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英文翻译格式解析

英文翻译格式解析
英文翻译格式解析

英文资料翻译

系别软件与服务外包学院. 专业通信网络与设备. 班级通信0901 . 学生姓名韩丽司. 学号090969 . 指导教师陈佳.

二○一二年二月

Based on the data fusion of intelligent fault diagnosis system 1. Primed words

Multi sensor data fusion technology was initially mostly used in the military field, but the computer, network and communication technology the rapid development that the application range is expanded greatly. In recent years, many scholars of the data fusion rules and strategy theory to conduct extensive research and improvement. While the artificial intelligence technology research makes the data fusion to improve the knowledge of target decision height, the auxiliary function is greatly strengthened. At the same time, with the industrial technology make a spurt of progress, an intelligent fault diagnosis system of demand in quantity and quality greatly improved. As the intelligent fault diagnosis system for the most basic, the most effective information processing tools, multi sensor data fusion technology development will promote the progress of intelligent fault diagnosis system.

2. Multi sensor data fusion and improved D - S theory

From a military application perspective, data fusion is to make full use of different time and space of the multi sensor information resources according to the time sequence, using computer technology to obtain multiple sensor observation information in certain criteria to be automatic, integrated analysis, control and use, access to the object consistency of interpretation and description, to complete required decision-making and estimation tasks, allowing the system to obtain than its components the better performance of H3. The author uses the present generally agree that the pixel level, feature layer and decision layer three layer fusion structure. The decision level fusion target is to achieve the target situation diagnosis and assessment, applied to the main Bayesian probability reasoning and D S evidence theory. The data fusion method to solve the uncertain information processing problems, D - S method with Dempster - Shafer evidential theory as a foundation, its core is Dempster synthesis rules, for uncertain information expression and synthesis provides natural and robust method. Will force S evidence theory is used for multi sensor fusion, obtained from the sensor related value is the theory of evidence, it can constitute the targets to be recognized patterns of belief function assignment, that each target model hypothesis of credibility, each sensor consists of an evidence of group.

Multi sensor data fusion is through D S united rules to combine several evidence group to form a new integrated evidence group, called the D S association rules with each sensor of confidence function distribution formed by fusion of confidence function distribution, which is target mode decision-making provide comprehensive and accurate information of n ]. In practical application, D - S method requires evidence of independence and evidence combination rule theory support, and the calculation of potential exists the problem of combinatorial explosion, so only the single fusion methods are difficult to obtain ideal fusion effect.

D - S evidence theory has does not require a priori probability advantages; expert

system has a problem domain knowledge; fuzzy system has higher fuzzy language processing; high order neural network has the capacity to be big, approximation ability, fault-tolerant a wide range of features, so the D s evidence theory fusion method with multiple division complementary to improve the D - s method, improve the fusion system for target identification accuracy and reliability, which make the system has strong self learning ability and ability to adapt to their environment.

3. Intelligent fault diagnosis system

Diagnosis system of a failure mode is often caused by multiple fault symptom, and a fault symptom can be caused by multiple failure modes, is many-to-many form. So without a sensor to ensure that at any time to provide complete and reliable information, it is usually in multiple sensor based on integrated diagnosis. In essence, fault diagnosis system is the use of diagnostic object system runs a variety of state information and various kinds of existing knowledge, information processing, finally get on the system operation condition and fault condition of the comprehensive evaluation of n3. Data fusion is typical application system is C3I system, especially in multiple target tracking system. According to C3I system, fault diagnosis information required for access to more diverse, describe diagnostic mathematical model of the object may be greater than the space coordinates and velocity characteristics are more complex, the fault diagnostic object link between ( coupling, backup, transfer ) can be tracked object of coordinated action of the relations to be more close, but can make the diagnosis object is regarded as a sensor through the systematic observation of the particular state space, the fault signal is the space in the specific target signal, the fault diagnosis is based on the signal and the knowledge base to determine the fault alarm.

