menu styles.

[6] Progress in printing, photography, and especially color photography opened up

more opportunities for creative expression. During the Second World War food rationing

often hurt the business of restaurants, but as soon as victory was achieved, eating out became very popular again.

[7] In spite of the risks of casual dining and fast-food restaurants, the mid-20th century provided many new opportunities for creative menu design. By the end of the 1960s, the increasingly popular coffee shops and restaurants that featured a singular item

such as pizza, steak, or pancakes used new menu graphics. The 1970s brought a decline in

eating out, but the 1980s, especially in homes where both parents were working, brought

a big increase in the demand for many types of restaurants. Since then, menu design has

provided the American public with a pleasing prelude to the dining experience.

[8] Some popular historians are studying menus as a very special kind of documentation of America's love of eating out. For many generations of diners, taking a

restaurant menu has been a way of preserving a memory or documenting a trip or a voyage. Many restaurants have provided customers with souvenir versions of their menus.

The restaurant owners believe that this is a good way of advertising. Thus the menu now

serves a new, but also important function.







3 然而,多数情况下,菜单的装饰风格是随着时代的艺术潮流而变化的。19世纪后期的菜单,受维多利亚时代艺术的影响,装饰华丽,到了20世纪就被现代艺术所取代。平面造


4 到了20世纪30年代,餐馆为打造令人难忘的美餐,把菜单看作是实施这种计划的一





5 尽管30年代经济大萧条,饭店却生意良好,菜单设计也变得很重要。这十年内,饭店




7 尽管人们对吃饭越来越随意,同时快餐店大批涌现,但是20世纪中叶还是为有创意的





8 一些通俗历史学家正在研究菜单,他们把菜单当作美国人外出吃饭喜爱程度的一种特




Cooking and Cuisines

[1] One thing that separates man from animals is man's preference for cooked food.

The higher apes have been found to share with mankind the ability to communicate by

sound and gesture, but no ape has ever cooked its food. We also like our food to appeal to

our senses of taste and smell, and we like it to be attractive. Our senses are remarkably

acute and discriminating, and all societies which have progressed beyond simple survival

satisfy the human pleasure of good food. The great cuisines of the world have developed

dishes which appeal both to the taste and to the eye—color and texture are as important

as flavor.

[2] There are three acknowledged great national cuisines, French, Indian and Chinese. French cooking is generally acknowledged to be supreme in Europe. French cuisine using butter, cheese and cream is typical of all great national cuisines: it combines simplicity with sophistication, uses the native resources of France, has great regional specialties and has become truly international.

[3] These three major cuisines have distinguished themselves each by one major characteristic. French cooking with butter, cheese and cream is so typical of their cooking

that if omitted the whole character of the cuisine would be destroyed. Also, wine in cooking is as instinctive to a French cook as the use of soy sauce is to a Chinese cook. A

second cuisine—Indian cooking is distinguished by the use of spices. The third cuisine is

defined by the use of rice as a staple—China being the supreme example. Of course these three cuisines share their characteristics in one way or another. French cuisine can boast

some famous rice dishes. Some Indian regional cookery also makes use of butter and the

dishes of Sichuan, in Chinese cuisine, are famous for their fiery spices. But the separation

into three major cuisines does mark some kind of distinctive characteristic and the three

major cuisines, each based on a different major characteristic, have persisted for a long

time throughout human history.

[4] The borderlines between cuisine styles are clear and have changed less than either linguistic or racial boundaries. India's gift to the world is the use of spices to

enhance the flavor of foods, and Indian cooking presents a dazzling array of regional variations—from the fiery hot curries of the south to the subtly spiced vegetarian dishes

of the northern regions. Nothing rivals the color and flavor of Indian dishes, and the use

of rice as a staple links Indian and Chinese cooking. Chinese cooks teach us that texture

must never be neglected. Long ago the Chinese brought to perfection the art of swift cooking at very high temperature in which vegetables retain their crispness and nutritional goodness too. Most of the preparation time is taken up by the cutting of vegetables and the chopping of meat, not by the actual cooking process.

[5] The regional variety of Chinese dishes is bewildering to the foreigner. Spicy, bland, sour and sweet are all represented. No national cuisine uses the native plants and

animals more than the Chinese. Every part of every edible vegetable or animal seems to

have its use.

[6] There are three recent threats to keeping national cuisines:1) the revolution in world transportation and communication, 2) the increase in trade between nations, and 3)

the changing role of women in society.

[7] Rapid and inexpensive transport and communication may threaten national cuisines. Travelers from other countries want the kind of food they are used to at home.

The second threat is caused by the flow of foods and food products from one country to

another. Convenience foods destroy the charm of time-consuming cooking. An argument

can be made for processed foods, and the great benefits of freezing, freeze-drying and canning, but Western food technology is still a threat to national cuisines.

[8] Finally, the changing role of women influences national styles of cooking. The changes which have already taken place have had a profound effect on the family, and will continue. Women have been the prime food preparers for thousands of years. If they have

less time and less inclination to spend long hours in food preparation and cooking, this

will influence the kind of dishes which a family eats. Now women can explore further than their own immediate locality and experience, and gather ideas and recipes from other parts of the world, and incorporate these into their cooking. However, the threat to

national cuisines remains ― perhaps even reinforced by the obvious benefits mentioned.

[9] To preserve distinctive national cuisines may have something to do with human

behavior. What unites all great national cuisines, besides regional variety, ingenious use

of available resources and an influence on international eating habits, is the attitude toward food. A proper respect for eating means more than a human necessity. Food should be central to one's life. Good food, well-cooked and attractively presented, is one

of the pleasures of life which the national cuisines of India, France and China have given

to us.


