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大学英语泛读教程2 unit1课文翻译及课后小题

大学英语泛读教程2 unit1课文翻译及课后小题
大学英语泛读教程2 unit1课文翻译及课后小题

1.The Pickle Jar

As far back as I can remember, the large pickle jar sat on the floor beside the dresser in my parents' bedroom. When he got ready for bed, Dad would empty his pockets and toss his coins into the jar. As a small boy I was always fascinated at the sounds the coins made as they were dropped into the jar. They landed with a merry jingle when the jar was almost empty. Then the tones gradually muted to a dull thud as the jar was filled. I used to squat on the floor in front of the jar and admire the copper and silver circles that glinted like a pirate's treasure when the sun poured through the bedroom window.

When the jar was filled, Dad would sit at the kitchen table and roll the coins before taking them to the bank. Taking the coins to the bank was always a big production. Stacked neatly in a small cardboard box, the coins were placed between Dad and me on the seat of his old truck. Each and every time, as we drove to the bank, Dad would look at me hopefully. "Those coins are going to keep you out of the textile mill, son. You're going to do better than me. This old mill town's not going to hold you back." Also, each and every time, as he slid the box of rolled coins across the counter at the bank toward the cashier, he would grin proudly. "These are for my son's college fund. He'll never work at the mill all his life like me."

We would always celebrate each deposit by stopping for an ice cream cone. I always got chocolate. Dad always got vanilla. When the clerk at the ice cream parlor handed Dad his change, he would show me the few coins nestled in his palm. "When we get home, we'll start filling the jar again."

He always let me drop the first coins into the empty jar. As they rattled around with a brief, happy jingle, we grinned at each other. "You'll get to college on pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters," he said. "But you'll get there. I'll see to that."

The years passed, and I finished college and took a job in another town. Once, while visiting my parents, I used the phone in their bedroom, and noticed that the pickle jar was gone. It had served its purpose and had been removed. A lump rose in my throat as I stared at the spot beside the dresser where the jar had always stood. My dad was a man of few words, and never lectured me on the values of determination, perseverance, and faith. The pickle jar had taught me all these virtues far more eloquently than the most flowery of words could have done.

When I married, I told my wife Susan about the significant part the lowly pickle jar had played in my life as a boy. In my mind, it defined, more than anything else, how much my dad had loved me. No matter how rough things got at home, Dad continued to doggedly drop his coins into the jar. Even the summer when Dad got laid off from the mill, and Mama had to serve dried beans several times a week, not a single dime was taken from the jar. To the contrary, as Dad looked across the table at me, pouring catsup over my beans to make them more palatable, he became more determined than ever to make a way out for me. "When you finish college, son," he told me, his eyes glistening, "You’ll never have to eat beans again unless you want to." The first Christmas after our daughter Jessica was born, we spent the holiday with my parents. After dinner, Mom and Dad sat next to each other on the sofa, taking turns cuddling their first grandchild. Jessica began to whimper softly, and Susan took her from Dad's arms. "She probably needs to be changed," she said, carrying the baby into my parents' bedroom to diaper her.

When Susan came back into the living room, there was a strange mist in her eyes. She handed Jessica back to Dad before taking my hand and quietly leading me into the room.

"Look," she said softly, her eyes directing me to a spot on the floor beside the dresser. To my amazement, there, as if it had never been removed, stood the old pickle jar, the bottom already covered with coins.

I walked over to the pickle jar, dug down into my pocket, and pulled out a fistful of coins. With a gamut of emotions choking me, I dropped the coins into the jar. I looked up and saw that Dad, carrying Jessica, had slipped quietly into the room. Our eyes locked, and I knew he was feeling the same emotions I felt. Neither one of us could speak.


1. Read the following statements and decide whether they are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.

1.The sounds which the coins made as they were dropped into the pickle jar greatly

interested the narrator. ( )

2.Before taking them to the bank, the father would ask his son to count the coins.

( )

3.The Father was a bit ashamed each time he slid the box of rolled coins across the

counter at the bank. ( )

4.After each deposit, the narrator would ask his father to buy him a vanilla ice

cream cone. ( )

5.After graduation from college, the narrator worked in another town. ( )

6.The narrator felt that he had learned the values of determination, perseverance and

faith from the pickle jar. ( )

7.From what his father did, the narrator could feel his great love for him. ( )

8.The narrator and his wife spent the first Christmas after their marriage with his

parents. ( )

9.Puzzled by what she saw, the narrator’s wife led him into his parents’ bedroom.

( )

10.The narrator dropped a fistful of coins into the jar in return for his father’s love for

him. ( )

2.Choose the best answer to each of the following questions based on the

information of the text.

1.When the narrator was young, ___________.