The fault diagnosis system, very suitable for using the previously described multisensor fusion structure, a pixel layer is layer of data fusion for sensor reflect the direct data; feature layer corresponding to various fault diagnosis methods of data fusion, the results are effective decision; decision fusion for integrated subsystems via the fusion rule of combination made the final the results of fault diagnosis and troubleshooting. The three layer structure corresponding to the fault diagnosis system of monitoring, diagnosis and decision function. In fault diagnosis system Data fusion in the certain degree can make the system to obtain the accurate state estimation, increase the degree of confidence, to reduce ambiguity, improve diagnostic performance, improve the multi sensor information resources utilization. But with the development of new technology, fault diagnosis system is gradually introduced into artificial intelligence technology, the main performance is: the use of neural network local diagnosis; the use of multiple concurrent ES using multiple knowledge in the field of synthetic information; the use of advanced database management technology for decision support system using reasoning; learning, so the automatic adapt to all kinds of trend. In addition, on the basis of data fusion, the fusion levels increase, the data mining and knowledge ( including rules, method and model) fusion.

4.Based on the data fusion of intelligent diagnosis system

From the perspective of multi sensor data fusion, typical application example is the process monitoring and fault diagnosis, and from the perspective of intelligent fault diagnosis system, usually in multi sensor data fusion based on integrated diagnosis. Based on the above on the multi-sensor data fusion technology and intelligent fault diagnosis system are discussed, the following two techniques for organic coupling, based on the establishment of a multi sensor data fusion of intelligent fault diagnosis system structure frame.

4.1 Working principle

The system is composed of input output system, a sensor signal acquisition system, signal pre-processing system, expert system and decision fusion system. When the system works, the first use of multi sensor signal acquisition and signal data were preprocessed ( such as signal filtering, spectrum analysis, wavelet analysis, etc. ) will be processed information and diagnostic system of expert knowledge base ( rules, methods and models of knowledge) according to certain rules, and then each sub-system is the local diagnosis results are parallel fusion for decision fusion system for global diagnosis, the final output diagnosis results and relevant information will be stored in the database and knowledge base for the use of data mining technology for knowledge discovery for the necessary data on reserves.

4.2 Key technolog y

4.2.1 Local diagnosis system

Neural network can realize the complex nonlinear mapping, in the field of fault diagnosis has been widely used export ]. When the system parameters for the diagnosis of more, signs of the large amount of information times, due to the inevitable contradiction between sample and random, if the high dimensional symptom information input at the same time to the same network processing, will make the long training time, the diagnosis of poor results, sometimes evenTo cause the network convergence. Therefore, the human brain in different regions with different information. Different signals are also by the respective neural network diagnosis. So the high dimensional symptom space decomposition into low dimensional symptom space, the process may also be referred to as the local diagnosis. In addition, the neural network system can effectively solve the expert system part of the limitations, so the use of the neural network expert system.

4.2.2 Decision fusion

Using neural network for local diagnosis, from each or several diagnostic parameters can get their diagnostic results, each subsystem is responsible for a fault diagnosis, from different angles, fault diagnosis, decision fusion of these diagnostic results fusion, makes the subsystem is formed between the" consultation", utmost to improve the diagnosis rate. For preprocessing information fusion, inference is more important than numerical computation, should be based on knowledge of the technology of expert system and D - S theory of evidence combination method of fusion.

4.2.3 Data mining and knowledge fusion

System existing operating state to revise the original system knowledge base, can be more quickly, more accurate, more comprehensive fault diagnosis, this is the data mining and knowledge integration issues, data mining techniques in information fusion system will become the necessary part of.

5. The end

Multi sensor data fusion technology and intelligent fault diagnosis system is very practical, and the organic integration of the two can on their respective technology development to promote each other's role. But at present the information fusion system specific fusion rule method based on knowledge fusion technology is still not mature, also remains to be improved, the intelligent diagnosis system need to be improved for AI Technology application. But I believe that with all the technology and the gradual improvement of the practice, continue to accumulate experience, based on the data fusion of intelligent fault diagnosis system will be developed faster and wider application.