1 人与动物相区别的一点是人喜爱熟食。尽管人们发现高等动物猿能用声音和肢体动作进



2 世上众人公认的有三大国菜,法国、印度和中国菜。法国烹调在欧洲享有盛誉,被认



3 这三大菜肴都有自己的重要特色,依此出名。法国菜使用黄油、乳酪和奶油烹饪,是特有的烧法,若省去这些配料,便破坏了该菜肴的全部特色。同样,法国厨师本能地会在烧菜时加葡萄酒,就象中国厨师天生会用酱油一样。第二种菜系,印度菜,以使用香料而闻名。



4 烹饪风格之间的界限非常清楚,不像语言或种族界限变化那么大。印度献给世界的礼

物是使用香料使食物的味道更好,而且印度烹饪,地区间差异很大,从南方非常辛辣的咖哩菜肴到北方地区稍加调料的素菜,变化之多令人赞叹。印度菜的色味,是其它菜系所不能及的。以米饭作为主食把印度烹饪和中国烹饪连在一起。中国厨师教导我们,菜的质地不应忽视。很久以前,中国人就把猛火快炒的烹饪艺术发挥到淋漓尽致, 这样烧法能保持蔬菜的鲜脆和营养。绝大部分的准备时间是用来切菜和剁肉,而不是用在真正的烧菜过程中。

5 中国菜肴地域种类繁多,使外国人眼花缭乱。辛辣、清淡、酸、甜应有尽有。中国菜最


6 近来,要保存民族菜肴,受到三方面的威胁:1)全球交通运输和通讯的革命,2)国与国之间贸易的增长,3)妇女社会角色的转变。

7 快捷又廉价的交通和通讯有可能会威胁到民族菜肴。来自其他国家的游客希望吃到自己



8 最后,女性角色的转变也影响到烹饪的民族风格。这种转变对家庭已经产生了深远的



9 保留富有特色的国菜也许与人们的行为有关。所有著名的民族菜肴,除了有种类繁多



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零词典教你怎么把pdf文件翻译成中文的方法 说到翻译,大家最先想到的就是用词典,有道、金山什么的。但是今天,我想教大家一种更加简单的方法,直接在文件中进行翻译,连打开文档都不需要,就能自行帮助我们翻译。它就是迅捷pdf转换器软件。 但是,我今天要介绍的可不是这款软件,而是它的在线版本。功能都一样,但就是不用下载。下面来看看具体操作。 一、pdf翻译功能 首先,在网上搜索迅捷转换器的在线版本,进入主页后,在特色功能中找到【pdf在线翻译】功能。 点击进入该功能页面后,添加需要翻译的pdf文件,系统就会自行帮助我们翻译了。 虽然说翻译的效果不能百分百准确,但基本上可以帮助我们了解把握文章的整体脉络,所以,如果只是想了解外语文献,这款软件也是很不错的选择。 二、文档转换功能 当然,除了翻译功能外,它还有其他很多的特色功能,比如各种文档之间的相互转换,如excel、word、ppt等,都是信手拈来。毕竟这是人家的主业嘛。

操作也是非常简单的。如需要将pdf转成word,就直接点击【pdf转word】,接着选择【点击添加文件】,文件传好后,点击【开始转换】就行了。 不过,要记得将转换好的文件保存到本地哦! 三、pdf处理功能 最后,再跟大家介绍另一逆天功能——pdf处理。在这个功能区里,我们可以对pdf文件进行压缩,改变文件的大小。也可以进行pdf文件的合并,将两个、甚至多个pdf文件合并在一起;同理,也能一个pdf文件进行分割。 虽然功能不同,但是操作起来都是一样的,直接上图,在这里就不啰嗦了。只要你自己试一下,不用人教都能顺利的完成所有操作。 听了这么多的介绍,如果你也喜欢这款软件的话,就不妨也去试试吧。


铁路通信的使用长期演进技术挑战 罗尼龙湖金靳萨呒郭某*铉Chyeol黄某 交通运输仪旺市,韩国韩国国立大学ronnykim@ut.ac.kr LG电子安阳,韩国jinsam.kwak@https://www.sodocs.net/doc/9710549825.html,韩国铁道科学研究院义王,韩国hchwang@krri.re.kr 摘要:作为下一代铁路通信技术,3GPP已经考虑到提供一种使用LTE中,被称为LTE-R,包括铁路控制,乘客服务,无线监控视频等国际铁路联盟(UIC)的铁路的通信已经开始,以产生LTE-R的要求。有用于当今的铁路列车,因为高达430公里每小时的迁移率的通信用于LTE一些技术挑战。由于铁路通信相关的公共安全,非常紧张可靠性要求也需要得到满足。在本文中,提供了LTE-R的可能的频带来讲一些技术上的考虑。频带为高速列车可达500公里每小时的上限,建议通过调查无线信道和LTE的物理信道结构的多普勒扩展。 关键词:铁路通信,LTE,LTE-R频段,参考信号 引言 因为列车在英国第一操作,各种方法和装置已经使用,以便提供铁路的通信。随着信息和通信技术(ICT),在railraod communciations无线通信becoms规范的推进。多种无线技术,例如的,TETRA [1],GSM-R [2],802.11 [3],等,被用于铁路的通信。 作为下一代的铁路通信技术,3GPP LTE一直被认为是提供铁路通信,被称为LTE-R [4],包括铁路的控制,旅客服务,无线监控录像等国际铁路联盟(UIC)已开始为生成的LTE-R的要求[5]。有用于将用于因列车高达430公里每小时快速流动铁路通信的LTE一些技术挑战。由于铁路通信相关的公共安全,非常紧张可靠性要求必须得到满足。 在本文中,提供了LTE-R的频带的技术考虑。频段的500公里每小时的高速列车的上限,建议考虑相干时间和LTE的物理信道结构。 II。3GPP LTE要求技术挑战LTE-R 为了理解LTE的当前技术状态,3GPP LTE要求和性能在表被提供 *靳洒呒郭某是通讯作者 表一,3GPP LTE要求和表演(第8版) 要求性能 ΞΣΖΔ ? ?ΔΤΚΥΖ?'ΖΝΝ??'? ??Π?ΞΒΟΤ?'ΖΝΝ??'? C-飞机延迟(状态转移)'ΒΞΡΤΖΕΤΒΤΖΞΣΖΔ相约 ?ΕΝΖ? U-飞机延迟(IP分组情况Rx)的<5.0ms相约 峰值频谱效率DL:5个基点/赫兹UL:2.5bps / Hz的DL:15bps / Hz的UL:3.5bps /赫兹平均频谱效率DL:3?4倍相对6 HSDPA(2×2)UL:2?3倍相对6增强UL(1×2)DL:1.69(2×2),1.87(4×2),2.67(4×4)UL:0.74(1×2) 小区边缘频谱效率DL:3?4倍相对6 HSDPA(2×2)UL:2?3倍相对6增强UL(1×2)