A)he used to toss all the coins he had into a pickle jar

B)he used to like making sounds by dropping coins into a pickle jar

C)his father used to save all the coins he had

D)his father used to give him all the coins he had

2.By depositing the coins in the bank, the father was determined that ______.

A)he would teach his son the virtue of thrift

B)he would leave as much money as possible to his son

C)his family would be better off in the future

D)his son would go to college and live a better life

3.The narrator felt ______ as he stared at the place where the jar had always stood.





4.It can be inferred from the passage that when the narrator was young, _____.

A)his family was very poor

B)his father was more determined than his mother

C)his mother liked to serve dried beans for the family

D)he did very well in his studies

5.The narrator was amazed and moved to find that ________.

A)the old pickle jar had never been removed

B)his father had never stopped depositing money

C)the old pickle jar was filled with coins

D)his father had started to save money for his baby daughter













1. 读下列句子,根据课文判断它们是正确的(T)还是错误的(F)。






















3.当叙述者盯着那个罐子一直放着的地方时,他感到。C 奇怪的




4.从这篇文章可以推断,当叙述者年轻的时候,……A 他的家庭很穷










After Twenty Years O'Henry 二十年以后 欧亨利 The policeman on the beat moved up the avenue impressively. The impressiveness was habitual and not for show, for spectators were few. The time was barely 10 o'clock at night, but chilly gusts of wind with a taste of rain in them had well nigh depeopled the streets. 一个执勤的警察正沿街巡逻,很认真,他一直都这样认真,并不是做给谁看的。差不多是晚上十点了,街上行人寥寥无几,冷风飕飕地吹着,有种雨水的味道。 Trying doors as he went, twirling his club with many intricate and artful movements, turning now and then to cast his watchful eye adown the pacific thoroughfare, the officer, with his stalwart form and slight swagger, made a fine picture of a guardian of the peace. The vicinity was one that kept early hours. Now and then you might see the lights of a cigar store or of an all-night lunch counter; but the majority of the doors belonged to business places that had long since been closed. 他灵巧地来回转着手里的警棍,每家每户都仔细查看,警觉的目光不时地投向安静的街道,这个警察,身材强壮,昂首阔步,俨然一个和平守护者。附近的街区睡得都早,偶尔能看见一个雪茄店或通宵餐馆还亮着灯,其他的店铺早就打烊了。 When about midway of a certain block the policeman suddenly slowed his walk. In the doorway of a darkened hardware store a man leaned, with an unlighted cigar in his mouth. As the policeman walked up to him the man spoke up quickly. 走到街区中间时,警察突然放慢了脚步,他看见五金店门口站着一个人,嘴里叼着雪茄,没点着,正向他走过去时,这个人立马开口说话了。 "It's all right, officer," he said, reassuringly. "I'm just waiting for a friend. It's an appointment made twenty years ago. Sounds a little funny to you, doesn't it Well, I'll explain if you'd like to make certain it's all straight. About that long ago there used to be a restaurant