基于多传感器数据融合的智能故障诊断系统

1.引言

多传感器数据融合技术最初大多应用于军事领域,但计算机、网络以及通信等先进技术的飞速发展使它的应用范围得到了很大的拓展。近年来,众多学者对数据融合的规则与策略的理论进行了广泛的研究和改进。而人工智能等技术的研究使得数据融合提升到了知识融合的高度,对目标决策的辅助作用大大加强。与此同时,随着工业技术的突飞猛进,智能故障诊断系统的需求在数量上和质量上大大提高了。作为智能故障诊断系统中的最基本、最有效的信息处理工具,多传感器数据融合技术的发展将推动智能故障诊断系统的进步。

2.多传感器数据融合与改进D—S理论

从非军事应用的角度来说,数据融合是指充分利用不同时间与空间的多传感器信息资源,采用计算机技术对按时序获得的多传感器观测信息在一定准则下加以自动分析、综合、支配和使用,获得对被测对象的一致性解释与描述,以完成所需的决策和估计任务,使系统获得比它的各组成部分更优越的性能H3。笔者采用目前普遍认同的像素层、特征层以及决策层的三层融合结构。其中决策级融合的目标是实现对目标态势的诊断和评估,应用到的主要有贝叶斯概率推理和D —S证据理论等方法。这些数据融合方法都必须解决对不确定信息的处理问题,D—S方法以Dempster—Shafer证据理论为基础,其核心是Dempster合成规则,为不确定信息的表达和合成提供了自然而强有力的方法。将胁S证据理论用于多传感器融合时,从传感器获得的相关数值就是该理论中的证据,它可构成待识别目标模式的信度函数分配,表示每一个目标模式假设的可信程度,每一传感器构成一个证据组。

所谓多传感器数据融合就是通过D—S联合规则联合几个证据组形成一个新的综合的证据组,即用D—S联合规则联合每个传感器的信度函数分配形成融合的信度函数分配,从而为目标模式的决策提供综合准确的信息n]。实际应用中,D—S方法要求证据的独立性和证据合成规则的理论支持,而且计算量存在着潜在的组合爆炸问题,所以仅靠这种单一的融合方法难以获得理想的融合效果。

D—S证据理论具有不需要先验概率的优点;专家系统具有问题领域的丰富

知识;模糊系统具有较高的模糊语言处理能力;高阶神经网络具有容量大、逼近能力强、容错范围广的特点,所以将D—s证据理论与多种融合方法的分工互补能够改进D—s方法的不足,提高融合系统中的目标识别的精确性和可靠性,使得系统具有较强的自学习能力以及对外界环境的适应能力。

3.智能故障诊断系统

被诊断系统的一个故障模式往往引起多个故障征兆,而一个故障征兆又可以由多种故障模式引起,是多对多的形式。所以没有一种传感器能够保证在任何时候提供完全可靠的信息,因此通常都是在多传感器的基础上进行综合诊断。本质上,故障诊断系统是利用诊断对象系统运行的各种状态信息和已有的各种知识,进行信息的综合处理,最终得到关于系统运行状况和故障状况的综合评价n3。数据融合现在应用的典型系统是C3I系统,尤其是多目标跟踪系统。比照C 3I 系统,故障诊断所需信息的获取途径要更加多样,描述诊断对象的数学模型可能比空间中坐标和速率等特征要更加复杂,诊断对象的故障之间的联系(耦合、备份、传递等)可能要比跟踪对象之问协调行动的关系要更加紧密,但可以把诊断对象看做是一个通过传感器系统观测的特定状态空间,其故障信号就是该空间中的特定目标信号,故障诊断就是根据信号和知识库确定故障报警。

对于故障诊断系统来讲,很适合采用前面介绍的多传感器融合结构,像素层也就是数据层的融合针对传感器反映的直接数据;特征层对应各种故障诊断方法,对数据融合的结果进行有效的决策;决策层融合综合各个子系统通过融合组合规则做出最终的故障诊断结果和故障对策。这三层结构分别对应于故障诊断系统的监测、诊断和决策功能。故障诊断系统中的

数据融合在一定程度上能够使系统获得精确的状态和状态估计、增加置信程度、降低模糊度、改善诊断性能、提高多传感器信息资源的利用率。但随着新技术的发展,故障诊断系统逐渐引入了人工智能技术,主要表现为:使用神经网络进行局部诊断;使用多个互相协作的ES利用多个领域的知识进行信息综合;使用先进的数据库管理技术为决策级推理提供支持;使用学习系统,以便自动适应各种态势的变化。另外还在数据融合的基础上,提高了融合层次,引入了数据挖掘以及知识(包括规则、方法和模型等)融合。