唯美的中文翻译成英文 Abandon 放弃 Disguise 伪装 Abiding 持久的,不变的~friendship Indifferent 无所谓 Forever 最爱 I know what you want 我知道你想要什么 See you forget the breathe 看见你忘了呼吸 Destiny takes a hand.命中注定 anyway 不管怎样 sunflower high-profile向日葵,高姿态。 look like love 看起来像爱 Holding my hand, eyes closed you would not get lost 牵着我的手,闭着眼睛走你也不会迷路 If one day the world betrayed you, at least I betray the world for you! 假如有一天世界背叛了你,至少还有我为你背叛这个世界! This was spoiled child, do not know the heart hurts, naive cruel. 这样被宠惯了的小孩子,不知道人心是会伤的,天真的残忍。

How I want to see you, have a look you changed recently, no longer said once, just greetings, said one to you, just say the word, long time no see. 我多么想和你见一面,看看你最近的改变,不再去说从前,只是寒暄,对你说一句,只说这一句,好久不见。 In fact, not wine, but when the thought of drinking the unbearable past. 其实酒不醉人,只是在喝的时候想起了那不堪的过去。 The wind does not know clouds drift, day not know rain down, eyes do not understand the tears of weakness, so you don't know me 风不懂云的漂泊,天不懂雨的落魄,眼不懂泪的懦弱,所以你不懂我 Some people a lifetime to deceive people, but some people a lifetime to cheat a person 有些人一辈子都在骗人,而有些人用一辈子去骗一个人 Alone and lonely, is always better than sad together 独自寂寞,总好过一起悲伤 You are my one city, one day, you go, my city, also fell 你是我的一座城,有一天,你离开了,我的城,也就倒了。


Chapter one 2012-3-27 ?翻译可分为口译interpretation和笔译translation。 ?Interpretation can be divided into two types: one is consecutive interpretation, another is simultaneous interpretation. ?翻译三原则(George Washington Campbell,Alexander Fraser Tytler) 1.原作的意义、意思 2.原作的思想、精神 3.流畅、通顺 ?翻译方法1.直译literal translation 2.意译free translation 3.音译transliteration ?山雨欲来风满楼The coming events cast their shadows before. 才学最差,叫喊最多The worst wheel of a cart creaks most. 与……狼狈为奸hand in glove with… 乱七八糟at sixes and sevens 千载难逢once in a blue moon 路必有弯,势必有转机It is a long lane that has no turning. 家丑不可外扬It is an ill bird that fouls its own nest. ?The main principles of TRANSLITERA TION 1.准确读音 2.正确拼写姓名拼写中姓与名要空一格首字母要大写eg. Pu Songling 地名拼写中首字母大写不空格eg. Fujian Guangdong Xi’an 一般来说除地名人名之外其他专有名词英译时首字母要大写如汉Han; 一般名词要小写 3.弄清词源有些词需要追溯到最初发音以利于音译eg.菩萨Bodhisattva 4.约定俗成eg. 孙中山Sun Y at-sen 宋庆龄Soong Ching Ling 陈嘉庚Tan Kah Kee 5.准确回译eg. 纽约New Y ork 6.缩略语复原eg. 闽Fujian 武大Wuhan University Chapter two 2012-3-28 ?The classification of CULTURE 1.物质文化material culture 2.制度文化institutional culture 3.心理文化mental culture ?中英思维方式对比 1.中国人注重伦理,英美人注重认知 2.中国人注重整体、偏重综合性思维;英美人注重个体、偏重分析性思维 3.中国人重直觉,英美人重实证 4.中国人重形象思维,英美人重逻辑思维 Chapter three 2012-3-31 ?词语的指称意义与蕴含意义的对比 1.指称意义是词语在交际过程中所表达的字面的最基本的意义,相当于一种约定俗 成的认知 2.蕴含意义的理解与表达eg:His wife was unfaithful to him, and he became a cuckold. 他老婆红杏出墙,给他戴了顶绿帽子。此处注意红和绿。?词语英译与语言语境 1.根据语言语境确定原文词义:“醉心于……”be engrossed in褒be infatuated with 贬 2.根据语言环境选择译文用词:①Mum gave a book as my birthday present .