英语泛读教程3 课文翻译

UNIT 2 英国人的谨慎和礼貌 在许多人看来,英国人极为礼貌,同他们交朋友很难。但愿下列文字能够帮助你更好地了解英国人的性格特点。 对于其他欧洲人来说,英国人最著名的特点是“谨慎”。一个谨慎的人不太会和陌生人聊天,不会流露出太多的情感,并且很少会兴奋。要了解一个谨慎的人并非易事;他从不告诉你有关他自己的任何事,也许你和他工作了几年,却连他住在哪儿,有几个孩子,兴趣是什么,都不知道。英国人就有类似的倾向。如果乘公共汽车去旅行,他们会尽量找一个没人坐的位子;如果是乘火车,他们会找一个没人的单间。如果他们不得不与陌生人共用一个单间时,那么即使火车驶出了很多英里,他们也不会开口交谈。一旦谈起来的话,他们不会轻易问及像“你几岁?”或者甚至“你叫什么名字?”等私人问题。像“你的手表是在哪儿买的?”或者“你的收入是多少?”这样的问题几乎不可想象。同样,在英国,人们交谈时一般声音都很轻、很有节制,大声谈话会被视为没有教养。 在某种程度上,不愿意与他人交流是一种不幸的品质,因为它可能会给人造成态度冷淡的印象。而事实上,英国人(也许除了北方人)并不以慷慨和好客而著称。而另一方面,虽然谨慎使他们不易与人沟通,但他们内心还是很有人情味的。如果一个陌生人或外国人友善地将这种隔阂打破那么一会儿,他们可能会满心欢喜。 与英国人的谨慎紧密相连的品质是英国式的谦逊。在内心深处,英国人可能比任何人都高傲,但是当他们与别人相处时,他们十分看重谦逊的品质,至少要表现出谦虚的样子。自我标榜会被认为没有教养。让我们假设,有一个人非常擅长打网球,但如果有人问他是否是个优秀选手时,他很少会说“是”,不然,人们会认为他很高傲。他可能会作出类似这样的回答,“不算太差,”或者“嗯,我非常喜欢网球。”这样的自我贬低是典型的英国式的。而且当这一品质与他们的谨慎混合在一起时,常常形成一种漠然的气氛,这在外国人看来难于理解,甚至令人恼火。 著名的英国人的幽默感也是大同小异。它的出发点是自我贬低,它的最大对手是高傲,它的理想境界是自嘲的能力——嘲笑自己的错误、自己的失败和窘境,甚至自己的理想。在英国,人们非常看重幽默感,常常能听到“他一点幽默感都没有”这样的批评。幽默感是一种对生活的态度而并非仅仅是开玩笑的能力。这种态度决非残酷、不敬或是怀有恶意的。英国人不会嘲笑一个跛子或者疯子,也不会嘲笑一个悲剧或者一次可敬的失败。同情心或者对艺术技巧的崇敬比嘲笑的份量重得多。 同幽默感一样,运动员精神是英国式的理想,这一点并非所有的英国人都做得到。必须认识到,现代形式的运动几乎都是英国人发明的。拳击、英式足球、网球以及板球都是在英国首次组织并且制定出规则的。规则是运动的精髓,运动员精神是指按照规则从事体育运动的能力,同时也表现在对对手的慷慨大度,以及失败后的良好心态。此外,运动员精神作为一种理想模式也普遍适用于日常生活。其中最基本的生活规则之一就是“不打跌倒的人”。换言之,就是不要利用别人的不幸。英国的男孩子常常在相互交往中把这种运动员精神表现得淋漓尽致。 英国人的另一特点就是礼貌。总的来说,英国式的礼貌习惯都不很正式。所有的礼貌都是建立在这样的基本原则之上:为别人着想,同时也认可别人对你的关心。在麻烦别人时,如:从某人前面经过,或者打断某人的谈话,或者向陌生人请教问题时,要先说“对不起”,为给对方带来的不便预先道歉。“抱歉”一词表示对意外打扰或者违反礼仪的歉意。如果有人提出或者暗示某个要求,如:“我可以借你的钢笔吗嘛?”或者“现在几点了?”或者“还有七码的鞋吗?”,而你无法满足这种要求时,也要说“抱歉”而不是“不”。“请原谅?”是用来要求别人重复所说内容时的礼貌说法。在英国,除了在学校,人们在请求发言时,不再用“请”这个词。在国外非常普遍的词组“不,请”,在英国本土听起来却会很别扭。“好


英语泛读教程1第三版答案unit1-3 Unit 1 Text: Invented Words A. d B. 1.c 2.d 3.b 4.d 5.a 6.c 7.d 8.d 9.d 10.b D. 1.a 2.b 3.c 4.a 5.a 6.c 7.b Fast Reading: 1.d 2.a 3.d 4.c 5.b 6.b 7.a 8.c 9.b 10.d 11.d 12.b 13.b 14.a 15.a Home Reading: 1.d 2.b 3.d 4.c 5.c 6.c 7.d 8.a 9.d Unit 2 Text: The English Reserve and Politeness A. b B. 1.d 2.d 3.b 4.c 5.d 6.c 7.c 8.a D. 1.b 2.a 3.d 4.d 5.a 6.c 7.a 8.a 9.c Fast Reading: 1.d 2.b 3.b 4.d 5.c 6.b 7.d 8.b 9.d 10.b 11.c 12.d 13.d 14.b 15.d Home Reading: 1.c 2.b 3.d 4.c 5.c 6.d 7.b 8.b 9.d Unit 3 Text: Bursting the Magic Bubble A. d B. 1.b 2.a 3.d 4.a 5.b 6.b 7.d 8.d 9.d 10.c D. 1.b 2.d 3.d 4.b 5.a 6.c 7.b 8.c 9.a 10.a Fast Reading: 1.c 2.b 3.b 4.b 5.a 6.c 7.c 8.d 9.d 10.a 11.c 12.c 13.d 14.a 15.d Home Reading: 1.d 2.b 3.c 4.b 5.d 6.d 7.b 8.d 9.b


