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ass=txt> (做演讲)

of all huma n creatio ns, la nguage may be the most remarkable. through 在人类所有的创造中,语言也许是影响最为深远的。我们用语言

Ian guage we share experie nee, formulate values, excha nge

ideas, transmit 来分享经验,表达(传递?)价值观,交换想法,传


kno wledge, and susta in culture .in deed, la nguage is vital to think itself. 传承文化。事实上,对语言本身的思考也是至关重要的。

[con trary to popular belief], la nguage | does not simply mirror reality but also helps to create our sense of reality [by givi ng meaning to eve nts]. 和通常所认为的不同的是,语言并不只是简单地反映现实,语言在具体描述事件的时候也在帮助我们建立对现实的感知。


good speakers have respect for Ian guage and know how it works. words are the tools of a speaker ' s craft. they have special uses, just like the tools of any other professi on. as a speaker, you should be aware of the meaning of words and know how to use Ian guage accurately, clearly,vividly,a nd appropriately.



using Ian guage accurately is as vital to a speaker as using nu mbers accurately to a acco untant. n ever use a word uni ess you are sure of its meanin g. if you are not sure, look up the word in the dicti on ary. as you prepare your speeches, ask yourself

con sta ntly, “ what do i really want to say? what do i really mean?” choose words that are precise and accurate.





using Ian guage clearly allows liste ners to grasp your meaning immediately. you can en sure this [by using familiar words ( that are

known to the average pers on and require no specialized background ) ;

by choosing concrete words in prefere nee to more abstract on es, and by

elim in ati ng verbal clutter].




using Ian guage vividly helps bring your speech to life. one way (to make


speech vivid)|is through imagery ,or the creation of word pictures. you

can develop imagery by using con crete Ian guage, simile, and metaphor.

simile is an explicit comparison between things ( that are esse ntially

differe nt yet have someth ing in com mon ) ; it always contains the

words “ like ” or

“ as ”

metaphor is an implicit comparis on betwee n things that are differe nt yet


someth ing in com mon; it does not contain the words




a ”

as .






ano ther way to make your speeches vivid is by exploit ing the rhythm of

Ian guage. four devices for creat ing rhythm are parallelism, repetiti on, alliteratio n, and an tithesis. parallelism is the similar arrangement of a

pair or series of related words, phrases, or senten ces. repetiti on is the

use of the same word or set of words at the beg inning or end of

successive clauses or sentences. alliteration comes from repeating the initial con sta nt sounds of close or adjoining words. an tithesis is the juxtapositi on of con trasti ng ideas, usually in parallel structure.


using Ian guage appropriately means adapti ng to the particular occasi on, audie nee, and topic at han d. it also means develop ing your own Ian guage style in stead of trying to copy some one else ' s. if your Ian guage is appropria te in all respects, your speech is much more likely to succeed.


good speeches are not composed of hot air and unfoun ded asserti ons. they n eed strong support ing materials to bolster the speaker ' s point of view.in fact, the skillful use of support ing materials ofte n makes the differe nee betwee n a good speech and a poor on e.the three basic types of support ing materials are examples,statistics and testim ony.

好的演讲不能是空话连篇,也不能是一些毫无根据的论断;而是需要有力的论据来支持演讲者的观点。事实上,能否有技巧地使用论据会造成演讲效果的天壤之别。论据有以下三种基本形式:例子,统计资料,引用。in the course of a speech you may use brief examples —specific in sta nces referred to in pass ing —and sometimes you may want to give several brief examples in a row to create a stron ger impressi on. exte nded examples —ofte n called illustratio ns, n arrati ons, or an ecdotes ——are Ion ger and more detailed.hypothetical examples describe imagery situatio ns and can be quite effective for relat ing ideas to the audie nee. all three kinds of examples help to clarify ideas, to rein force ideas, or to pers on alize ideas. to be more effective, though, they should be vivid and richly textured.




statistics can be extremely helpful in con vey ing your message, [as long as you use them spari ngly and expla in them so they are meanin gful to your audie nee.] above all, you should understand your statistics and use them fairly. nu mbers can easily be man ipulated and distorted. make sure {that your figures are represe ntative of {what they claim to measure},that you use statistical measures correctly, and that you take statistics on ly from reliable sources.}


testim ony is especially helpful for stude nt speakers, because they are seldom

recog ni zed as expects on their speech topics. cit ing the views of people ( who are experts ) is a good way to make your ideas more credible. whe n you in clude testim ony in a speech, you can either quote some one verbatim or paraphrase their words. as with statistics, there are guideli nes for using testim ony .be sure to quote or paraphrase accurately and to cite qualified un biased sources. if the source is not gen erally known to your audie nee, be certa in to establish his or her crede ntials.