[转] 英语中常见的123个中国成语写作就不用愁字数啦 1.爱屋及乌 Love me, love my dog. 2.百闻不如一见 Seeing is believing. 3.比上不足比下有余 worse off than some, better off than many; to fall short of the best, but be better than the worst. 4.笨鸟先飞 A slow sparrow should make an early start. 5.不眠之夜 white night 6.不以物喜不以己悲 not pleased by external gains, not saddened by personnal losses 7.不遗余力 spare no effort; go all out; do one's best 8.不打不成交 No discord, no concord. 9.拆东墙补西墙 rob Peter to pay Paul 10.辞旧迎新 bid farewell to the old and usher in the new; ring out the old year and ring in the new 11.大事化小小事化了 try first to make their mistake sound less serious and then to reduce it to nothing at all 12.大开眼界 open one's eyes; broaden one's horizon; be an eye-opener 13.国泰民安 The country flourishes and people live in peace 14.过犹不及 going too far is as bad as not going far enough; beyond is as wrong as falling short; too much is as bad as too little 15.功夫不负有心人 Everything comes to him who waits. 16.好了伤疤忘了疼 once on shore, one prays no more 17.好事不出门恶事传千里 Good news never goes beyond the gate, while bad



第一章 汉英语言对比 相关参考: 翻译教学和研究的经验表明:翻译理论和技巧必须建立在不同语言和文化的对比分析基础上。英汉互译的几项基本原则和技巧,如选词(Diction)、转换(Conversion)、增补(Amplification)、省略(Omission)、重复(Repetition)、替代(Substitution)、变换(Variation)、倒臵(Inversion)、拆离(Division)、缀合(Combination)、阐释(Annotation)、浓缩(Condensation)、重组(Reconstruction),以及时态、语态、语气、习语、术语等的译法,都集中地体现了英汉的不同特点。机器翻译是让计算机按照人们所制定的程序和指令进行不同语言的对比转换,也离不开对比分析。翻译之所以困难,归根结底是因为语言差异和文化差异。因此,对比、分析和归纳这些差异,便是翻译学的重要任务。 不同语言的对比分析不仅有利于教学和翻译,也有助于语言交际。通过对比分析,人们可以进一步认识外语和母语的特性,在进行交际时,能够有意识地注意不同语言各自的表现方法,以顺应这些差异,防止表达错误,避免运用失当,从而达到交际的目的。 ——连淑能,《英汉对比研究》 纪德是最理解莎士比亚的法国作家之一。在他看来,“没有任何作家比莎士比亚更值得翻译”,但同时,“也没有任何作家比他更难翻译,译文更容易走样”。纪德对莎士比亚的理解是双重的,既是精神的,也是语言的。他在与莎士比亚的相遇与相识中,经历了一系列的考验。对他在翻译中经历的这番历史奇遇,他曾在为七星文库出版的《莎士比亚戏剧集》撰写的前言中作了详尽的描述:描述了两种文化与两种语言之间的遭遇,也揭示了翻译中译者所面临的种种障碍。 纪德首先看到的,是语言与文化层面的逻辑性,这涉及到不同语言的思维方法。他说:“莎士比亚很少考虑逻辑性,而我们拉丁文化缺了逻辑性就踉踉跄跄。莎士比亚笔下的形象相互重现,相互推倒。面对如此丰富的形象,我们可怜的译者目瞪口呆。他不愿意对这种绚丽多彩有丝毫遗漏,因此不得不将英文原本中用仅仅一个词表示的暗喻译成一个句子。原来像蛇一样紧紧盘成一团的诗意,如今成了松开的弹簧。翻译成了解释。逻辑倒是很满意,但魅力不再起作用。莎士比亚的诗句飞跃而过的空间,迟缓的熊虫一瘸一拐才能走完。”在紧密的逻辑与丰富的形象之间,英语与法语的天平有所侧重,在两者的遭遇中,译者的无奈与局限源于文化与语言的巨大差异。 头脑清醒的纪德没有丝毫责备英语或莎士比亚的语言的意思,相反,在翻译莎士比亚的戏剧中,他充分意识到了母语的缺陷。他说:“只有在接触外语时,我们才意识到本国语言的缺陷,因此,只会法语的法国人是看不到缺陷的。”他的这一观点与德国作家歌德的观点几乎是一致的。异之于我,可作一明镜,从异中更清楚地照清自身。在这个意义上,与异语文化的接触,有助于认识母语与母语文化的不足。看清了自身的不足,便有可能从异语异文化中去摄取营养,弥补自身,丰富自身。 在艰难的翻译中,纪德亲历了种种障碍,他结合翻译中的具体例证,作了某