Unit?1?普通人的胜出之道? 在大学里,Jim似乎是一个非常优秀的快速成功者。他用很少的努力取得很好的等第,他的同学评选他是“最可能成功的人”。毕业后,他有几个工作可选。? Jim进入一家大型保险公司的销售部门并且在工作之初表现很好。但他很快陷入一种停滞不前的状态,随后跳到一家更小的公司,情况同样如此。厌倦了销售工作,他开始尝试销售管理。然而之前的模式又发生了:他深受喜爱,被认为是一个能快速成功的人,但他很快就只能像哑炮一样只能发出微弱的嘶嘶声了。现在他为另外一家公司卖保险,并且疑惑他为什么不能做得更好。? Joseph?D'Arrigo是另外一个例子。“我总把我自己看作是一个普通人,”D'Arrigo告诉我。“我进入寿险这一行,做得还算不错。我有幸与几个最棒的寿险推销员一起被指任为一委员会委员。一时间我吓得要命。”? 当他开始了解这些成功者时,D'Arrigo意识到了什么:“他们并没有比我有更高的天赋。他们也是普通人,只是他们把眼光放高一些,然后找到了实现他们目标的途径。”他还意识到了更多的东西:“如果其他普通人可以梦想远大的梦想,我也可以。”现在他自己拥有一个市值数百万美元的专营员工福利的公司。? 为什么像D'Arrigo这样的普通人似乎经常能比像Jim一样的人取得更多的成功呢?为了找出其中的原因,在我作为公司咨询者的工作中,我与超过190个人进行了面谈。非正式调查的结果为我证实了Theodore?Roosevelt曾经说过的话:“成功的普通人不是天才,他仅仅拥有平凡品质,但他将他的那些平凡品质发展到超出常人的水平。”?我坚信那些胜出的普通人有以下特点:?懂得自律。“你不需要成功的天赋,”科罗拉多州丹佛市Porter纪念医院的首席执行官,因扭转经营不善的医院而获得名望的Irwin?C.?Hansen?强调“你的全部所需是一大罐胶水。你在你的椅子上涂上一些,在裤子的臀部涂上一些,然后坐在上面,坚持做每一件事直到你做到了你自己的最好。”? 一般的成功人士为了将来的收获,甘坐冷板凳且推迟享受。反观诸多快速成功者,他们期望太多且渴望一蹴而就。当回报不能立刻兑现时,他们就会变得灰心丧志,愁苦不堪。?五十年前,一组研究人员开始了一个雄心勃勃的长期研究,他们分析了268个男性大学生的即将走上的人生轨迹。在这些现在已经年近古稀的老人中,研究人员发现在校表现与工作能力的联系很小。而一些品质比如“沉着稳重和可以信赖”与“实践能力和组织能力”更为重要。根据现在主持研究工作的心理医生George?E.?Vaillant?的说法,一个决定性的精神习惯是他所说的“延缓而非放弃满足欲望的能力”。? 财务策划者Frances?Johansen在她的工作上也从人们管理他们的金钱以及事业的方法中领悟到了这个的原则。她讲述了两对与她商议过的夫妇。一对是从事专业性工作的夫妇,两人都是大学学历的快速成功者。“他们每年能赚超过140000美元”Johansen?说“但是他们现在欠债60000美元,并且除了一大堆抵押物和账单之外没有什么能够作为他们努力工作的成果展示。然后是另外一对40多岁的夫妇,”她继续说道“他们牺牲了他们早先的几年,以最快的速度置办了一个家,之后他们做了些投资并且拥有了很多股票。现在他们住在一个温馨的家中,也再也不用过那些精打细算的日子了。”这家的男主人是一个蓝领,“只有一个中学文凭,”Johansen?提到。“但他十分努力地工作,用自律和耐心一步一步的建立他的事业。”?表现人们最好的一面。曾经的南加州大学洛杉矶分校校长,后任《镜报》首席执行官的Franklin?Murphy直率地说:他的成功是建立在别人天赋的基础上的。“我一直在寻找那些有天赋,能自律的人。然后培养他们的爱心和忠诚。我招募他们,激励他们,每当我们取得什么成绩时,我与他们一起分享荣誉。