偏见。如果观众对引用来源不太熟悉,一定要(想办法)取得他们的信任。the impact of a speech is strongly affected by how the speech

is delivered. you

cannot make a speech without hav ing someth ing to say. but

hav ing someth ing to say is not eno ugh.you must also know how to say it.good delivery does not call attention to itself.it conveys the speaker ' s ideas clearly, interestingly, and [without

distract ing the audie nee].


there are four basic methods of deliveri ng a speech: read ing verbatim from a manu script, recit ing a memorized text, speak ing with powerpo int, and speak ing

extempora neously, or impromptu. the last of these —speak ing extempora neously —is the method (you probably will use for classroom speeches and for most speeches

outside the classroom). whe n speaki ng extempora neously, you will have only a brief set of notes or a speaking outline.

speak ing with powerpo int is widely used now and very effective in deed. 演讲有四种最基本的方法:照本宣科式;背诵式;ppt辅助演讲式


certa inly there are other factors you should con sider, such as pers onal appeara nee, bodily acti on, gestures, eye con tact, volume, pauses and so on. by pay ing eno ugh atte nti on to what is men ti oned above, you may prese nt an effective speech.


unit 2 en ergy in tran siti on


the era of cheap and convenient sources of en ergy is coming

to an end. a tran siti on to more expe nsive but less pollut ing

sources must now be man aged.


joh n p. holdre n

un dersta nding this tra nsiti on requires a look at the two-sided conn ecti on betwee n en ergy and huma n well-be ing. en ergy con tributes positively to well-be ing by provid ing such consumer services as heating and lighting as well as serving as a n ecessary in put to econo mic producti on. 1.要了解这一


for most of huma n history, the dominant concerns about

en ergy have cen tered on the ben efit side of the en ergy —well being equati on. in adequacy of en ergy resources or (more ofte n) of the tech no logies and orga ni zati ons for harvesti ng, converting, and distributi ng those resources has meant in sufficie nt en ergy ben efits and hence inconvenience, deprivation and constraints on growth. the 1970' s, then, represented a turning point. after decades of con sta ncy or decli ne in mon etary costs —and of relegati on of en vir onmen tal and sociopolitical costs to sec on dary status —energy was seen to be getting costlier in all respects. also became possible to think that expa nding some forms of en ergy supply could create costs exceed ing the ben efits.

2 .人类历史发展长河中,人们主要关心的是能源和人类安康等式中有利的一面。能源资源不足或者(更经常)开采、加工和分配这些资源所需技术和机构的不足,会影响能源为人类带来的利益,对人类也就意味着不方便、损失以及对增长的各种限制。到了20世纪70年代,出现了一个转折点。此前的几十年中,能源的资金成本一直保持稳定,甚至有所下降,而且,其所牵扯的环境成本和社会政治成本一直处于次要地位。但是20世纪70年代开始,开发和利用



the crucial questi on at the beg inning of the 1990 ' s is whether the trend that began in the 1970 ' s will prove to be temporary or perma nen t. is the era of cheap en ergy really over, or will a comb in ati on of new resources, new tech no logy and cha nging geopolitics bring it back? one key determ inant of the an swer is the staggeri ng scale of


tlines are esse ntial to effective speeches.by outl ining, you make sure that related ideas are together, that your thoughts flow from one to ano ther, and that the structure of your speech is cohere nt. you will probably use two kinds of outl ines for your speeches--the detailed preparati on outli ne and the brief speak ing outl ine.

in a preparati on outl ine, you should state your specific purpose and cen tral idea, and ide ntify ma in points and sub-points using a con siste nt patter n. the speak ing outli ne should con sist of brief no tes to help you while you deliver the speech. it should contain key words or phrases to bolster your memory. in maki ng up your speak ing outl ine, follow the same visual framework used in your preparati on outl ine. keep the speak ing outline as brief as possible and be sure it is plainly legible.




before you deliver an academic speech, you should, first of al, get well prepared for it. the n, you should make your major points clear in your speech, and your speech should be well orga ni zed. whe n speak ing, you should not speak too fast, and your Ianguage should be explicit. don ' t always read the notes