第四部分翻译 Part Ⅰ英译汉 练习: Unit 1 1.年轻时,他对学业漫不经心,加之他一直不愿考虑运动员以外的职业,到这时候,这一切终于给他带来了不幸。 2.护士们对不得不日复一日地参与欺骗病人的做法也许深恶痛绝,但要抵制却感到无能为力。 3.我不会在初版的《失乐园》上乱写乱画,就像我不会把一幅伦勃朗的原作连同一套蜡笔交给我的婴儿任意涂抹一样。 4.只有假设地球表面呈曲线状,这一现象才能得到解释。 5.鹿减少生存所需的能耗以增加越冬生存的机会,从生物学的角度看是合情合理的。 6.不论好坏,不论是何结果,美国人不仅会一概接受,还要去铲除那些反对者,尽管对于成千上万的人来说,这决定与自己的意愿背道而驰。 7.你可曾为了接电话在洗澡时从浴室冲出来,或是嚼着饭从饭桌旁站起来,或是昏昏沉沉的从床上爬起来,而结果却是有人打错了。 8.实际上,大把花钱的满足感大于商品本身带给他们的乐趣。 9.但是蓝色也可以表示伤感(我很伤感),白色常代表纯洁,尽管在中国,人们在婚礼上穿白的,在葬礼上穿黑的。 10. 晚上十点到十二点,美国处在权力真空状态——除了纽约广播公司总部和两家大的新闻机构之外,全国范围内就再没有别的信息中心。 Unit 2 1) 1800年英国与法国之间将爆发一场持续15后的大战。 2) 我相信,到1816年,英国将在滑铁卢村附近赢得一场伟大战役的胜利。 3) 然而,到1870年,对于英国来说,德国将成为一个比法国更具危险性的国家。 4) 在20世纪初,俄国、美国和日本将成为大国,而英国将不再是世界上最强大的国家了。 5) 反过来,农民的业绩大小取决于农业的组织形式,经济环境,市场结构这些与之息息相关的因素。 6) 他被接回来时,不停地跟人讲,一些可怕的怪物瞪着眼睛盯着他,把他带到了一个宇宙飞船上。 7) 烫伤大多数发生在老人和孩子身上,往往是由于浴室里水温太高而造成的。 8) 尽量多地了解可能发生的事情,这样你可以提前做好准备。 9) 市场的变化迫使很多网站关闭,而其它网站也仅是勉强维持。 10)因为在农民生产率低下的国家,需要劳动人口中大多数人种粮食,因此就没有多少人从事投资货物的生产或进行经济增长所必须的其它活动。 Unit 3 1. 在牛顿之前,亚里士多德已经发现物体的自然状态是静止的,除非有力作用于物体。所以运动着的物体会停下来。 2.人们在家中或是类似家的地方感觉最为亲密——和一个或几个亲近的人呆在一起——也就是在私人交谈的时候。 3.当一个人长时间在干道或高速公路上驾车行驶,就会存在两个问题:一是如何保持稳定的车速;二是如何确保他不撞上前面的车。 4.这个系统尤其适用于汽车拥挤的情况,因为电脑不仅能够控制车速,与前面车子的距离,还能够控制方向。


第18章文学翻译 18.1 复习笔记 一、文学翻译的标准 对于文学翻译的要求是,“用另一种语言,把原作的艺术意境传达出来,使读者在读译文的时候能够像读原作时一样得到启发、感动和美的感受”。 钱钟书把文学翻译的最高标准概括为一个“化”字。 二、文学翻译的过程 借鉴茅盾的有关解释,把文学翻译过程分为三个阶段: (1) 理解阶段; (2) 印证阶段; (3) 表达阶段。 在表达阶段强调的内容是: (1) 必须使用文学语言; (2) 尽量保持原作风格; (3) 力求内容和形式的辩证统一。 三、文学翻译须使用文学语言 这里仅介绍英文小说翻译的几个侧面:

1. 文学语言具有准确、形象、生动、自然等特征,译者应根据原作的艺术意境和语言特色,在译文里寻找适当的语言形式,使之文情并茂。 Daffodils all along the hedgerow swung like yellow, ruffled birds on their perches. 清风徐徐,沿灌木篱笆旁的水仙花轻轻地摇摆着,颇似栖息的鸟儿掀动着金黄色羽毛。 2. 运用娴熟的汉语,再现人物语言的形象化和个性化,使译文产生“如闻其声,如见其人”的艺术效果。 “Say, some tenderness, that!” This is reference to a smile or a melting glance on the part of a female. “唷,瞧那样多温存!”这说的是一位女性的嫣然一笑,或者回眸传情。 3. 凭借自己的审美体验,深刻理解原作的艺术美,进而形神兼备地再现这种艺术美。 四、加强文学翻译的基本功训练 有兴趣于或有志于从事文学翻译的青年,可在课内外分门别类地选做一些练习,以集中提高某些方面的表述能力。 18.2 课后习题详解 将下列英文译成汉语: 1. One morning, in the fall of 1880, a middle-aged woman, accompanied by a young girl of inquiry as to whether there was anything a- bout the place that she could do. She was of a helpless, fleshy build, with a frank, open countenance and


如何将pdf文件中的英文翻译成中文?在职场办公当中每天都会面临很多的工作任务,因此就需要大家掌握各种各样的办公技巧。这样当工作任务来临时,才可以轻松面对,轻松解决。今天小编将给大家带来得是有关文件翻译的办公技巧。小伙伴们是不是有时在工作当中,接触到一份英文的pdf文件,因为完全看不懂文件内容,而花费大量时间去查阅翻译,浪费了时间,耽误了工作进度。下面的文章内容中将告诉小伙伴们如何快速将pdf文件中的英文翻译为中文。 1.因为pdf文件内容无法进行复制粘贴,所以普通的翻译工具都无法翻译pdf文件。这时小伙伴们可在浏览器当中搜索关键词pdf在线翻译,然后鼠标点击进入到相关页面里。

2.进入到页面之后,下拉页面内容。可在页面当中看到PDF在线翻译的功能图标,鼠标点击选中它。 3.然后进入新页面里,鼠标单击页面里的点击选择文件选项,把要翻译的pdf文件添加到页面里。

4.接着在页面内下方的自定义设置转换中,将翻译前后的语言种类,翻译后的文件格式,以及是否公开翻译后的pdf文件,都按照自己要求设定好。 5.接下来鼠标点击页面内文件缩略图右下角的开始翻译选项,该页面就会开始翻译pdf文件当的内容。