美英报刊阅读教程Lesson 1 课文

【Lesson 1 Good News about Racial Progress The remaining divisions in American society should not blind us to a half-century of dramatic change By Abigail and Stephan Thernstrom In the Perrywood community of Upper Marlboro, Md.1, near Washington, D.C., homes cost between $160,000 and $400,000. The lawns are green and the amenities appealing—including a basketball court. Low-income teen-agers from Washington started coming there. The teens were black, and they were not welcomed. The homeowners? association hired off-duty police as security, and they would ask the ballplayers whether they “belonged” in the area. The association? s newsletter noted the “eyesore” at the basketball court. But the story has a surprising twist: many of the homeowners were black t oo. “We started having problems with the young men, and unfortunately they are our people,” one resident told a re porter from the Washington Post. “But what can you do?” The homeowners didn?t care about the race of the basketball players. They were outsiders—in truders. As another resident remarked, “People who don?t live here might not care about things the way we do. Seeing all the new houses going up, someone might be tempted.” It?s a t elling story. Lots of Americans think that almost all blacks live in inner cities. Not true. Today many blacks own homes in suburban neighborhoods—not just around Washington, but outside Atlanta, Denver and other cities as well. That?s not the only common misconception Americans have ab out race. For some of the misinformation, the media are to blame. A reporter in The Wall Street Journal, for instance, writes that the economic gap between whites and blacks has widened. He offers no evidence. The picture drawn of racial relations is even bleaker. In one poll, for instance, 85 percent of blacks, but only 34 percent of whites, agreed with the verdict in the O.J. Simpson murder trial. That racially divided response made headline news. Blacks and whites, media accounts would have us believe, are still separate and hostile. Division is a constant theme, racism another. To be sure, racism has not disappeared, and race relations could —and probably will —improve. But the serious inequality that remains is less a function of racism than of the racial gap in levels of educational attainment, single parenthood and crime. The bad news has been exaggerated, and the good news neglected. Consider these three trends: A black middle class has arrived. Andrew Young recalls the day he was mistaken for a valet at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City. It was an infuriating case of mistaken identity for a man who was then U.S. ambassador to the United Nations. But it wasn?t so long ago that most blacks were servants—or their equivalent. On the eve of

英语泛读for unit1

Supplementary Reading for Unit 1: Writing Three Thank-You Letters Alex Haley 1It was 1943, during World War II, and I was a young U. S. coastguardsman. My ship, the USS Murzim, had been under way for several days. Most of her holds contained thousands of cartons of canned or dried foods. The other holds were loaded with five-hundred-pound bombs packed delicately in padded racks. Our destination was a big base on the island of Tulagi in the South Pacific. 2 I was one of the Murzim's several cooks and, quite the same as for folk ashore, this Thanksgiving morning had seen us busily preparing a traditional dinner featuring roast turkey. 3 Well, as any cook knows, it's a lot of hard work to cook and serve a big meal, and clean up and put everything away. But finally, around sundown, we finished at last. 4 I decided first to go out on the Murzim's afterdeck for a breath of open air. I made my way out there, breathing in great, deep draughts while walking slowly about, still wearing my white cook's hat. 5 I got to thinking about Thanksgiving, of the Pilgrims, Indians, wild turkeys, pumpkins, corn on the cob, and the rest. 6 Yet my mind seemed to be in quest of something else -- some way that I could personally apply to the close of Thanksgiving. It must have taken me a half hour to sense that maybe some key to an answer could result from reversing the word "Thanksgiving" -- at least that suggested a verbal direction, "Giving thanks." 7 Giving thanks -- as in praying, thanking God, I thought. Yes, of course. Certainly. 8 Yet my mind continued turning the idea over. 9 After a while, like a dawn's brightening, a further answer did come -- that there were people to thank, people who had done so much for me that I could never possibly repay them. The embarrassing truth was I'd always just accepted what they'd done, taken all of it for granted. Not one time had I ever bothered to express to any of them so much as a simple, sincere "Thank you." 10 At least seven people had been particularly and lastingly helpful to me. I realized, swallowing hard, that about half of them had since died -- so they were forever beyond any possible expression of gratitude from me. The more I thought


英语泛读教程4 第三版 Unit1天才与工匠 许多人羡慕作家们的精彩小说,但却很少有人知道作家们是如何辛勤笔耕才使一篇小说问世的。以下的短文将讨论小说的酝酿过程,以及作家是如何将这小说雕琢成一件精致完美的艺术品。 有一次,我在暮色中来到小树林边一棵鲜花盛开的小桃树前。我久久站在那里凝视着,直到最后一道光线消逝。我看不到那树原先的模样,看不见曾穿透果核,能崩碎你的牙齿的力量,也看不到那使它与橡树和绿草相区别的原则。显现在我面前的,是一种深邃而神秘的魅力。当读者读到一部杰出的小说时,他也会这样如痴如狂,欲将小说字字句句刻骨铭心,不提出任何问题。 但即使是个初学写作者也知道,除那将小说带到世上的文字之外,还有更多的构成小说生命的因素,小说的生命并不始于写作,而始于内心深处的构思。 要创作出有独创性的作品,并不要求懂得创造的功能。多少世纪以来的艺术、哲学及科学创造都出自人们的头脑,而创造者也许从未想到去关注创造的内在过程。然而,在我看来,对创造工作一定程度的了解,至少会使我们通过知道两个事实,增长我们处理正在出现的故事的智慧。 首先,天赋不是掌握了技艺的艺术家独有的特性,而是人脑的创造性功能。不仅所有对技艺的掌握都含有天赋,而且每个人都具有天赋,