4.基于多传感器数据融合的智能诊断系统

从多传感器数据融合的角度,典型应用实例就是过程监测和故障诊断,而从智能故障诊断系统的角度讲,通常都是在多传感器数据融合的基础上进行综合诊断。基于以上关于多传感器数据融合技术和智能故障诊断系统的讨论,下面将二项技术进行有机的联结,建立一个基于多传感器数据融合的智能故障诊断系统结构框架。

4.1工作原理

该系统由输入输出系统、多传感器信号采集系统、信号预处理系统、诊断子系统以及决策融合系统构成。系统工作时,先利用多传感器采集信号并对信号的数据进行必要的预处理(例如信号滤波、频谱分析、小波分析等),将处理好的信息与诊断子系统中的专家知识库(规则、方法与模型等知识)按照一定的规则进行推理,然后将各个子系统的局部诊断结果进行并行融合提供给决策融合系统进行全局诊断,最终输出诊断结果的同时将相关信息存人数据库和知识库为利用数据采掘技术进行知识发现作必要的数据储备。

4.2关键技术

4.2.1局部诊断子系统

神经网络能实现复杂的非线性映射,在故障诊断领域得到了广泛的应用口]。当系统的诊断参数较多,征兆信息量大的时候,由于采取的样本不可避免的存在矛盾性和随机性,若将高维的征兆信息同时输入到同一网络处理,将使得训练时间长,诊断效果差,有时甚至导致网络不收敛。因此,如同人脑中不同的区域处理不同的信息一样。不同的信号也应由各自的神经网络来诊断。这样就将高维的征兆空间分解成为低维的征兆空间,这个过程也可以称为局部诊断。另外,神经网络系统可以有效解决专家系统的部分局限性,因此采用了神经网络专家系统。4.2.2决策融合

用神经网络进行局部诊断后,从每个或几个诊断参数都可以得到各自的诊断结果,每个子系统负责一种故障诊断,从不同的侧面诊断故障,决策融合对这些诊断结果进行融合,使得子系统之间形成“会诊”,最大限度提高确诊率。对于预处理后的信息融合,推理比数值运算更重要,应该采用基于知识的专家系统技术与D—S证据理论相结合的方法进行融合。

4.2.3数据挖掘与知识融合

系统现有的运行状态用来修正系统原有的知识库,可以更迅速、更准确、更全面的进行故障诊断,这就是数据挖掘和知识融合的问题,数据挖掘技术将会成为信息融合系统中的必要组成部分。

5.结束语

多传感器数据融合技术和智能故障诊断系统都具有很强的实用性,而二者的有机结合可以对各自技术的进步发展起到互相促进的作用。但是目前信息融合系统的具体融合规则方法的研究还不成熟,知识融合技术也还有待提高,另外智能诊断系统需要改进对AI技术应用。但是相信随着各项技术的逐步完善以及实践经验的不断积累,基于多传感器数据融合的智能故障诊断系统会得到更快的发展和更广的应用。