6.当翻译完成后,鼠标点击文件缩略图下的预览,查看文件是否成功翻译。接着再点击右下角的立即下载选项,将翻译后的pdf文件保存到自己的电脑中即可。 7.当然想翻译pdf文件内容,不只是有在线翻译这一种方法。小伙伴们在电脑中安装个带有pdf翻译功能的pdf转换器。

8.鼠标双击pdf转换器图标,将其打开。打开进入操作界面后,鼠标点击界面内上方的特色转换选项。 9.接着在转换器界面内左侧会出现一列功能选项,鼠标点击选中其中的PDF翻译。


翻译理论与实践 (以《英语翻译教程》南开大学出版社为基础) 第一讲翻译概述 一、翻译的概念 1.广义的翻译指语言与语言、语言与非语言等代码转换和基本信息的传达。它包括不同语言间的翻译(如英汉互译)语言变体间的翻译(如古今语言、不同方言的互译)、语言与其他交际符号的转换(如把交通规则画成交通标志)。他对翻译的内容只强调“基本信息”,不强调“完全的忠实”。也有翻译家提出“理解也是翻译”的理论,这就把语言与思维也包括在广义的翻译里了。 2.狭义的翻译指语言活动,是把一种语言所表达的内容中式地用另一种远表达出来。这个定义强调“是一种语言活动”,表明它是人类多种交际方式中语言交际的沟通;强调“一种语言到另一种语言”,排除了同一语言间各变体的互译;强调“忠实地”,避免了翻译与释义或改写的混淆。 奈达(Eugene Nida)“Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and second in terms of style.”(Nida & Taber: The Theory and Practice of Translation) 我们的翻译课讲的就是狭义的翻译,并专指“书面表达内容”,以区别于有独特之处的口译(interpretation)。 二、翻译的分类 1.从所涉及的代码性质看,可分为语内翻译(intralingual translation)、语际翻译(interlingual translation)和语符翻译(intersemiotic translation)。语内翻译是同一种语言见不同语言变体的翻译,如把古汉语译成现代汉语,把黑话译成一般语言(雷子,一方);语际翻译是不同语言间的翻译,是狭义翻译研究的对象;语符翻译是用非文字符号解释文字符号,如图画、手势、音乐符号等。 2.从方向上看,我国的翻译可分为外译汉、汉译外。 3.从手段上看,翻译可分为口译、笔译和机器翻译。 4.从题材,即所译资料的性质上看,可分为文学翻译(literary translation),如小说、诗歌、戏剧等,和实用翻译(pragmatic translation),科技资料、法律文件、新闻、公文等。当然两者都可以进一步再分。如小说翻译、新闻翻译等。 5从翻译的模式上看,可分为全译、编译、缩译(节译)、摘译、改译。 a)编译是翻译与编订的结合,是指把所需材料选编、翻译过来,一般不加如译者的观点,所据材料 可以是一种也可以是多种,常用于实用性资料的翻译中,如说明书,介绍。 b)缩译也叫节译,是翻译与缩写的结合,近似于编译,但一般要求原材料是一种。(如金教授《尤利 西斯》的节译与选译之争) c)摘译是翻译与摘录的结合,是比缩译更简约的一种获取资料的方法。 d) 改译,是翻译和创作的结合,如文学作品可以增删一些情节(迦因小传),体裁也可有所改动,如 原文是戏剧可改译成小说(如朱生豪把莎士比亚的诗体译成散文体)。 补充资料:口译 口译依进行的方式,可分为同声传译以及交替传译两大类。 ●同声传译 所谓同声传译(Simultaneous Interpreting),是指译员以几乎与讲者同时的方式,做口语翻译,也就是在讲者仍在说话时,同声传译员便“同时”进行翻译。由于同声传译员必须一边接收来自讲者的讯息,一边将讯息尽快传递给听者,因此“一心多用”这样的分神能力(Multi-tasking),是译员的训练重点。 同声传译经常应用于一般的正式国际会议中,通常口译员会坐在位于后方的“口译室”(Booth)中,透过耳机以及视线或视讯接收讲者的讯息,然后对著麦克风进行翻译,而坐于会场中的听众,


Pdf转换器功能介绍之怎么把pdf文件翻译成中文 最近上网找资料时发现,网上有很多资料都是通过pdf格式保存的。特别是一些专业性较强的文章。但是,相信大家跟我一样,还是更习惯用word来编辑,那么,学会如何将word 转换成pdf就很有必要。 在查找了众多的转换软件后,发现有一款软件居然可以在线使用,而且还不用花钱,这种好东西当然要跟大家分享,下面我们一起来看看这款迅捷pdf转换器都有哪些功能。 1、转换功能 既然是转换软件,当然就不得不提它的转换功能了。其在线版本包括了pdf转其他格式和其他格式转pdf这两大转换功能。 说白了,就是利用这款软件可以实现pdf格式与其他文档格式间的互相转换。那么具体要如何操作呢?我们就以pdf转word为例来简单说明一下。 选择【pdf转word】功能,点击添加文件后,就可以开始转换了。 而且转换后的word文档可直接进行编辑,不会出现乱码现象。