无论他的天赋发展是何等不充分。对技艺的掌握是天赋的显现,是经过培养的,发展了的和受过训练的天赋。你的天赋在最原始的层面上起作用。它的任务就是创造。它是你的故事的创造者。 第二,将你的小说带进世界的文字是艺术家的工作,它就和一个泥瓦匠的工作一样,有意识、谨慎而实实在在。天赋正如理解力、记忆力和想象力一样是我们的精神禀赋中的天然部分,而技艺却不是。它必须通过实践才能学到,并要通过实践才能掌握。如果要使在我们内心深处浮现的故事跃然纸上,光彩照人,那么,每个故事都须有感染力极强的优雅文笔。只有健全的技艺才能使我们做到这一点。 一个故事是如何酝酿成的呢?据说,我们从一生中的前二十年,或许前五年起就开始写作。这可能取决于个人,而写作中的很多事都取决于个人。无论如何,童年和少年时期的清晰印象,或多或少无条件地存在于我们的记忆中,未被解释,不受约束,而且栩栩如生,永不磨灭。困惑、徬徨、畏惧、喜悦、辉煌和平庸,在各种程度上以各种形式组合在一起。这些对往事的印象在心中悸动着。它们在等待什么?是在等待某种圆满的结果?还是对它们特有的真理的认可?似乎它们的创伤需要切开,隐秘的见解需要表露,发现需要与人分享,苦恼需要承认,这种飘渺的美需要形式。 我们就这样背负着各种任务渡过一生。时而,一个常常是小小的体验,撬开了记忆之门,抓住了这些虽已年代久远,却依然栩栩如生,呼之欲出的印象。于是,故事就如种子一般开始萌动。 这种经历人人都有,却鲜为人知。然而,一旦富有创造力的作家有了


UNIT14 你怎么知道艺术品的优劣? 玛丽亚·曼尼丝 你喜欢艺术吗?你能说出哪些艺术品好哪些不好?是否存在评价艺术的标准?读一读下面这篇文章,看看玛丽亚·曼尼丝如何回答这样的问题。 设想没有评论家告诉我们,对一幅画,一个剧本或一段新乐曲怎样反应。设想我们无意间步入一个未署名油画的画展。我们依据什么标准,依据什么价值来评判它们是优是劣,是天才的还是没有天才的,是成功还是失败?我们又怎能知道自己的想法是正确的? 近十五或二十年来,艺术的批评与欣赏流行否认任何合理标准的存在,使“好”与“坏”成了无关紧要,无足轻重、无可适用的字眼。我们被告知,根本不存在先通过知识与经验获得,然后加在讨论的对象上的一套标准这回事。这一直是受到欢迎的方法,因为它解除了评论家评判的责任,公众也无须知识。它迎合那些不愿受规则约束的人,称头脑空虚者为开明来讨好他们,并使不知所措的人得到安慰。在民主平等之旗的掩护下--当然不是我们祖先所说的那种平等--它实际是在说:“你是谁,要来告诉我们什么是好,什么是坏?”这与大众传媒制作者的一贯伎俩如出一辙。他们坚持认为,由公众而不是由他们决定的它想要听和看的什么,而评论家说这个节目好而这个节目不好,这纯粹是个人趣味的反应。没有谁表达这一哲学,比近来弗兰克·斯丹坦博士,哥伦比亚广播电视公司极其睿智的总裁更为简明。在联邦通讯委员会的一次听证会上,他在接受询问时漏出此言:“一人眼里的平庸之作,却是另一人的佳作。” 最妙不过的说法是:“没有一个标准是绝对的”。造成这种放任观念的另一重要因素是:畏惧感----所有艺术形式的观察者们都有唯恐猜错的担心。这种担心极易遇到,谁没有听说当初饱受世人指摘的艺术家后来被称为大师?每个时期都有一些评判者,他们不和时代一起前进,无法区分进化和革命,风行一时的时尚、业余的实验与深刻的必然的变化之间的区别。谁愿意作出这样严重的判断错误而贻笑大方?安全得多,当然也容易得多的做法是:看着一幅画,一个剧本或一首诗,说道:“它很难懂,但也许很好”;或者干脆把它当作新形式加以欢迎。“新的”这个词--尤其在我们这个国度--具有魔力般的涵义。凡是新的都是好的;而旧的则极可能是不好的。如果评论家能用无人理解的语言描述新事物,那么他就更为安全。倘若他掌握了说话的艺术,用精巧复杂的言辞,却什么也没说,日后就无人能够说他曾经说过什么。 但是我认为,所有这一切实质上都是对评判责任的背弃。艺术家在创作中表现自己,而你则在欣赏中有自己的承诺。毕竟还是观众成就了艺术。欣赏的气氛对于艺术的繁荣不可或缺。公众的期望愈高,艺术家的表现就愈好。相反,只有被评论家误导的社会,才会在这几年把既不是艺术也不是文学的东西当做艺术和文学接受。如果一件东西没有了,一切也就没有了,而在废物堆最底层的是被抛弃的标准。 但这些标准究竟是什么?你怎样得到它们?你如何知道它们是正确的?你又如何能在这许多不可捉摸的东西,包括最不可捉摸的自我本身,理清出一个清晰的模式? 首先,很明显,你愈是多读、多看、多听,你将愈好地被装备起来实践建立在所有的理解与判断之上的联想艺术。愈是见多识广,愈能深刻意识到一个连贯一致的规律--犹如星辰、潮汐、呼吸、白昼黑夜一般具有普遍性--存在于万事万物中。我把这一规律与这一节奏称为一种秩序。并非秩序,而是一种秩序。其中存在着变化万千的各种形式。其外则是混乱--疯狂的毁灭因素----病态。最终应由你来区分健康的多样性与病态的混乱,而不运用联想的过程是无法做到的。没有联想的过程,你就不能将莫扎特乐曲的一节和维米尔油画的一角,斯特拉文斯基的乐谱与毕加索的抽象画,或者一个挑衅性的行为与弗兰茨·克兰的油画,一阵咳嗽声与约翰·凯奇的作品联系起来。 某些艺术表现形式是永恒的,而另一些却转瞬即逝,这并非偶然现象。尽管你不一定总要解释原因,但你可以提出问题。艺术家说了些什么永恒的东西?他怎样说这些?有多少是时尚,多少纯是反映?为什么如今沃尔特·司各特的作品如此难读,而简·奥斯丁却不是这样?为什么巴洛克艺术风格适合某一时期,而另一时期却显得过于炫目辉煌? 是否存在一个技巧标准,能够适用于所有时代的艺术,还是每个时代对标准都有各自不同的定义?你也许已不经意地意识到,这些年“技巧”已变成不入流的字眼,因为它含有“标准”的意思--即作品完成得好不好。这种方便的逃避的结果,导致了大量不能发出声音的演员,不会解释歌曲涵义的歌手,不能交流感情的诗人,词汇贫乏的作家--更不用说不会作画的画家。现在的教条是,技巧阻碍表达。不必说你不知道自己在做什么,如果你不知道怎样去做,那么你就能做得更好。 我认为,到了你帮助扭转这一潮流的时候了,方法是努力重新发现技巧:掌握选择的工具,无论是画笔、字词还是声音。当你开始觉察自由与草率,严肃的实验与自我疗法,技艺与即兴,力量与暴力之间的区别时,你就逐渐能够将山羊与绵羊区分开来,而这种区分形式我们竟阔别已久。所有你需要重新拥有的,不过是几条标准和能够看穿骗局的盖氏测量仪,而我们可以在急切需要这两者的领域--当代绘画开始艺术之旅。 我不知道什么更糟糕:不得不面对大面积的拙劣艺术,为的是发现些许可取之处,还是阅读评论家对此说的一切。其他任何一个表现领域都不会象画界一样如此盛行煞有其事的言谈,流行如此多的废话:艺术与艺术生存的评论氛围之间紧密地相互依赖的进一步证据。我将很乐意和你共享我们时代典型的故弄玄虚的东西。