2.英文翻译格式和要求

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学士学位证书及毕业证英文翻译模板

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英语美文欣赏带翻译

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The thing is, it can sometimes be tricky to reject a man and keep him as a friend. If the operation is not executed carefully, you may end up creating a "menemy." It requires a certain amount of skill to be able to turn down a man's sexual advances or romantic gestures and then get him to agree to meet you for blueberry pancakes the following weekend and chat about the latest Woody Allen film. Some men aren't satisfied with just that. I'm not clear why. What's so bad about friendship? Everyone needs buddies. But I've seen men react poorly or simply fall off the face of the earth. I get it -- their feelings are hurt. None of us likes getting rejected. But in my experience, some men find it especially soul-crushing. I am only bringing all of this up because I recently had to go through this scenario again. I had spent some time cultivating a friendship with a man who, in my defense, I thought was gay. So I didn't see the harm in him buying me the occasional falafel, or accepting an invitation to see a film with him. Isn't that what friends are for? But a mutual friend shed light on his sexual orientation (straight) and suggested that his intentions -- and attentions -- weren't platonic. He had never "made the moves" but now it was all crystal clear -- that explains the way he had looked at me that time the tahini sauce dribbled down my chin! Since he had clearly been too timid to express his feelings, I thought I would be clever this time and subtly mention the dates I had been going on, focusing on the one guy I was kind of keen on, so that he would know that I was "unavailable" for heavy petting and those sorts of activities, but that I was available for things like roller skating, falafel-eating and shooting the breeze. Doesn't that sound nice? That way, he would known not to try to lean in for a kiss, and I wouldn't have to pull the Stevie Wonder dance and dodge him went he went for it. It was like pre-rejection, yet I was sparing his feelings because he didn't even have to put himself out there! I really thought I was being brilliant. It backfired, of course. Said man ended up sending me an email rant accusing me of being insensitive by talking about other men when he had "feelings for me." As if I am psychic, by the way, just because I am a woman! How was I supposed to know that? I think in his mind we were dating. In my mind, he was my new gay BFF. In the end, I got mad at him for getting mad at me, and now the friendship has ended. And I have created yet another "menemy." Look, I have also tried the direct thing: "I really like you, but only as a friend, " but you can only do that when the guy has made his intentions clear, and in my experience, they either cope okay (though rarely do I feel much enthusiasm for friendship after that), or they really don't cope well. I also tried the thing where you make them think they are rejecting you, but it gets quite confusing and only works if the guy isn't very sharp, and why would I -- or you -- be hanging out with someone not that sharp in the first place? As we all remember, Billy Crystal's character says men and women can't be friends in When Harry Met Sally because the sex stuff gets in the way. I do have single, male, heterosexual friends with whom I have an easy, non-romantic rapport, but I honestly don't know if they would walk away if I was sprawled naked on a bed calling out to them. I may not be everybody's cup of tea, but sometimes, I wonder if they wonder. And they may wonder if I wonder. If so, I hope they'll keep it to

英语美文赏析 带翻译

(Reports on Britain Under the Bombs) Night after night, in the hot summer and early fall of 1940, a deep, steady voice came over the Atlantic Ocean from England to America, telling of England's battle for survival under the waves of German bombers. This strong and steady voice, an American voice with a slight accent of North Carolina, belonged to Edward R. Murrow, head of the European staff of the Columbia Broadcasting System. "This is London," said Murrow, while the bombs fell and flames spread on the streets of the city. His voice had a tone of sorrow for the suffering of that ancient city, and a tone of confidence, too -- a feeling of belief that London would be there, no matter what it had to endure. It could not be destroyed. The heavy raids began in the middle of August, and Nazi bombs started to fall along England's Channel Coast. The German bombers cast dark shadows over the white cliffs of Dover, and England's Home Guard prepared to fight on the beaches, on the cliffs, and in the hills, until the last Englishman died or the invaders were driven off. Air Marshal Goering's bomber pilots were sure of their ultimate triumph over England. Hitler and Goering believed that when London became a burned city like Warsaw and Rotterdam, England would surrender. But the English were more fortunate than the Poles in Warsaw and the Dutch in Rotterdam. They had the English Channel as a barrier against the Nazi ground forces, and they had the Royal Air Force(RAF) to battle the Nazis in the sky. The hardships of London really started in the first week of September, when Hitler was at last convinced that the English did not intend to give in. On September 7, 1940, nearly four hundred German bombers hammered the city with bombs in broad daylight. Marshal Goering boasted, "This is the historic hour when our air force for the first time delivered its bombs right into the enemy's heart." Fires burned, houses fell, gas pipes burst, and dark smoke rose from the streets. Men, women, and children felt the effect of the bombs. Radar sirens wailed, ambulances rushed from one place of agony to another, and fire fighters faced the flames hour after hour.