2、pdf处理 这款软件还可以对pdf文件进行处理,不仅可以合并、分割、压缩pdf文件,还可以提取pdf文件里的图片,甚至可以进行pdf密码解除。对我们管理pdf文件有很大的帮助。 接下来我们还是选取其中的一个小点——pdf压缩来介绍。 有时候我们下载的文件太大,就可以通过压缩来改变文件大小。 首选点击【pdf压缩】,进入压缩窗口后,选择文件进行压缩,压缩完成后可以选择在线预览,也可以将其下载到本地。 如果想查看压缩后的效果,可以通过文件的属性进行查看。

3、其他特色功能 除了常规的功能外,此软件还提供了一些特殊服务。比如OCR识别、在线编辑,还有在线翻译等功能。 我们可以将下载的有外文的pdf文件直接这款软件进行翻译和转换操作,就可以节省很多的时间,提高我们的学习效率,操作也跟前面一样。 首先打开【pdf在线翻译】功能,进入该窗口后,选择需要翻译的文章后,点击翻译,系统就会自动帮我们翻译了。


当英文情话翻译成中文,浪漫到极致! 爱情太短,遗忘太长。 不是遗忘太长,而是根本无法遗忘。 不是无法遗忘,而是根本舍不得遗忘。 ——聂鲁达 这世界上总有有你如何努力 也不会和你在一起的人, 你曾经为了某些人写过情书吗? 写了多少封呢?送出去了吗?

爱你,有的人总嫌千言万语, 也不足以表达出自己心里的浓浓爱意; 有的人则爱在心口难开; 而有的人只需数行文字, 便足以剥开万千情思, 足以淋漓尽致,足以热烈缠绵。 因为他们觉得用三行字来表达自己的爱,便是“三行情书”的意义所在。 02 02 02

1 I love three things in the world . Sun,Moon and You. Sun for morning,Moon for night, and You forever. 浮世三千,吾爱有三。 日、月与卿。 日为朝,月为暮。 卿为朝朝暮暮。 2 I want to have a man heart

until my hair white not leave. 愿得一人心,白首不分离。 3 Because of you, I never stray too far from the sidewalk. Because of you, I learned to play on the safe side. Because of you, I find it hard to trust not only me, Because of you,I am afraid.

但为君故,不远陌上。 但为君故,惜身不徨。 但为君故,别无他信。 但为君故,诚恐如今。 4 Well,not that emotional, but I move the heart. 情如风雪无常,却是一动即伤。


第17章科技英语的翻译 17.1 复习笔记 一、词汇特点及汉译 (一) 专业术语翻译 英语中的专业词汇一般可分为两类: (1) 源于希腊语和拉丁语的专业词汇,有些词国际通用,一般说来概念单一,汉译时不难处理。 (2) 借自日常用语的普通词汇,这些词的一个显著特点是一词多用、一词多义。汉译时,应根据所译材料的不同专业领域和不同的上下文,选择适合该领域及上下文的正确、规范的词义。 (二) 非专业词汇的翻译 常采用的译法有如下几种: 1. 引申 把一些不便直译的具体化名称,根据其字面意思加以引申。例: Electric power became the servant of man only after the motor was invented. 只是在电动机发明之后,电力才开始造福人类。 2. 具体化 将表达具体事理的字面意思抽象和笼统的词语译成意义具体、含义明确的汉译词语。例:

The pupil of the eye responds to the change of light intensity. 瞳孔可以随着光线强弱的变化放大或缩小。 3. 省略 本着科技作品简练的原则,汉译时,有时将原文中的一些动词、名词或表示同一事物的不同的重复用词加以省略。例: Stainless steels possess good hardness and high strength. 不锈钢硬度大,强度高。 4. 新词的翻译 翻译新词时,应认真分析其各个组成部分的含义,运用构词法知识,必要时请教专业技术人员,确定其词义。例: A visicorder is provided to record current and voltage waveforms. [译文]可显示记录器用来记录电流和电压波形。 [分析]visicorder是一种仪表,从构词法角度看,该词是由visible(可见的)和recorder(记录器)两词缩合而成,故将其译成“可显示记录器”。 二、句法特点及汉译 (一) 语法分析 翻译科技英语中结构复杂的句子,首先应对句子结构进行语法分析,理清各结构层次的隶属关系。例: Carbon dioxide does not burn or support combustion. [分析]这是个简单句,由一个主语和两个谓语动词组成。谓语动词之间的连词是or,因此,否定延续到第二个谓语动词。


在职场工作中经常会遇到外国客户,因此在双方合作使使用得文件内容都是英文。可是很多员工的英文水平较低无法阅读整份英文文件,而且文件格式为pdf格式无法进行内容翻译,就会影响工作的进展。接下来就将告诉大家pdf怎么翻译成中文。 1.大家在百度当中搜索查找关键词pdf在线翻译,接着使用鼠标左击进入搜索到得内容页面当中。然后下拉页面,就可在页面内看到PDF在线翻译选项,鼠标左击选中该选项。

2.接下来就可把要翻译的文件添加到页面内,鼠标单击选择文件选项,再从弹出的窗口内找到要翻译的pdf文件并鼠标左击选中,之后再左击窗口内右下角的打开选项,就能完成文件地添加。 3.紧接着就可在页面当中选择翻译前与翻译后的语言种类,并且可选择翻译后的文件为word格式还是pdf格式,还有不要忘记选择

是否公开翻译后的文件。 4.然后使用鼠标左击选中开始翻译选项,页面就会开始进行文件地翻译操作。 5.当翻译完成后,鼠标左击选中下载图标,把翻译后的文件下载到电脑当中,这样便于使用与查看。

6.鼠标双击打开翻译后的文件,就能查看文件内容是否成功翻译成中文。除了上述得pdf文件翻译方法之外,下面还将告诉大家其它翻译pdf文件的方法。 1.大家在百度当中搜索关键词pdf转换器,查找到可以翻译pdf 文件的pdf转换器并将它安装到电脑中。