Unit 1 University Student Life Section A Word Pretest 1. D 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. D 7. A 8. B Reading Comprehension l. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F Vocabulary Building Word Match rationally in a way based on reason rather than emotions established accepted; recognized various different panic sudden fear consolidate strengthen assignment homework biological of living things flexible not fixed

strenuous stressful; requiring effort and energy master overall recreation way of spending free time estimate calculate roughly routine regular; usual priority first concern relaxation rest 1. flexible 2. established 3. panic 4. strenuous 5. priority 6. routine 7. Rationally 8. recreations Suffix 1. familiarize 2. visualize 3. merely 4. idealize 5. finalize 6. necessarily 7. physically 8. highly Cloze favorable their respected professors authority role expect need several changes Sec tion B


several nights a week Joseph woke up screaming from the same terrible could never recall his whole dream, only remembered that someone was running after was trying to get away,but in his dream he could not move。he continued having this nightmare for months。he was so tired in the morning that it was hard for him to go to work。Joseph,you see,is not a frightened child,but a grown man。 Milton Kramer is a psychiatrist and dream researcher Cincinnati, believes that it is very important that people don't ignore their dreams,because they are messages from our sleeping Kramer studied dreams and dreamers,he found that people wake up feeling very discouraged after they have a bad also found that after having a good dream,people feel more ,dreams can have harmful or beneficial a result,Kramer believes that we need to learn how to change our bad we understand what happened in our dreams,we can change negative,hurtful dreams to positive,helpful ones。 Before we can begin to change a nightmare,however,we first have to remember what happened in our say there are many ways to do can keep a journal or diary of what we do when we are awake. Then,before going to sleep,we can review our practice helps us to stay in we wake up,we should lie still while we try to remember our researchers say that by staying in the same sleeping positive,we are more likely to recall the should also try to remember an important word or picture from the image makes the rest of the dream easier to longer we sleep,the longer and more complex our dreams will be. Cartwright is a dream researcher, has developed another dream therapy for changing to ,dream therapy involves four simple steps you can learn on your first step is to recognize when you are having a bad dream that will make you feel helpless or upset the next second step is to identify what it is about the dream that makes you feel bad-for example,weak instead of strong,or out of control instead of in control. Next,stop any bad do not have to continue your bad dream,because you are in last step is to change the negative part of the you may have to wake yourself up and change the dream before you return to times it is possible to change the dream while you are still asleep. By using dream therapy,Joseph was able to change his ,his bad dreams stopped