英文翻译格式要求

河北建筑工程学院 毕业设计(论文)外文资料翻译 系别:机械工程系 专业:机械电子工程 班级:机电(本)091 姓名:张少强 学号: 2009322110 外文出处:English in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering 附件:1、外文原文;2、外文资料翻译译文。 指导教师评语: 签字: 年月日 金属热处理 普遍接受的金属和金属合金的热处理定义是“在某种程度上加热和冷却金属或金属合金,以获得特定的条件和属性。”加热的唯一目的是进行热加工,锻造操作是被排除在这个定义之外的。热处理有时候也用产品表示,同样玻璃和塑料也被排除在这个定义之外。 变换曲线 热处理的基础是在一个单一的图表上绘制的包含三个所有的等温转变曲线或TTT曲线。因为曲线的形状,他们有时候也称为c曲线或s曲线。 TTT曲线绘制,特定的钢在给定的条件下和预定的时间间隔内记录以检查的组织结构转换的

数量。众所周知共析钢(T80)在超过723℃形成的是奥氏体,在此温度下形成的是珠光体。为了形成珠光体碳原子应该分散形成渗碳体。扩散是一个过程需要足够的时间来完成奥氏体向珠光体的转变。我们可以注意到在不同的样本内在任何的温度下数量都在发生变化。这些点被绘制在以时间和温度为轴的坐标内。通过这些点共析钢的变换曲线如图1所示。曲线的左极端代表在任何给定的温度下奥氏体向珠光体的转变。同样的右极端代表完成所需要的时间。这两个曲线之间转换的点代表部分转换。水平线条s M和f M发代表开始和完成的马氏体转变。 热处理工艺的分类 在某些情况下,热处理在技术和使用程序上是分开的。而在其他情况下,,描述或简单的解释是不够的,因为相同的技术常常可以获得不同的目标。例如,应力消除和回火需要相同的设备和利用相同时间和温度循环。然而这是两个不同的过程。 图8.1 T80钢在等温间隔下的热处理图 以下对热处理的描述主要是根据他们之间的关系来安排的。正火指加热铁合金到高于它转变温度上的一个合适温度(通常是50°F到100°F或28℃到56℃)。接下来是在精致空气至少是在低于其转变温度范围下冷却。由此产生的结构和性能和通过完全退火是一样的。对大多数铁合金来说正火和退火是不一样的。 正火通常被用作调节处理,尤其是没有经过高温锻造或其他热加工的精炼粒钢。正火的成功通常由另一个热处理来完成如奥氏体化的淬火、退火或回火。 退火是一个通用术语,它表示一个热处理,包括加热和保持在一个合适的温度后以一个合适的冷却速度冷却。它主要用来软化金属材料,但它同时也会产生其他属性或期望的微观结构。

翻译 中英对译 英文散文赏析

原文 巷 柯灵译者-张培基 巷,是城市建筑艺术中一篇飘逸恬静的散文,一幅古雅冲淡的图画①。这种巷,常在江南的小城市中,有如古代的少女,躲在僻静的深闺,轻易不肯抛头露面②。你要在这种城市里住久了,和它真正成了莫逆,你才有机会看见她③,接触到她优娴贞静的风度。 人耐心静静走去,要老半天才走完。它又这么曲折, 什么时候,你向巷中踅去,都如宁静的黄昏,可以清晰地听到自己的 斑斑驳驳的苔痕,墙上挂着一串串苍翠欲滴 的藤萝,简直像古朴的屏风。春来 小巷的动人处就是它无比的悠闲。无论是谁, 你的心情就会如巷尾不波的古井,那是一种和平的静穆,而不是阴森和肃杀⑩。它闹中取静,别有天地,仍是人间。它可能是一条现代的乌衣巷(11),家家有自 己的一本哀乐帐, 使人忘忧。 译文 The Lane Ke Ling The lane, in terms of the art of urban architecture, is like a piece of prose of gentle gracefulness or a painting of classic elegance and simplicity①.

a small the lane, a maiden of ancient times hidden away in a secluded boudoir, is reluctant to make its appearance long time.③ The does not taste of the countryside at all. It is long and deep, so it will take you a long while to walk patiently and quietly through it from end to end. It is also so winding that it seems ⑤when you look far ahead, but if you keep walking until you take a turning, you’ll find it again lying endless and still more quiet. There is nothing but stillness there⑥. At any hour of day, you can even distinctly hear in the , which, moss-covered and hung with clusters of fresh green wisteria, look almost like screens of primitive simplicity. Inside the walls are residents’ gardens with In spring, beautiful peach and apricot blossoms atop the walls, ⑧waving their red sleeves, will sway hospitably to beckon the pedestrians. The charm of the lane lies in its absolute serenity. No matter who you are, if you in the lane for a while⑨, your mind will become as unruffled as the ancient well at the end of the lane. There you will a kind of peaceful calmness rather than gloomy sternness⑩. There reigns peace and quiet in the midst of noisy bustle. It is a world of its own on earth. It may be a modern (11)where each family, secluded behind closed doors, has its own covered-up story of (12)The all-pervading and all-purifying atmosphere of water-like placidness makes one forget all cares and worries.