2.大家先将电脑中的pdf转换器打开,在进入到操作界面后鼠标左击选中其中特色功能选项,然后再使用鼠标左击选中下方多个子功能选项中的PDF翻译选项。 3.然后鼠标左击添加文件选项,在跳出的窗口内使用鼠标单击选中要翻译的pdf文件,再用鼠标左击窗口内右下角的打开选项,就能把要翻译的pdf文件添加到转换器内。


中文名字翻译成英文 一般就是把中文名字用拼音方式写出即可,注意大小写规定和前后顺序要求。 例如:张三 Zhang San 或者 San Zhang 根据英文习惯,名在前,姓在后,所以第二种更符合外国人习惯,但是第一种现在也很常见,也算对。 张三四 Zhang Sansi 或者 Sansi Zhang 如果遇到三个字的,第三个字的拼音不用大写,但是要和第二个字的拼音连着写不能有空格。 此外,如果有必要,您能够自己起个有意义的或者发音相似的外国名字来用,一般像香港人都会有两个名字,一个中文名,一个外文名。 中文翻译英文其它实用方法 首先不要翻译姓,不要翻译姓,不要翻译姓!把姓放在名字的最后面用拼音写就好了。 按照音译的方式来取名字的话也能够不过有两个问题需要注意一下,第一很多人都会有一样的名字(因为英文里Y等字母开头的名字很有限)第二有些音英语几乎没有所以选出的名字会也许会有点古怪/ 非主流。 我举个例子吧: 黄晓明如果音译的话= 晓明 +Huang/ Wong = Seamus, Shane, Sean, Shayne, Sheldon, Sherman,(sigmund, simon) 这些名字当中 Seamus 是苏格兰名比较粗,Sheldon,Sherman, Sigmund 比较过时。所以要

么 Simon Huang, Sean Huang, Shane Huang.(或者Wong- 对于英国人来说粤语拼音更熟悉)按照名字的意义来翻译不错,不过有的名字不 好翻译,尤其是男人的名字,为什么?因为在英国像‘阳/晓/春/月/ 夏/天’等词更多是用在女孩子的名字,男人用得少。之外觉得我得提 醒大家千万不要直接翻译,千万不要直接翻译,千万不要直接翻译而 且千万不要自己乱起, Sun, Star, Red, Spring, King, Morning,Moon, Green 等词不能够做名字的,几乎所有名词/形容词不能够当 作名字的,需要查‘Name Dictionary' 才能找出名字来。比如晓明:与日出/日光相关,搜一下于相关的名字,名字的意思和来源即可。 中文翻译英文起名注意事项 问题1:所起英文名太常见 第一种问题是起的英文名太常见,如:Henry, Jane, John, Mary. 这就像外国人起名叫赵志伟、王小刚、陈*一样,给人牵强附会的感觉。虽然起名字并无一定之规,但给人的感觉很重要。 问题2:不懂文化差异而犯忌 此外,因为文化差异,有些名字引申义不雅,如:Cat, Kitty,在英 语俚语中,它们指的是女性的阴部。Cat 宜改为Cathy,Kitty 宜改为Kate。 问题3:改名又改姓 一般来说,非英语国家的人到了美国,都可能改名,但没有改姓的。 这关系到家族荣誉,将来还会关系到遗传基因。所以,无论自己的姓 多么难读,都要坚持。常见有人起英文名时连姓也改了,如司徒健Ken Stone,肖燕Yan Shaw。下列英文姓尚可接受,但也不用,如:Young 杨,Lee李。 问题4:英文名与姓谐音


第8章力戒“翻译体” 8.1 复习笔记 翻译体,即翻译味太浓,译文充满斧凿之痕,不为读者所“喜闻乐见”,因此,应该努力避免。 一、“翻译体”的主要表现 1. 做表面文章。例: control the purse strings [误译]控制钱包上的带子 [改译]“掌握财权”或“掌握支出” 2. 照搬字典 Mother is the boss in her kitchen. [误译]妈妈是厨房里的老板。 [改译]妈妈负责做饭。 3. 死抠语法 (1) 时态 Everything is fine here. I simply don't know what he is complaining about. [误译]这里什么都好,我简直不知道他正在抱怨什么。 [改译]……我简直不知道他老抱怨什么。 (2) 语态

The options of the poor families were narrowed down so that they were most compelled to borrow money. [误译]那几户贫困家庭的选择机会被缩小了,因此大多数被迫去借债。 [改译]那些贫困户的选择余地越来越小,多数被迫借债。 (3) 状语从句 Three may keep secret if two of them are dead. [误译]三人中若有两人死去,或许会保住秘密。 [改译]若要三人保密,除非两人死去。 (4) 定语从句 I toasted everyone, especially Miss Wang, who has been so much helpful to us. [误译]我向每个人祝酒,特别向给我们很多帮助的王小姐祝酒。 [改译]我向每个人敬了酒,还特别向王小姐敬了酒,因为她给了我们很多帮助。 4. 照抄语序 Last decade witnessed a fairly rapid development of agriculture in China. [误译]过去十年目睹了中国农业相当迅速的发展。 [改译1]过去十年中,中国农业有了相当迅速的发展。 [改译2]过去十年中,中国农业的发展相当迅速。 5. 生吞活剥 It is hard for an empty sack to stand upright. (Benjamin Franklin) [误译]对于一个空口袋来说,直立起来是困难的。 [改译]空口袋难以直立。 6. 因袭标点