完整英语课文翻译 泛读教程2第三版(刘乃银)

第一单元:梦想的阴暗之面 艾力克斯? 哈利 许多人怀有美好的愿望,期望能成为作家,但是能够梦想成真的人不多。艾力克斯? 哈利也想成为作家,可是他成功了。阅读下面这篇文章,看一看他成功的原因。 许多青年人对我说,他们想成为作家。我一直鼓励这样的人,但是我也向他们解释“成为作家”和写作之间存在着巨大的差别。多数情况下这些年轻人梦寐以求的是财富与名誉,从未想到要孤身一人长久地坐在打字机旁。“你们渴望的应该是写作,”我对他们说,“而不应该是当作家。” 事实上,写作是一项孤单寂寞而又收入微薄的工作。有一个被命运之神垂青的作家,就有成千上万个永远无法实现梦想的人。即使那些成功人士也经常受到长久的冷落,穷困不堪。我便是其中之一。 我放弃了在海岸警卫队做了二十年的工作,为的是成为一名自由撰稿人,这时,我根本没有前途可言。我所拥有的只是一位住在纽约市的朋友,乔治? 西姆斯,他和我是在田纳西州的赫宁一起长大的。乔治为我找了个家,位于格林威治村公寓大楼中的一间腾空的储藏室,而他是那幢大楼的管理员。房子里冷嗖嗖的,没有卫生间,不过这没什么。我马上买了一台旧的手动打字机,感觉自己颇象一位名符其实的作家。 然而,大约一年后,我的写作生涯依然没有任何起色,我开始怀疑自己。卖出一篇小说是如此艰难,以至我几乎填不饱肚子。但是,我清楚的是我想写作,我已梦寐以求了许多年。我并不准备成为一名到死时还在想假如的人。我会坚持把我的梦想付诸实践-- 即使这梦想意味着不稳定的生活和对失败的恐惧。这是希望的阴暗面,任何心存梦想的人都必须学会在这阴暗面下生存。 后来有一天,我接到了一个电话,由此改变了我的一生。这并不是一位代理人或编辑打来电话,主动要求与我签大的稿约。恰恰相反-- 是一声鸣笛,诱使我放弃梦想。打电话来的是海岸警卫队的老熟人,现在在旧金山。他曾经借给我几美元,喜欢催我还给他。“我什么时候才能拿到那十五美元,艾力克斯?”他逗我说。 “等我下一次卖出作品吧。” “我有个好主意,”他说,“我们这儿需要一位新的公共信息管理员,年薪六千美元。若想干,那就是你的了。” 年薪六千美元!这个数目在1960年可真是值钱啊。我可以有一套上好的公寓,一辆二手车,可以还清债务,也许还可有些结余。另外,我还可以业余写作。 当这些美元在我的脑海里晃动时,某种东西却使我神志清醒起来。我的内心深处升起一个坚强的信念。我曾经梦想成为一名作家-- 一名专业作家。那才是我的追求。“谢谢你,但是我不去,”我听见自己在说。“我会坚持到底来写作。” 后来,我在蜗居里踱来踱,开始觉得自己象个傻瓜。我打开橱柜-- 一只钉在墙上的桔黄色板条箱-- 把里面的东西全部弄了出来:两罐沙丁鱼。我把手伸进口袋,只摸出十八美分。我把罐头和硬币一起塞进一个皱巴巴的纸袋中。你看,艾力克斯,我自言自语道,你迄今为止努力的结果都在这里。我不知道,自己是不是曾经情绪如此低落过。 我希望自己能说,情况马上开始好转。但是并没有。感谢上帝,幸亏有乔治帮我渡过了难关。 通过乔治,我结识了另外一些正在艰苦奋斗的艺术家,象乔? 德拉尼,一位来自田纳西州科诺科斯威尔市的老画家。乔经常常没吃饭的钱,于是就去光顾附近社区的一位屠户和一个食品商。屠户会送给他一些带点肉的大骨头,从食品商那里他可以弄到一些枯萎的蔬菜。