汉译英格式规范

汉译英翻译格式规范 I 格式规范 1. 正文标题、机构名称、图表格名称和表头中所有单词(除虚词外)的首字母均大 写;但标题为句子的情况除外; 2. 译文中出现的标准、规范名称,单独出现时每个单词首字母均应大写并斜体,不 加引号;在表格中出现时不用斜体; 3. 摄氏度符号统一从“符号”“Times new roman”中找到“°”(位于最右一列)插 入,然后在后面加上大写“C”,即“°C”; 4. 排比和并列的内容,标点应统一。一般做法是中间采用“;”,最后一个采用“.”, 最后一个与倒数第二个之间用“; and”; 5. 数值范围的表示形式应是:110-220 kV,而不是110 kV~220 kV;注意:数字和 连字符之间没有空格,数字和单位之间有空格数字与单位之间要加一个空格,但“°C”、“°F”和“%”除外; 6. 在英文中,百分号应采用英文半角“%”,而不可采用中文全角“%”; 7. 公式中的符号从“插入公式”中选择; 8. 文本框中第一个单词首字母大写; 9. 1号机组和2号机组、一期和二期的表示方法:Unit 1 & 2;Phase I & II; 10. 第x条(款、项)和第y条(款、项)的表示方法:Article x and Article y,即表 示条(款、项)的词不能省略; 11. 文件中出现公式时,公式后说明性文字的“其中”、“式中”统一译为“Where:”, 注意其后加冒号;对公式中的字母和符号进行解释时,采用“-”,其前后均不空格,“-”后的首字母为小写;公式后的说明要用分号,最后采用句号。例如: Where: F sc-short circuit current force (lb/ft); V-velocity; P-gas density. 12. 冒号后首字母小写; 13. 大于号、小于号、等号两边均有空格; 14. 表格的标题和标题栏字体加粗; 15. 注意上下标与原文一致; 16. 直径符号φ的输入方法:插入,符号,字体选择Symbol,然后选择输入φ,并采用 斜体;

英文翻译范本(基本无格式错误)

英语专业文献翻译 题目: 基于交通服务感知质量的效用评价方法姓名: 丁贞钰 学院: 工学院 专业: 交通运输 班级: 101班 学号: 30210101 指导教师: 陈青春职称: 副教授 2013年11月25日 南京农业大学教务处制

基于交通服务感知质量的效用评价方法 Hideyuki Kita a Akira Kouchi b a Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Kobe, 1-1, Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 658-8501, Japan b Infrastructural Planning Department, Chodai Co. Ltd., 2-20-6, Shin-machi, Nishi-ku, Osaka, 550-0013, Japan 摘要:本研究旨在开发一个通过宏观交通状态数据评价微观驾驶环境的模型,并且展示一系列基于驾驶员视觉的交通服务质量估算方法的模型。该方法由三部分组成,第一部分通过宏观数据评价行驶速度和时间间隔分配,第二部分评价作为行驶速度和时间间隔联合概率的基点效用。第三部分通过利用经验公式的基点概率分布估计基段效用。通过一个研究案列论证所提出的方法。 关键词:驾驶员感知;交通服务质量;基础效用评价;估计方法;交通调查数据;相关函数 1 引言 交通服务质量直接关系到驾驶员的利益。为了提高交通服务质量,应采取必要措施提高驾驶员对道路规划和交通管理的满意度。采取适当的基于驾驶员感知的方法来评价路用性能是必要的。弄清驾驶员服务质量感知结构对区分驾驶员感知服务质量也是必要的。 从驾驶员感知的角度对服务质量的评价已经有了很大成就,研究人员对评价驾驶员感知结构的感知服务质量做了比以前更多的尝试,但是感知服务质量的层次结构依旧很少被人认识。基于驾驶员的感知结构的层次结构,包括基点服务质量、基段服务质量和基面服务质量。通过参考感知结构的服务质量,Kita(2000)提出了测量服务质量的方法的基本框架。这个框架的基本思想是服务质量的最小单位是微观驾驶环境,比如在每个路段驾驶员的视野范围内相对速度和空间时间间隔。驾驶员对于特定路段的服务质量感知是这些基点服务质量的集合。然而关于感知服务质量的重要因素—微观驾驶环境的数据却很难获得。另一方面,宏观交通状态变量,比如由微观交通状况变量集合的数据—速率,可以很容易的通过车辆检测器。在给定宏观交通状况下,捕捉发生在什么样的微观环境和到什么程度是必要的。但是,没有研究与以上观点相关,直到本文作者对他的认识。 本研究的目的是开发一个通过宏观交通状况变量评价微观驾驶环境的方法,并提出一系列对宏观交通状态变量的基点服务质量的测量和对根据驾驶感知结构和服务质量层次结构基点服务质量的基段服务质量的测量方法。通过使用上面的方法,获得有关驾驶员感知结构的宏观交通状况数据,评价基于驾驶员感知的基段服务质量。 本文组织如下。第2部分,概括评价服务质量领域的相关文献。第3部分,表述包括提出的方法论的一系列方法的概要和基本思想。第4部分,概述运用宏观交通状态变量估计微观驾驶环境的方法。第5部分,开发了一种联系基点感知服务质量和考虑认知倾向的基段感知服务质量的模型,并对概率分布之间的关系效用进行微观分析。第6部分,通过运用从车辆检测器上获得的实际交通状况数据检测本文所表述的理论模型的有效性。第7部分,结论。 2 文献综述 已经做过很多关于驾驶员感知的服务质量评价工作。但由于篇幅有限,只把文献大纲列出如下。更多信息可以从Kita and Kouchi(2010)中获得。有一些研究阐述了交通服务质量应该基于驾驶员的微观驾驶环境的感知评价交通服务质量(Morrall and Werner (1990), Ishibashi et al. (2006))。有一些研究试图找到一个可以展现与感知交通服务质

翻译作业格式模板

翻译练习一(英译汉)小组讨论情况记录 小组成员:赵一,钱二,孙三,李四 本次讨论记录、执笔人:赵一 1.本次翻译文本的目标读者是? 2.本次翻译任务需要达成的目的是? 3.请用注释的形式写出“翻译根据”。翻译根据包括(但不限于)根据翻译目的 对翻译方法(策略)的选择;术语的出处或论证过程;译文选词、造句、结构、篇章等方面的考虑; 原文:在国内众多的历史课本或辅导爱国读本中,讲到北宋的社会经济,往往说这时期出现了中国第一个商标。这枚传说中的白兔商标现存于中国历史博物馆,中间一个白兔图,寓“玉兔捣药”之意. 译文:In various Chinese history textbooks and patriotic readings[i], one thing is always covered in the economic development[ii] of the Northern Song Dynasty—the emergence[iii] of China’s first trademark, which is now kept in the National Museum of Chinese History[iv]. This legendary trademark was designed with a white rabbit image in the middle, implying the message of the Jade Rabbit pounding medicine[v] [i]辅导爱国读本 第一步,理解中文。 所谓“辅导爱国读本”一般指供学生课下阅读的旨在培养爱国情操的材料(当然也可以面向社会读者),内容可以涵盖从古至今国家经济政治文化等各方面情况:讲成就可以培养人们的民族自尊心、自信心、自豪感等等;也可以讲失败、讲教训,激励人们奋发图强,建设祖国。…这些在中国都属于“爱国主义教育”的内容。文中要讲的是北宋出现了中国历史上第一枚商标,这是经济发展的标志之一,算是“成就”,同时此商标设计上又体现了浓郁的中国传统文化特色(玉兔捣药),因此自然会被写入爱国读本让大家了解。 第二步,理解基础上做出一个译文。

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